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Full text of "The works of Sir Thomas Browne. Edited by Charles Sayle"

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UM\rR,sir>- OF 













Edited by 












The frontispiece to this volume is reproduced from a 
photograph kindly lent to me for the purpose by 
Mr. Charles Williams, F.R.C.S.E., of Norwich, whose 
note upon the measurements of Sir Thomas Browne's 
skull appeared as Appendix ii. in the edition of 
Browne's Hydriotaphia and Garden of Cyriis, published 
in the ' Golden Treasury Series/ by Messrs. Macmillan 
and Co., in 1896. 

The identification of the author quoted in the 
margin of page 2SS (Book v. Chapter x.), I owe to 
Mr. W. Aldis Wright. 

C. S. 

May \y 1904. 




The Third Book {continued) 

11. Of Griffins, 

12. Of the Phoenix,. 

13. Of Frogs, Toads, and 

14. Of the Salamander, 

15. Of the Amphisbaena, 

16. Of the Viper, . 

17. Of Hares, . 

18. Of Moles, or Molls, 

19. Of Lampries, 

20. OfSnayls, 

21. Of the Chameleon, 

22. Of the Ostrich, . 

23. Of Unicorns Horn, 

24. That all animals of the Land, are in their 

kind in the Sea, ..... 

25. Concerning the common course of Diet, in 

making choice of some Animals, and 
abstaining from eating others, 

26. Of Sperma - Ceti, and the Sperma - Ceti 

Whale, ....... 

27. Compendiously of Sundry Teuents concern- 

ing other Animals, which examined, prove 
either false or dubious, .... 

28. Of some others, . . . . . 





, IS 





. 42 

. 46 

. 48 


. 62 









The Fourth Book : 

1. Of the Erectness of Man, , . , 

2. Of the Heart, 

S. Of Pleurisies, ..... 

4. Of the Ring-finger, .... 

5. Of the right and left Hand, . . 

6. Of Swimming and Floating, . , 
'7, Concerning Weight, .... 

8. Of the passage of Meat and Drink, 

9. Of Sneezing, ..... 

10. Of the Jews, ..... 

11. Of Pigmies, ..... 

12. Of the great Climacterical year, that is 

Sixty-three, ..... 

13. Of the Canicular or Dog daies, . , 






The Fifth Book : 

1. Of the Picture of the Pelecan, . , , 202 

2. Of the Picture of Dolphins, . . . 205 

3. Of the Picture of a Grashopper, . 207 

4. Of the Picture of the Serpent tempting 

Eve, 209 

5. Of the Picture of Adam and Eve with 

Navels, 212 

6. Of the Pictures of Eastern Nations, and 

the Jews at their Feascs, especially our 
Saviour at the Passover, . . . .215 

7. Of the Picture of our Saviour with long 

hair, 224 

8. Of the Picture of Abraham sacrificing Isaac, 226 

9. Of the Picture of Moses with horns, . . 227 

10. Of the Scutcheons of the Tribes of 

Israel, 229 

11. Of the Pictures of the Sibyls, . . .233 



12. Of the Picture describing the death of 

Cleopatra, ...... 235 

13. Of the Pictures of the Nine Worthies, . 237 

14. Of the Picture of Jephthah sacryficing his 

daughter, . .... 24'1 

15. Of the Picture of John the Baptist, . . 245 

1 6. Of the Picture of St. Christopher, . . 247 

17. Of the Picture of St. George, . . .249 

18. Of the Picture of Jerom, . . » .251 
19- Of the Pictures of Mermaids, Unicorns, 

and some others, ..... 253 

20. Of the Hieroglyphical Pictures of the 

Egyptians, ...... 258 

21. Of the Picture of Haman hanged, . . 260 

22. Compendiously of many questionable Cus- 

toms, Opinions, Pictures, Practices, and 
Popular Observations, .... 264 

23. Of some others, 276 

The Sixth Book : 

1. Concerning the beginning of the World, . 283 

2. Of mens Enquiries in what season or Point 

of the Zodiack it began, .... 300 

3. Of the Divisions of the seasons and four 

Quarters of the year, .... 302 

4. Of some computation of days and deduc- 

tions of one part of the year unto another, 309 

5. A Digression of the wisdom of God in the 

site and motion of the Sun, . . .313 

6. Concerning the vulgar opinion, that the 

Earth was slenderly peopled before the 

Flood. 319 

7. Of East and West, 338 

8. Of the River Nilus, 349 

9. Of the Red Sea, 363 




The Sixth Book (continued) 

10. Of the Blackness of Negroes, , 

1 1. Of the same, .... 

12. A Digression concerning Blnckness, 

13. Of Gypsies, .... 

14. Of some others, , , 




THE THIRD BOOK— co?itinu€d 

Of Griffins. 

THAT there are Griffins in Nature, that is a CHAP, 
mixt and dubious Animal, in the fore-part XI 
resembling an Eagle, and behind, the shape 
of a Lion, with erected ears, four feet and a long tail, 
many affirm, and most, I perceive, deny not. The 
same is averred by ^lian, Solinus, Mela, and Hero- 
dotus^ countenanced by the Name sometimes found in 
Scripture, and was an Hieroglyphick of the Egyptians. 
Notwithstanding we find most diligent enquirers to 
be of a contrary assertion. For beside that Alberhis 
and Pliny have disallowed it, the learned Aldrovandus 
hath in a large discourse rejected it; MatMas Micho- 
vius who writ of those Northern parts wherein men 
place these Griffins, hath positively concluded against 
it ; and if examined by the Doctrine of Animals, the 
invention is monstrous, nor much inferiour unto the 
figment of Sphynx, Chimaera, and Harpies, for though 
there be some flying Animals of mixed and participat- 
ing Natures, that is, between Bird and quadruped, yet 
are their wings and legs so set together, that they 
seem to make each other; there being a commixtion 


:^^-^ ^^iar^'-mmi-i III. t-r'rirtmKwmt^m 


CHAP, of both, rather then an adaptation or cement of pro- 
XI minent parts unto each other, as is observable in the 
Bat, whose wings and fore-legs are contrived in each 
other. For though some species there be of middle 
and participating Natures, that is, of Bird and Beast, 
as Bats and some few others, yet are their parts so 
conformed and set together, that we cannot define the 
beginning or end of either ; there being a commixtion 
of both in the whole, rather then an adaptation or 
cement of the one unto the other. 
Leoit. 11. Now for the word ^ypvy^ or Gryps^ sometimes men- 

tioned in Scripture, and frequently in humane Authors, 
properly understood, it signifies some kind of Eagle or 
Vulture, from whence the Epithete Grypu.<i for an 
hooked or Aquiline Nose. Thus when the Septuagint 
makes use of this word, Tremellius and our 'J^anslation 
hath rendred it the Ossifrage, which is one kind of 
Eagle. And although the Vulgar Translation, and that 
annexed unto the Septuagint, retain the word Grypsy 
which in ordinary and school construction is com- 
monly rendred a Griffin, yet cannot the Latine assume 
any other sense then the Greek, from whence it is 
borrowed. And though the Latine Gryphes be altered 
somewhat by the addition of an /i, or aspiration of the 
letter tt, yet is not this unusual ; so what the Greeks 
call rpoTraiov, the Latine will call Trophwum; and 
that person which in the Gospel is named KXeWa?, 
the Latines will render Cleophas. And therefore the 
quarrel of Or'tgen was unjust, and his conception 
erroneous, when he conceived the food of Griffins 
forbidden by the law of Moses : that is. Poetical 
Animals, and things of no existence. And therefore 
when in the Hecatombs and mighty Oblations of the 
Gentiles, it is delivered they sacrificed Gryphes or 


Griffins; hereby we may understand some stronger CHAP, 
sort of Eagles. And therefore also when its said in XI 
Virgil of an improper Match, or Mopsus marrying 
Nysa^ Jungeniurjam gryphes equis ; we need not hunt 
after other sense, then that strange unions shall be 
made, and different Natures be conjoined together. 

As for the testimonies of ancient Writers, they i 
are but derivative, and terminate all in one Aiisteiis 
a Poet of ProconestiS ; who affirmed that near the 
Arimuspi, or one-eyed Nation, Griffins defended the 
Mines of Gold. But this, as Herodotus delivereth, he 
wrote by hear-say ; and Michoviiis who hath expresly 
written of those parts, plainly affirmeth, there is 
neither Gold nor Griffins in that Country, nor any 
such Animal extant ; for so doth he conclude, Ego 
vero contra vetei'es authores, Gi'yphes nee in ilia 
septentrionisy nee in aliis orhis partibus inveniri 

Lastly, Concerning the Hieroglyphical authority, 
although it nearest approach the truth, it doth not 
infer its existency. The conceit of the Griffin properly 
taken being but a symbolical phansie, in so intollerable 
a shape including allowable morality. So doth it well 
make out the properties of a Giiardian, or any person 
entrusted; the ears implying attention, the wings 
celerity of execution, the Lion-like shape, courage and 
audacity, the hooked bill, reservance and tenacity. 
It is also an Emblem of valour and magnanimity, as 
being compounded of the Eagle and Lion, the noblest 
Animals in their kinds; and so is it appliable unto 
Princes, Presidents, Generals, and all heroick Com- 
manders ; and so is it also born in the Coat-arms of 
many noble Families of Europe. 

But the original invention seems to be Hiero- 


CHAP, glyphical, derived from the Egyptians, and of an 
XI higher signification. By the mystical conjunction 
of Hawk and Lion, implying either the Genial or the 
sydereous Sun, the great celerity thereof, and the 
strength and vigour in its operations. And therefore 
under such Hieroglyphicks Osijris was described ; and 
in ancient Coins we meet with Gryphins conjointly 
with Apollo's^ Tripodes and Chariot wheels; and the 
marble Gryphins at Saint Peters in Rome, as learned 
men conjecture, were first translated from the Temple 
of Apollo. Whether hereby were not also mystically 
implied the activity of the Sun in Leo, the power of 
God in the Sun, or the influence of the Coelestial 
Osyrts, by Moptha the Genius of Nilus, might also be 
considered. And then the learned Kircheriis, no man 
were likely to be a better Oedipus. 

Of the Phoenix. 

THAT there is but one Phoenix in the World, 
which after many hundred years burneth it 
self, and from the ashes thereof ariseth up 
another, is a conceit not new or altogether popular, 
but of great Antiquity; not only delivered by humane 
Authors, but frecjuently expressed also by holy Writers; 
by Cyril, Epiphamus, and others, by Ambrose in his 
Hexameron, and Tertidlian in his Poem De Jiid'uio 
Domhd; but more agreeably unto tiie present sense, 
in his excellent Tract, De Resiirrectione carnis. Ilium 
dico alitem urient'ts pecuUarcm, dc singnlarltatefamnsum. 


de posteritate monstruosum ; qui semetipsiim Uhenter CHAP. 
funerans renovat, nataJi Jine decedens, atque sticcedens XII 
iterum Phoenix. Uhi jam nemo, iterum ipse ; quia non 
jam, alius idem. The Scripture also seems to favour it, 
particularly that of Joh 21. In the interpretation of 
Beda, Diceham in nidulo meo moriar, et sicut Phoenix 
multiplicaho dies: and Psal. 31. 8/'/cat09 wairep ^olvt^ 
avdt^arei, vi?- Justus uf Phoenix Jlorehit, as Tertullian 
renders it, and so also expounds it in his Book before 

All which notwithstanding, we cannot presume the ^^amst t'rt 
existence of this Animal ; nor dare we affirm there is ^^X»t>f" 
any Phoenix in Nature. For, first there wants herein 
the definitive confirmator and test of things uncertain, 
that is, the sense of man. For though many Writers 
have much enlarged hereon, yet is there not any ocular 
describer, or such as presumeth to confirm it upon 
aspection. And therefore Herodotus that led the 
story unto the Greeks, plainly saith, he never attained 
the sight of any, but only in the picture, "^ 

Again, Primitive Authors, and from whom the 
stream of relations is derivative, deliver themselves 
very dubiously; and either by a doubtful parenthesis, 
or a timorous conclusion overthrow the whole rela- 
tion. Thus Herodotus in his Etdeipe, delivering the 
story hereof, presently interposeth, e/tol [xev ov iricrTa 
\eyovT€<; ; that is, which account seems to me impro- 
bable. Tacitus in his annals afford eth a larger story, 
how the Phoenix was first seen at Heliopolis in the 
reign of Sesostris, then in the reign of Amasis, after in 
the days of Ptolomy, the third of the Macedonian race; 
but at last thus determineth, Sed Antiquitas ohscura, et 
nonnulli Jalsum esse hunc Phcenicem neque Arabum ^ 
terris credidere. Pliny makes yet a fairer story, that 


CHAP, the Phoenix flew into Egypt in the Consulship of 
XII Qiiifdm Plaiic'nis^ that it was brought to Rome in the 
Censorship of Claiidhis^ in the eight hundred year of 
the City, and testified also in their records ; but after 
all conclude th, Sed quoe falsa nemo diibitabit. As we 
read it in the fair and ancient impression of 5n>ia; 
as Aldrovandm hath quoted it, and as it is found in 
the manuscript Copy, as Dalechamphi'i hath also 
f Moreover, Such as have naturally discoursed hereon, 
have so diversly, contrarily, or contradictorily delivered 
themselves, that no affirmative from thence can reason- 
ably be deduced. For most have positively denied it, 
and they which affirm and believe it, assign this 
name unto many, and mistake two or three in one. 
So hath that bird been taken for the Phoenix which 
liveth in Arabia, and buildeth its nest with Cinnamon; 
by Herodotus called Cinnamulgtis, and by Aristotle^ 
Cinnamo7nus; and as a fabulous conceit is censured by 
Scaliger. Some have conceived that bird to be the 
Phoenix, which by a Persian name with the Greeks is 
called Rhyntace\ but how they made this good we find 
occasion of doubt ; whilest we read in the life of Arta- 
xerxes^ that this is a little bird brought often to their 
Tables, and wherewith Parysatis cunningly poisoned the 
Queen. The Manucodiata or Bird of Paradise, hath 
had the honour of this name, and their feathers brought 
from the Molncca''s do pass for those of the Phoenix. 
W^hich though promoted by rarity with us, the Eastern 
Travellers will hardly admit; who know they are 
common in those parts, and the ordinary plume of 
Janizaries among the Turks. And lastly, the Bird 
Semenda hath found the same appellation, for so hath 
Scaliger observed and refuted ; nor will the solitude 



of the Phoenix allow this denomination ; for many CHAP, 
there are of that species, and whose trifistulary bill XII 
and crany we have beheld our selves. Nor are men 
only at variance in regard of the Phcenix it self, but 
very disagreeing in the accidents ascribed thereto : 
for some affirm it liveth three hundred, some five, 
others six, some a thousand, others no less then fifteen 
hundred years ; some say it liveth in Ethiopia, others 
in Arabia^ some in Egypt, others in India, and some in 
Utopia ; for such a one must that be which is described 
by Lactantius ; that is, which neither was singed in the 
combustion oi Phaeton, or overwhelmed by the innunda- 
tion of Deucalion. 

Lastly, Many Authors who have discoursed hereof, 
have so delivered themselves, and with such intentions, 
that we cannot from thence deduce a confirmation. 
For some have written Poetically, as Ovid, Afantuan, 
Lactantius, Claudian, and others : Some have written 
mystically, as Paracelsus in his Book De Azoth, or 
De ligno et linea vitce; and as several Hermetical 
Philosophers, involving therein the secret of their 
Elixir, and enigmatically expressing the nature of their 
great work. Some have written Rhetorically, and 
concessively, not controverting, but assuming the 
question, which taken as granted, advantaged the 
illation. So have holy men made use hereof as far as 
thereby to confirm the Resurrection; for discoursing 
with Heathens who granted the story of the Phoenix, 
they induced the Resurrection from principles of their 
own, and positions received among themselves. Others 
have spoken Emblematically and Hieroglyphically ; 
and so did the Egyptians, unto whom the Phoenix was 
the Hieroglyphick of the Sun. And this was probably 
the ground of the whole relation ; succeeding Ages 



XI [ 

Consent of 

adding fabulous accounts, which laid together built up 
this singularity, which every Pen proclaimeth. 

As for the Texts of Scripture, which seem to confirm 
the conceit, duly perpended, they add not thereunto. 
For whereas in that of Joh^ according to the Septuagint 
or Greek Translation we find the word Phoenix, vet 
can it have no animal signification ; for therein it is 
not expressed ^olvi^, but crreXe^o? (fyolviKO^;, the trunk 
of the Palm-tree, which is also called Phoenix ; and 
therefore the construction will be very hard, if not 
ap))lied unto some vegetable nature. Nor can we 
safely insist upon the Greek expression at all ; for 
thoufjh the Vulgar translates it Palma. and some retain 
the word Phoenix, others do render it by a word of a 
different sense ; for so hath Tremellius delivered it : 
Dlcebam qivod apnd nidum meicm expirabo, et sicut 
arena muKlplicaho dies; so hath the Geneva and ours 
translated it, / said I shall die in my Nest^ and shall 
midtiply my days as the sand. As for that in the Book 
of Psalms, Vir Justus ut Phcenix Jlorebit, as Epiphaiiius 
and Tertullian render it, it was only a mistake upon 
the Homonymy of the Greek word Poenix, which 
signifies also a Palm-tree. Which is a fallacy of equi- 
vocation, from a community in name inferring a 
common nature; and whereby we may as firmly conclude, 
that Diaphoenicon a purging Electuary hath some part 
of the Phoenix for its ingredient ; which receiveth that 
name from Dates, or the fruit of the Palm-tree, from 
whence, as Pliny delivers, the Phoenix had its name. 

Nor do we only arraign the existence of this Animal, 
but many things are questionable which are ascribed 
thereto, especially its unity, long life, and generation. 
As for its unity or conceit there should be but one in 
nature, it seemeth not only repugnant unto Philosophy, 


but also holy Scripture ; which plainly affirms, there CHAP. 
went of every sort two at least into the Ark of iK'oah, XII 
according to the Text, Every Fo'iVl after his hind, every cen. 7. 
bird of every sort, they went into the Ark, two and two 
of all flesh, wherein there is the breath of life, and they 
that went in, went in both male and female of all flesh. 
It infringeth the benediction of God concerning multi- 
plication. God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful and Gen. i. 
multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl 
multiply in the earth : And again, Bring forth with thee chap. 8. 
every living thing, that they may breed abundantly in 
the earth, and be fruitful and multiply iipon the earth : 
which terms are not appliable unto the Phoinix, 
whereof there is but one in the world, and no more 
now living then at the first benediction. For the 
production of one, being the destruction of another, 
although they produce and generate, they encrease 
not; and must not be said to multiply, who do not 
transcend an unity. 

As for longasvity, that it livetli a thousand years 
or more; beside that from imperfect observations 
and rarity of appearance, no confirmation can be 
made ; there may be probable a mistake in the compute. 
For the tradition being very ancient and probably 
Egyptian, the Greeks who dispersed the Fable, might 
summ up the account by their own numeration of 
years ; whereas the conceit might have its original in 
times of shorter compute. For if we suppose our 
present calculation, the Phoenix now in nature will be 
the sixth from the Creation, but in the middle of its 
years; and if the Rabbins Prophecie succeed, shall That the 
conclude its days not in his own but the last acadi thouid last 
general flames, without all hoiDe of Reviviction. iuttix 

. . . ^ . . thousand 

Concerning its generation, that without all con^Mnc- years. 


CHAP, tion it begets and rcseminatcs it self, hereby we intro- 
Xll duce a vegetable production in Animals, and unto 
sensible natures, transfer the propriety of Plants; that 
is, to multiply within themselves, according to the 
Ctn. X. Law of the Creation, Let the earth bring forth grass, 
the herb yielding seed, and the tree yielding fruit, zvhose 
seed is in it self. Which is indeed the natural way 
of Plants, who having no distinction of sex, and the 
power of the species contained in every ijidividuum, 
beget and propagate themselves without commixtion ; 
and therefore their fruits proceeding from simpler 
roots, are not so unlike, or distinguishable from each 
other, as are the off-springs of sensible creatures and 
prolifications descending from double originals. But 
Aniiiial generation is accomplished by more, and the 
concurrence of two sexes is required to the constitution 
of one. And therefore such as have no distinction of 
sex, engender not at all, as Aristotle conceives of Eels, 
and testaceous animals. And though Plant-animals 
do multiply, they do it not by copulation, but in 
a way analogous unto Plants. So Hermaphrodites 
although they include the parts of both sexes, and 
may be sufficiently potent in either ; yet unto a con- 
ception require a separated sex, and cannot impregnate 
themselves. And so also though Adam included all 
humane nature, or was (as some opinion) an Hermaph- 
rodite, yet had he no power to propagate himself; and 
therefore God said. It is not good that man should be 
alo7W, let ics make him an help meet for him ; that is, an 
help unto generation ; for as for any other help, it 
had been fitter to have made another man. 

Now whereas some affirm that from one Phoenix 
there doth not immediately proceed another, but the 
first corruptcth into a worm, which after becometh 


a Phoenix, it will not make probable this production. CHAP. 
For hereby they confound the generation of perfect XII 
animals with imperfect, sanguineous with exanguious, 
vermiparous with oviparous, and erect Anomalies, irresuiari- 
disturbing the laws of Nature. Nor will this corrup- ^^"' 
tive production be easily made out in most imperfect 
generations ; for although we deny not that many 
animals are vermiparous, begetting themselves at a 
distance, and as it were at the second hand (as generally 
Insects, and more remarkably Butter-flies and Silk- 
worms) yet proceeds not this generation from a corrup- 
tion of themselves, but rather a specifical and seminal 
diflFusion, retaining still the Idea of themselves, though 
it act that part a while in other shapes. And this 
will also hold in generations equivocal, and such as are 
not begotten from Parents like themselves; so from 
Frogs corrupting, proceed not Frogs again; so if there 
be anatiferous Trees, whose corruption breaks forth 
into Bernacles, yet if they corrupt, they degenerate 
into Maggots, which produce not them again. For 
this were a confusion of corruptive and seminal pro- 
duction, and a frustration of that seminal power 
committed to animals at the Creation. The problem 
might have been spared, Why we love not our lice as 
well as our children ? NoaKs Ark had been needless, 
the graves of Animals would be the fruitfuFst wombs ; 
for death would not destroy, but erapeople the world 
again. >v 

Since therefore we have so slender grounds to confirm 
the existence of the Phoenix, since there is no ocular 
witness of it, since as we have declared, by Authors 
from whom the story is derived, it rather stands 
rejected; since they who have seriously discoursed 
hereof, have delivered themselves negatively, diversly. 






De sanitate 


or contrarily; since many otiiers cannot be drawn 
into Argument, as writing Poetically, Rhetorically, 
Enigmatically, Hieroglyphically ; since holy Scripture 
alledged for it duly perpended, doth not advantage it; 
and lastly, since so strange a generation, unity and 
long life, hath neither experience nor reason to con- 
firm it, how far to rely on this tradition, we refer unto 

But surely they were not well-wishers unto parable 
Physick, or remedies easily acquired, who derived 
medicines from the Phoenix ; as some have done, and 
are justly condemned by Pliny ; Irridere est vitas re- 
viedia post millesimum annum reditura monstrare\ It 
is a folly to find out remedies that are not recoverable 
under a thousand years; or propose the prolonging 
of life by that which the twentieth generation may 
never behold. More veniable is a dependance upon 
the Philosophers stone, potable gold, or any of those 
Arcana''s whereby Paracelsus thai died himself at forty- 
seven, gloried that he could make other men immortal. 
Which, although extreamly difficult, and tantnm non 
infesibie, yet are they not impossible, nor do they 
(rightly understood) impose any violence on Nature. 
And therefore if strictly taken for the Phoenix, very 
strange is that which is delivered by Plutarch^ That 
the brain thereof is a pleasant bit, but that it causeth 
the head-ach. Which notwithstanding: the luxurious 
Emperour could never taste, though he had at his 
Table many a Phcenicopterus, yet had he not one 
Phcenix; for though he expected and attempted it, 
we read not hi Lampridi^iS ihaX he performed it; and 
considering the unity thereof, it was a vain design, 
that is, to destroy any species, or mutilate the great 
accomplishment of six days. And although some 


conceive, and it may seem true, that there is in man a CHAP. 
natural possibility to destroy the world in one genera- XII 
tion, that is, by a general conspire to know no woman 
themselves, and disable all others also : yet will this 
never be eftected. And therefore Cain after he had 
killed Ahel, were there no other woman living, could 
not have also destroyed Eve : which although he had 
a natural power to effect, yet the execution thereof, 
the providence of God would have resisted : for that 
would have imposed another creation upon him, and 
to have animated a second Rib of Adam. . 

Of Frogs, Toads, and Toad-stone. 

CONCERNING the venomous Urine of Toads, 
of the stone in the Toads head, and of the 
generation of Frogs, conceptions are enter- 
tained which require consideration. And first, that a 
Toad pisseth, and this way diffuseth its venome, is gener- 
ally received, not only with us, but also in other parts ; 
for so hath Scaliger observed in his Comment, Aversum 
urinam reddere oh oculos persecutor-is perniciosam ruri- 
colis persuasum est ; and Mathiolus hath also a passage, 
that a Toad communicates its venome, not only by Urine, 
but by the humidity and slaver of its mouth ; which 
notwithstanding strictly understood, may admit of 
examination : for some doubt may be made whether a 
Toad properly pisseth, that is distinctly and separately 
voideth the serous excretion : for though not only 
birds, but oviparous quadrupeds and Serpents have 



CHAP, kidneys and ureters, and some Fishes also bladders: 
XIII yet for the moist and dry excretion they seem at last 
to have but one vent and common place of exclusion : 
and with the same propriety of language, we may 
ascribe that action unto Crows and Kites, And this 
not onely in Frogs and Toads, but may be enquired 
ill Tortoyses: that is, whether that be strictly true, or 
to be taken for a distinct and separate miction, when 
Aristotle affirmeth, that no oviparous animal, that is, 
which either spawneth or layeth Eggs, doth Urine 
except the Tortois. 

The ground or occasion of this expression might 
from hence arise, that Toads are sometimes observed 
to exclude or spit out a dark and liquid matter behind: 
which we have observed to be true, and a venomous 
condition there may be perhaps therein, but some 
doubt there may be, whether this is to be called their 
urine : not because it is emitted aversly or backward, 
by both sexes, but because it is confounded with the 
intestinal excretions and egestions of the belly : and 
this way is ordinarily observed, although possible it is 
tliat the liquid excretion may sometimes be excluded 
without the other. 

As for the stone commonly called a Toad-stone, 
which is presumed to be found in the head of that 
animal, we first conceive it not a thing impossible : nor 
is there any substantial reason why in a Toad there 
may not be found such hard and lapideous concretions. 
For the like we daily observe in the heads of Fishes, 
as Cods, Carps, and Pearches : the like also in Snails, a 
soft and exosseous animal, whereof in the naked and 
greater sort, as though she would requite the defect 
of a shell on their back, Nature near the head hath 
placid a Hat white stone, or rather testaceous concre- 


tion. Which though Aldrovandiis affirms, that after CHAP. 
dissection of many, he found but in some few : yet of XIII 
the great gray Snails, I have not met with any that 
wanted it: and the same indeed so palpable, that 
without dissection it is discoverable by the hand. 

Again, though it be not impossible, yet it is surely 
very rare : as we are induced to believe from some 
enquiry of our own, from the trial of many who have 
been deceived, and the frustrated search of Poiia, who 
upon the explorement of many, could scarce find one. 
Nor is it only of rarity, but may be doubted whether 
it be of existencie, or really any such stone in the 
head of a Toad at all. For although Lapidaries and 
questuary enquirers affirm it, yet the Writers of 
Minerals and natural speculators, are of another belief: 
conceiving the stones which bear this name, to be a 
Mineral concretion ; not to be found in animals, but 
in fields. And therefore Bcetiu^ refers it to Asteria or 
some kind of Lapis stellaris, and plainly concludeth, 
rcperiuntur in agris, quos tamen alii in annosis ac qtd 
diu in Ar^ndinetis inter rtibos seniesque delituerunt 
hifonis capifibus generari perthiaciter ajfirrnant. 

Lastly, If any such thing there be, yet must it not, 
for ought I see, be taken as we receive it, for a loose 
and moveable stone, but rather a concretion or indura- 
tion of the crany it self ; for being of an earthy temper, 
living in the earth, and as some say feeding thereon, 
such indurations may sometimes happen. Thus when 
Brassavolus after a long search had discovered one, he 
affirms it was rather the forehead bone petrified, then a 
stone within the crany ; and of this belief was Gesiur. 
Which is also much confirmed from what is delivered 
in Aldrovandus, upon experiment of very many Toads, 
whose cranies or sculs in time grew hard, and almost 


CHAP, of a stony substance. All which considered, we must 
XIII with circumspection receive those stones which com- 
monly bear this name, much less believe the traditions, 
that in envy to mankind they are cast out, or swallowed 
down by the Toad ; which cannot consist with Anatomy^ 
and with the rest, enforced this censure from Bwtins, 
Ah eo tempore pro nugis habui quod de Bufonio lapide^ 
ejusqiu: orlg'bie traditur. 

What therefore best reconcileth these divided deter- 
minations, may be a middle opinion; that of these stones 
some may be mineral, and to be found in the earth ; 
some animal, to be met with in Toads, at least by the 
induration of their cranies. The first are many and 
manifold, to be found in Germany and other parts ; 
the last are fewer in number, and in substance not 
_, ... , unlike the stones in Crabs heads. This is agreeable 

De Mineral. _ _ _ O 

lib. 4- vmto the determination of Aldiovandus, and is also the 

ceoi^iani', judgment of learned Spigelius in his Epistle unto 

Sect. 3. Piff7iorius. 

But these Toadstones, at least very many thereof, 
which are esteemed among us, are at last found to be 
taken not out of Toads heads, but out of a Fishes 
mouth, being handsomely contrived out of the teeth 
of the Lupus Marinus^ a Fish often taken in our 
Northern Seas, as was publickly declared by an eminent 

%it George and learned Physitian. But because men are unwilling 
to conceive so low of their Toadstones which they so 
highly value, they may make some trial thereof by a 
candentorned hot Iron applied unto the hollow and 
unpolished part thereof, whereupon if they be true 
stones they will not be apt to burn or afford a burnt 
odour, which they may be apt to do, if contrived out 
of animal parts or the teeth of fishes. 

Concerning the generation of Frogs, we shall briefly 



deliver that account which observation hath taught CHAP, 
us. By Frogs I understand not such as arising from XIII 
putrefaction, are bred without copulation, and because 
they subsist not long, are called Temporarice -, nor do I 
mean the little Frog of an excellent Parrat green, that 
usually sits on Trees and Bushes, and is therefore 
called Ranunculus viridis, or arboreus; but hereby I 
understand the aquatile or Water-Frog, whereof in 
ditches and standing plashes we may behold many 
millions every Spring in England. Now these do not 
as Pliny conceiveth, exclude black pieces of flesh, 
which after become Frogs ; but they let fall their 
spawn in the water, of excellent use in Physick, and 
scarce unknown unto any. In this spawn of a lentous 
and transparent body, are to be discerned many specks, 
or little conglobulations, which in a small time become 
of deep black, a substance more compacted and terres- 
trious then the other ; for it riseth not in distillation, 
and affords a powder when the white and aqueous part 
is exhaled. Now of this black or dusky substance is 
the Frog at last formed ; as we have beheld, including 
the spawn with water in a glass, and exposing it unto 
the Sun. For that black and round substance, in a 
few days began to dilate and grow longer, after a 
while the head, the eyes, the tail to be discernable, and 
at last to become that which the Ancients called 
Gyrinus,^ we a Porwigle or Tadpole. This in some 
weeks after becomes a perfect Frog, the legs growing 
out before, and the tail wearing away, to supply the 
other behind ; as may be observed in some which have 
newly forsaken the water; for in such, some part of 
the tail will be seen, but curtailed and short, not long 
and finny as before. A part provided them a while to 
swim and move in the water, that is, untill such time 




CHAP, as Nature excluded legs, whereby they might be pro- 

XIII vided not only to swim in the water, but move upon 

Amphibunu ^^e land, according to the amphibious and mixt inten- 

ZT^iiv* tion of Nature, that is, to live in both. So that 
inheth whoever observeth the first progression of the seed 

lltments ef . i 1 1 i • /• i 

land and beforc motion, or shall take notice of the strange 
""'"'^^ indistinction of parts in the Tadpole, even when it 
moveth about, and how successively the inward parts 
do seem to discover themselves, until their last per- 
fection ; may easily discern the high curiosity of 
Nature in these inferiour animals, and what a long 
line is run to make a Frog. 

And because many affirm, and ^me deliver, that in 
regard it hath lungs and breatheth, a Frog may be 
easily drowned ; though the reason be probable, I find 
not the experiment answerable ; for fastning one about 
a span under water, it lived almost six days. Nor is 
it only hard to destroy one in water, but difficult also 
at land : for it will live long after the lungs and heart 
be out ; how long it will live in the seed, or whether 
the spawn of this year being preserved, will not arise 
into Frogs in the next, might also be enquired : and 
we are prepared to trie. 


Of the Salamander. • 

THAT a Salamander is able to live in flames, tt 
endure and put out fire, is an assertion, not 
only of great antiquity, but confirmed by 
frequent, and not contemptible testimony. The 
Egyptians have drawn it into their Hieroglyphicks. 


Aiistotle seeraeth to embrace it ; more plainly Nicander, CHAP. 
Sarenus Sammonicus^ ^lian and Pliny, who assigns the XIV 
cause of this effect : An Animal (saith he) so cold that 
it extinguisheth the fire like Ice. All which notwith- 
standing, there is on the negative, Authority and 
Experience ; Sextius a Physitian, as Pliny delivereth, 
denied this effect ; Dioscorides affirmed it a point of 
folly to believe it ; Galen that it endureth the fire a 
while, but in continuance is consumed therein. For 
experimental conviction, Mathiolus affirmeth, he saw a 
Salamander burnt in a very short time; and of the 
like assertion is Amatus Lusitanus ; and most plainly 
Pierius, whose words in his Hieroglyphicks are these : 
Whereas it is commonly said that a Salamande?' ex- 
tinguisheth Jire^ zee have found by experience, that it is so 
far from quenching hot coals, that it dieth immediately 
therein. As for the contrary assertion of Aristotle, it 
is but by hear say, as common opinion believeth, Hose 
enim {ut aiunt) ignem ingrediens, eum extinguit; and 
therefore there was no absurdity in Galen, when as 
9. Septical medicine he commended the ashes of a 
Salamander ; and Magicians in vain from the power a corruptive 
of this Tradition, at the burning of Towns or Houses ^^'^j^^^^^^^^" 
expect a relief from Salamanders. parts like 

The ground of this opinion, might be some sensible 
resistance of fire observed in the Salamander: which 
being, as Galen determineth, cold in the fourth, and 
moist in the third degree, and having also a mucous 
humidity above and under the skin, by vertue thereof 
it may a while endure the flame : which being consumed, 
it can resist no more. Such an humidity there is 
observed in Newtes, or Water-Lizards, especially if 
their skins be perforated or pricked. Thus will Frogs 
and Snails endure the Flame : thus will whites of Eggs, 


CHAI*. vitreous or glassie flegm extinguish a coal: thus are 
XIV unguents made which protect a while from the fire : 
and thus beside the Hirp'inl there are later stories of 
men that have passed untoucht through the fire. And 
therefore some truth we allow in the tradition : truth 
according unto Galen, that it may for a time resist a 
flame, or as Scaliger avers, extinguish or put out a 
coal : for thus much will many humid bodies perform : 
but that it perseveres and lives in that destructive 
element, is a fallacious enlargement. Nor do we 
reasonably conclude, because for a time it endureth 
fire, it subdueth and extinguisheth the same, because 
by a cold and aluminous moisture, it is able a while to 
resist it : from a peculiarity of Nature it subsisteth 
and liveth in it. 

It hath been much promoted by Stories of incom- 
bustible napkins and textures which endure the fire, 
whose materials are called by the name of Salamanders 
wool. Which many too literally apprehending, con- 
ceive some investing part, or tegument of the Sala- 
mander : wherein beside that they mistake the condition 
of this Animal (which is a kind of Lizard, a quadruped 
corticated and depilous, that is, without wool, fur, or 
hair) they observe not the method and general rule of 
nature ; whereby all Quadrupeds oviparous, as Lizards, 
Frogs, Tortois, Chamelions, Crocodiles, are without 
hair, and have no covering part or hairy investment 
at all. And if they conceive that from the skin of the 
Salamander, these incremable pieces are composed ; 
beside the experiments made upon the living, that pf 
Brassavohis will step in, who in the search of this 
truth, did burn the skin of one dead. 

Nor is this Salamanders wooll desumed from any 
Animal, but a Mineral substance Metaphorically so 


called from this received opinion. For beside Ger- CHAP. 
manicus his heart, and Pyrrhus his great Toe, which XIV 
would not burn with the rest of their bodies, there are 
in the number of Minerals some bodies incombustible ; 
more remarkably that which the ancients named 
Asbeston, and PanclrolliLS treats of in the Chapter of Plutarch. 
Linum vivtim. Whereof by art were weaved Napkins, 
Shirts, and Coats, inconsumable by fire ; and wherein 
in ancient times to preserve their ashes pure, and 
without commixture, they burnt the bodies of Kings. 
A Napkin hereof Pl'my reports that Nero had, and the 
like saith Paulu&^ Venetus the Emperour of Tartary 
sent unto Pope Alexander-^ and also affirms that in 
some part of Tartary there were Mines of Iron 
whose filaments were weaved into incombustible cloth. 
Which rare Manufacture, although delivered for lost 
by Pandrollus^ yet Salmuth his Commentator affirmeth, 
that one Podocatertis a Cyprian, had shewed the same 
at Venice \ and his materials were from Cyprus, -where 
indeed Dioscorides placeth them ; the same is also 
ocularly confirmed by Vives upon Austin, and Maiolus 
in his Colloquies. And thus in our days do men 
practise to make long-lasting Snasts for Lamps out 
of Alumen plumosum ; and by the same we read in 
Pausanius, that there always burnt a Lamp before the 
Image of Minerva. 




Of the Amphisba?na. 

CHAP. ^ I ^HAT the Amphisbasna, that is, a smaller kind 
XV I of Serpent, ^vhich moveth forward and back- 

\^ ward, hath two heads, or one at either ex- 
tream, was affirmed first by Nicander, and after by 
many others, by the Author of the Book De Theriaca 
ad Pisonem, ascribed unto Galen ; more plainly Pliny, 
Geminum habet caput, tanquam parum esset uno ore 
effnndi venerium : but jElian most confidently, who 
referring the conceit of Chimera and Hydra unto 
Fables, hath set down this as an undeniable truth. 

Whereunto while men assent, and can believe a 
bicipitous conformation in any continued species, they 
admit a gemination of principle parts, not naturally 
discovered in any Animal. True it is that other parts 
in Animals are not equal ; for some make their pro- 
gression with many legs, even to the number of an 
hundred, as Juli, Scolopendrce, or such as are termed 
Centipedes: some fly with two wings, as Birds and 
many Insects, some with four, as all farinaceous or 
mealy-winged Animals, as Butterflies, and Moths: all 
vaginipennous or sheath-winged Insects, as Beetles and 
Dorrs. Some have three Testicles, as Aristotle speaks 
of the Buzzard ; and some have four stomachs, as 
horned and ruminating Animals ; but for the principle 
parts, the Liver, Heart, and especially the brains; 
regularly they are but one in any kind or species 

And were there any such species or natural kind of 
animal, it would be hard to make good those six 


positions of body, which according to the three dimen- CHAP, 
sions are ascribed unto every Animal : that is, infra, XV 
stipra, ante, retro, dextrostim, sinistrosum : for if (as it 
is determined) that be the anterior and upper part, 
wherein the senses are placed, and that the posterior 
and lower part which is opposite thereunto, there is 
no inferiour or former part in this Animal ; for the 
senses being placed at both extreams, doth make both 
ends anterior, which is impossible; the terms being 
Relative, which mutually subsist, and are not without 
each other. And therefore this duplicity was ill con- 
trived to place one head at both extreams, and had 
been more tolerable to have setled three or four at 
one. And therefore also Poets have been more reason- 
able then Philosophers, and Geryon or Cerberus less 
monstrous than Amphishcena. 

Again, if any such thing there were, it were not to 
be obtruded by the name of Amphishcena, or as an 
Animal of one denomination ; for properly that Animal 
is not one, but multiplicious or many, which hath a 
duplicity or gemination of principal parts. And this 
doth Aristotle define, when he affirmeth a monster is to 
be esteemed one or many, according to its principle, 
which he conceived the heart, whence he derived the 
original of Nerves, and thereto ascribed many acts 
which Physitians assign unto the brain : and therefore 
if it cannot be called one, which hath a duplicity of 
hearts in his sense, it cannot receive that appellation 
with a plurality of heads in ours. And this the practice 
of Christians hath acknowledged, who have baptized 
these geminous births, and double connascencies with 
several names, as conceiving in them a distinction of 
souls, upon the divided execution of their functions ; 
that is, while one wept, the other laughing ; while one 


CHAP, was silent, the other speaking; while one awaked, the 
XV other sleeping; as is declared by three remarkable 
examples in Petrarch., Vincentiits and the Scottish 
History of Buchanan. 

It is not denied there have been bicipitous Serpents 
with the head at each extream, for an example hereof 
we find in Aristotle, and of the like form in Aldrovandiis 
we meet with the Icon of a Lizzard ; and of this kind 
perhaps might that Atnphishcena be, the picture whereof 
Cassianus Putens shewed unto the learned Faber. 
Which double formations do often happen unto multi- 
parous generations, more especially that of Serpents; 
whose productions being numerous, and their Eggs in 
chains or links together (which sometime conjoin and 
inoculate into each other) they may unite into various 
shapes and come out in mixed formations. But these 
are monstrous productions, beside the intention of 
Nature, and the statutes of generation, neither begotten 
of like parents, nor begetting the like again, but irregu- 
larly produced, do stand as Anomalies in the general 
Book of Nature. Which being shifts and forced pieces, 
rather then genuine and proper effects, they afford us 
no illation ; nor is it reasonable to conclude, from a 
monstrosity unto a species, or from accidental effects, 
unto the regular works of Nature. 

Lastly, The ground of the conceit was the figure of 
this Animal, and motion oft-times both ways; for 
described it is to be like a worm, and so equally framed 
at both extreams, that at an ordinary distance it is no 
easie matter to determine which is the head ; and 
therefore some observing them to move both ways, 
have given the appellation of heads unto both extreams, 
which-is no proper and warrantable denomination ; for 
manj Animals with one head, do ordinarily perform 


both different and contrary Motions; Crabs move CHAP. 
sideling, Lobsters will swim swiftly backward, Worms XV 
and Leeches will move both ways; and so will most 
of those Animals, whose bodies consist of round and 
annulary fibers, and move by undulation ; that is, like 
the waves of the Sea, the one protruding the other, by 
inversion whereof they make a backward Motion. 

Upon the same ground hath arisen the same mistake 
concerning the Scolopendra or hundred-footed Insect, 
as is delivered by Rhodiginus from the Scholiast of 
Nicander : Dlcihir a NicandrOy d/jL(j)LKapr]<;, id est dice- 
phalus aut biceps jictum vero, quoniam retrorsum (ut 
scribit Aristoteles, arrepit, observed by Aldrovandus, but 
most plainly by Miiffetus^ who thus concludeth upon 
the Text of Nicander- : Tamen pace tanti authoris 
dixerim, unicum illi duntaxat caput licet pari facilitate^ 
prorsum capite, retrorsum dticente Cauda, incedat, quod 
Nicandro aliisqite imposuisse dubito : that is, under 
favour of so great an Author, the Scopolendra hath 
but one head, although with equal facility it moveth 
forward and backward, which I suspect deceived 
Nicander, and others. 

And therefore we must crave leave to doubt of this 
double-headed Serpent until we have the advantage to 
behold or have an iterated ocular testimony concerning 
such as are sometimes mentioned by Ameiican relators ;- 
and also such as Cassianus Puteus shewed in a picture 
to Johannes Faber ; and that which is set down under 
the name of AmpMsbccna Europcea in his learned 
discourse upon Hernandez his History of America. 



Of the Viper. 

CHAP. '' V ^11 AT the young Vipers force their way through 
XVI I the bowels of their Dam, or that the female 

JL. Viper in the act of generation bites off the 
head of the male, in revenge whereof the young ones 
eat through the womb and belly of the female, is a very 
ancient tradition. In this sense entertained in the 
Hieroglyphicks of the Egyptians; affirmed by Hero- 
dotics, Nicander, Pliny. Plutarch, jEUa7i, Jerovie, Basil, 
Isidore, seems countenanced by Aristotle, and his 
Scholar Theophi-astus : from hence is commonly assigned 
the reason why the Romans punished Parricides by 
drowning them in a Sack with a Viper. And so 
perhaps upon the same opinion the men of Melita when 
they saw a Viper upon the hand of Paul, said presently 
without conceit of any other sin, No doubt this man is 
a murderer, who though he have escaped the Sea, yet 
vengeance suffereth him not to live : that is, he is now 
paid in his own way, the parricidous Animal and 
punishment of murderers is upon him. And though 
the tradition were currant among the Greeks, to 
confirm the same the Latine name is introduced, Vipera 
quasi vi pariat ; That passage also in the Gospel, ye 
generation of Mpers! hath found expositions which coun- 
tenance this conceit. Notwithstanding which authori- 
ties, transcribed relations and conjectures, upon enquiry 
we find the same repugnant unto experience and reason. 
And first, it seems not only injurious unto the 
providence of Nature, to ordain a way of production 
which should destroy the producer, or contrive the 


continuation of the species by the destruction of the CHAP. 
Continuator; but it overthrows and frustrates the XVI 
great Benediction of God, God blessed them, saying, cen. i. 
Be fruitful and multiply. Now if it be so ordained 
that some must regularly perish by multiplication, and 
these be the fruits of fructifying in the Viper; it 
cannot be said that God did bless, but curse this 
Animal : Upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt 
thou eat all thy life, was not so great a punishment 
unto the Serpent after the fall, as encrease, be fruitful 
and multiply, was before. This were to confound the 
Maledictions of God, and translate the curse of the 
Woman upon the Serpent : that is, in dolore paries, in 
sorrow shalt thou bring forth ; which being proper 
unto the Woman, is verified best in the Viper, whose 
delivery is not only accompanied with pain, but also 
with death it self. And lastly, it overthrows the 
careful course, and parental provision of Nature, 
whereby the young ones newly excluded are sustained 
by the Dam, and protected until they grow up to a 
sufficiency for themselves. All which is perverted in 
this eruptive generation : for the Dam being de- 
stroyed, the younglings are left to their own protection: 
which is not conceivable they can at all perform, and 
whereof they afford us a remarkable confirmance many 
days after birth. For the young one supposed to 
break through the belly of the Dam, will upon any 
fright for protection run into it ; for then the old one 
receives them in at her mouth, which way the fright 
being past, they will return again, which is a peculiar 
way of refuge ; and although it seem strange, is avowed 
by frequent experience and undeniable testimony. 

As for the experiment, although we have thrice 
attempted it, it hath not well succeeded ; for though 



CHAP, we fed them with Milk, Bran, Cheese, etc., the females 

XVI always died before the young ones were mature for 

this eruption ; but rest sufficiently confirmed in the 

experiments of worthy enquirers. Wherein to omit 

the ancient conviction of Apollonms., we shall set down 

That Vipers soHie fcw of Modcm Writers. The first, of Amatus 

""^''^"''"'' Lusitntms in his Comment upon Dioscorides, Vidimus 

young- ones r ' 

byanorjin- nos vipevas prcB^nautes inclusas pixidibxLS parere, qxuE 
'^asothe^'' i/ic?e cx paHu Hcc mortucB, nee visceribus perforates 
viviparous manserunt. The second is that of Scaliffer, Viperas 
ah impatientibus morce Jcetibus numerosi^simis rumpi 
atque interire falsum esse scimus^ qui in Vinceniii Cam- 
erini circulatoris lignea theca vidimus, eiuitas viperellaSy 
parente salva. The last and most plain of Fr-ancisciis 
Bustamantinus, a Spanish Physitian of Alcala de 
Henares^ whose words in his third de Ardmantibus 
Scripturce, are these : Cum vero per me et per alios h^jec 
ipsa disquisissem servata Viperina progenie, etc. : that 
is, when by my self and others I had enquired the 
truth hereof, including Vipers in a glass, and feeding 
them with Cheese and Bran, I undoubtedly found that 
the Viper was not delivered by the tearing of her 
bowels ; but I beheld the young ones excluded by the 
passage of generation, near the orifice of the seidge. 
Whereto we might also add the ocular confirmation 
of Lacuna upon Dioscorides^ Ferdinandus Imperatus, 
and that learned Physician of Naples^ Aureliu^ 

Now although the Tradition be untrue, there 
wanted not many grounds which made it plausibly 
received. The first was a favourable indulgence and 
special contrivance of Nature ; which was the conceit 
of Herodotuft, who thus delivereth himself. Fearful 
Animals, and such as serve for food, Nature hath made 


more fruitful ; but upon the offensive and noxious CHAP, 
kind, she hath not conferred fertility. So the Hare XVI 
that becometh a prey unto Man, unto Beasts, and Fowls 
of the air, is fruitful even to superfaetation ; but the 
Lion, a fierce and ferocious Animal hath young ones 
but seldom, and also but one at a time ; Vipers indeed 
although destructive are fruitful; but lest their 
number should increase. Providence hath contrived 
another way to abate it : for in copulation the female 
bites off the head of the male, and the young ones 
destroy the mother. But this will not consist with 
reason, as we have declared before. And if we more 
nearly consider the condition of Vipers and noxious 
Animals we shall discover an higher provision of 
Nature : how although in their paucity she hath not 
abridged their malignity, yet hath she notoriously 
eff*ected it by their secession or latitancy. For not 
only offensive insects, as Hornets, W^asps, and the 
like ; but sanguineous corticated Animals, as Serpents, 
Toads and Lizzards, do lie hid and betake themselves 
to coverts in the Winter. Whereby most Countries 
enjoying the immunity of Ireland and Candle, there ^^ 
ariseth a temporal security from their venoms ; and an 
intermission of their mischiefs, mercifully requiting 
the time of their activities. 

A second ground of this effect, was conceived the 
justice of Nature, whereby she compensates the death 
of the father by the matricide or murder of the 
mother: and this was the expression of Nicander. 
But the cause hereof is as improbable as the effect ; 
and were indeed an improvident revenge in the young 
ones, whereby in consequence, and upon defect of 
provision they must destroy themselves. And whereas 
he expresseth this decollation of the male by so full a 


CHAF. term as aTroKoiTTeiv, that is, to cut or lop off, the act 
XVI is liardly conceiveable ; for the Viper hath but two 
considerable teeth, and those so disposed, so slender 
and needle-pointed, that they are apter for puncture 
then any act of incision. And if anv like action there 
be, it may be only some fast retention or sudden 
compression in the Orgasmus or fury of their lust ; 
according as that expression of Horace is construed 
concerning Ltjd'ia and Telephus. 

Sive puerfurens, 

Impressit inemorem dente labris notam. 

Others ascribe this effect unto the numerous concep- 
tion of the \'iper;and this was the opinion of Theophras- 
tii.<{. Who though he denieth the exesion or forcing 
through the belly, conceiveth nevertheless that upon a 
full and plentiful impletion there may perhaps succeed a 
disruption of the matrix, as it happeneth sometimes in 
Needle-fish, the long and slender fish Acxls. Now although in hot 
UmesuZ^ Countries, and very numerous conceptions, in the 
HuSea- Viper or other Animals, there may sometimes ensue a 
consisting 0/ dilaccration of the genital parts ; yet is this a rare and 
f(nir lines contino^ent effect, and not a natural and constant way 

unto the . . ^ 

vent, and of exclusiou. For the wise Creator hath formed the 

"thencTinto o^^g^ns of Auimals unto their operations, and in whom 

ththead. Jje ordaiucth a numerous conception, in them he hath 

prepared convenient receptacles, and a sutable way of 


Others do ground this disruption upon their con- 
tinued or protracted time of delivery, presumed to last 
twenty days; whereat excluding but one a day, the 
latter brood impatient, by a forcible proruption antici- 
pate their period of exclusion ; and this was the assertion 
ofPUnif, Cceteri tarditatls impatienies prorumpunt latera. 


occisd parente ; which was occasioned upon a mistake CHAP. 
of the Greek Text in Aristotle, rUrei Be iv fxia VH'epa XVI 
Kad' iv, riKTet Se irXeito rj eUoaiv, which are literally 
thus translated, Parit autem U7ia die secundum unurriy 
parit autem plures quam viffinti, and may be thus 
Englished, She hringeth forth in one day, one by one, 
and sometimes more than twenty : and so hath Scaliger 
rendered it, Sigillatim parit absolvit, una die, interdum 
plures quam viginti : But Pliny, whom Gaza followeth, 
hath differently translated it, Singulos diebus singulis 
parit, numero fere, viginti; whereby he extends the 
exclusion unto twenty days, which in the textuary 
sense is fully accomplished in one. 

But what hath most advanced it, is a mistake in 
another text of Aristotle^ which seemeth directly to 
determine this disruption, rUrec fiiKpa e'^^^tSia ev vfieaiv, 
al irepLpprj'yvvvTat, rpiraloi, eviore he Kal eacoOev Bia(f)a- 
ryovra avra i^epxerai, which Gaza hath thus translated, 
Parit catidos abvolutos membranis quae tertio die rum- 
puntur, evenit interdum ut qui in utero adhu£ sunt abrosis 
membranis pronimpant. Now herein probably Pliny, 
and many since have been mistaken ; for the disruption 
of the membranes or skins, which include the young 
ones, conceiving a dilaceration of the matrix and belly 
of the Viper : and concluding from a casual dilacera- 
tion, a regular and constant disruption. 

As for the Latine word Vipera, which in the Etymo- 
logic of Isidore promoteth this conceit ; more properly 
it may imply vivipera. For whereas other Serpents 
lay Eggs, the Viper excludeth living Animals ; and 
though the Cerastes be also viviparous, and we have 
found formed Snakes in the belly of the Cicilia or 
Slow-worm ; yet may the Viper emphatically bear the 
name. For the notation or Etymology is not of 


CHAP, necessity adequate unto the name ; and therefore 
XVI thougli animal be deduced from aniiria, yet are there 
many animations beside, and Plants will challenge a 
right therein as well as sensible Creatures. 

As touching the Text of Scripture, and compella- 
tion of the Pharisees, by Generation of Vipers, although 
constructions be made hereof conformable to this Tra- 
dition ; and it may be plausibly expounded, that out 
of a viperous condition, they conspired against their 
Prophets, and destroyed their spiritual parents ; yet 
(as Jaiisenius observeth) Gregoiy and Jerome, do make 
another construction ; apprehending thereby what is 
usually implied by that Proverb, Mali corvi, malum 
ovum ; that is, of evil parents, an evil generation, a 
posterity not unlike their majority ; of mischievous 
progenitors, a venomous and destructive progeny. 

And lastly. Concerning the Hieroglyphical account, 
according to the Vulgar conception set down by Orus 
Apollo, the Authority thereof is only Emblematical ; 
for were the conception true or false, to their appre- 
hensions, it expressed filial impiety. Which strictly 
taken, and totally received for truth, might perhaps 
begin, but surely promote this conception. 

More doubtful assertions have been raised of no 
Animal then the Viper, as we have dispersedly noted: 
and Francisco Redi hath amply discovered in his noble 
observations of Vipers ; from good reasons and iterated 
experiments affirming, that a Viper containeth no 
humour, excrement, or part which either dranke or 
eat, is able to kill any : that the remorsores or dog- 
teeth, are not more than two in either sex : that these 
teeth are hollow, and though they bite and prick 
therewith, yet are they not venomous, but only open 
a way and entrance unto the poyson, which notwith- 


standing is not poysonous except it touch or attain CHAP. 
unto the bloud. And that there is no other poison in ^^'I 
this Animal, but only that almost insipid liquor like 
oyl of Almonds, which stagnates in the sheaths and 
cases that cover the teeth ; and that this proceeds not 
from the bladder of gall, but is rather generated in 
the head, and perhaps demitted and sent from thence 
into these cases by salival conducts and passages, which 
the head communicateth unto them. 

Of Hares. 

THE double sex of single Hares, or that every 
Hare is both male and female, beside the 
vulgar opinion, was the affirmative of Arche- 
laus, of Plutarch, Philostrakis, and many more. Of 
the same belief have been the Jewish Rabbins; The 
same is likewise confirmed from the Hebrew word ; Amabeth. 
which, as though there were no single males of that 
kind, hath only obtained a name of the feminine 
gender. As also from the symbolical foundation of its Lemt. n. 
prohibition in the law, and what vices therein are 
figured ; that is, not only pusillanimity and timidity 
from its temper, feneration or usury from its foecun- 
dity and superfetation ; but from this mixture of sexes, 
unnatural venery and degenerous efFemination. Nor 
are there hardly any who either treat of mutation or 
mixtion of sexes, who liave not left some mention of 
this point ; some speaking positively, others dubiously, 
and most resigning it unto the enquiry of the Reader. 
Now hereof to speak distinctly, they must be male and 

VOL. II. c 


CHAP, female by mutation and succession of sexes ; or else 

XVII by composition, mixture or union thereof. 
Traiismuia- As for the mutation of sexes, or transition into one 
^"'•y'^""' another, we cannot deny it in Hares, it being observ- 
ivom,n able in Man. Forhereof beside Emjjedoclcs or Tircsias, 
erl^tcj' there are not a few examples: and though very few, 
or rather none which have emasculated or turned 
women, yet very many who from an esteem or reality 
of being Women have infallibly proved Men. Some 
at the first point of their menstruous eruptions, some 
in the day of tlieir marriage, others many years after: 
which occasioned disputes at Law, and contestations 
concerning a restore of the dowry. And that not only 
mankind, but many other Animals may suffer this 
transexion, we will not deny, or hold it at all impos- 
sible : although I confess by reason of the postick and 
backward position of the feminine parts in quadrupedes, 
they can hardly admit the substitution of a protrusion, 
effectual unto masculine generation ; except it be in 
Retromingents, and such as couple backward. 

Nor shall we only concede the succession of sexes in 
some, but shall not dispute the transition of reputed 
species in others ; that is, a transmutation, or (as Para- 
celstans term it) Transplantation of one into another. 
Hereof in perfect Animals of a congenerous seed, or 
near affinity of natures, examples are not unfrequent, 
as in Horses, Asses, Dogs, Foxes, Pheasants, Cocks, 
etc. but in imperfect kinds, and such where the dis- 
crimination of sexes is obscure, these transformations 
are more common ; and in some within themselves 
without commixtion, as particularly in Caterjiillars or 
Silkworms, wherein there is a visihle and triple trans- 
figuration, liut in Plants, wherein there is no distinc- 
tion of sex, these tran.splantations are conceived more 


obvious then any ; as that of Barley into Oats, of CHAP. 
Wheat into Darnel ; and those grains which generally XVII 
arise among Corn, as Cockle, Aracus, ^Egilops, and 
other degenerations; which come up in unexpected 
shapes, when they want the support and maintenance 
of the primary and master-forms. And the same do 
some affirm concerning other Plants in less analogy of 
figures; as the mutation of Mint into Cresses, Basil 
into Scrpoile, and Turneps into Radishes. In all 
which, as Severmus conceiveth, there may be equivocal in idea Me- 
seeds and Hermaphroditical principles, which contain ^^^^^^, 
the radicality and power of different forms; thus in 
the seed of Wlieat there lieth obscurely the seminality 
of Darnel, although in a secondary or inferiour way, 
and at some distance of production ; which neverthe- 
less if it meet with convenient promotion, or a conflux 
and conspiration of causes more powerful then the 
other, it then beginneth to edifie in chief, and con- 
temning the superintendent form, produceth the signa- 
tures of its self. 

Now therefore although we deny not these several 
mutations, and do allow that Hares may exchange 
their sex, yet this we conceive doth come to pass 
but sometimes, and not in that vicissitude or annual 
alteration as is presumed. That is, from imperfection 
to perfection, from perfection to imperfection ; from 
female unto male, from male to female again, and so 
in a circle to both without a permansion in either. 
For beside the inconceivable mutation of temper, Avhich 
should yearly alternate the sex, this is injurious unto 
the order of nature, whose operations do rest in the 
perfection of their intents ; which having once attained, 
thev maintain their accomplished ends, and relapse not 
again into their progressional imperfections. So il in 


CHAP, the minority of natural vigor, the parts of seminality 
XV'II take place; when upon the encrease or growth thereof 
the masculine appear, the first design of nature is 
atchieved, and those parts are after maintained. 

But surely it much impeacheth this iterated transex- 
ion of Hares, if that be true which Cardan and other 
Physicians affirm, that Transmutation of sex is only so 
in opinion ; and that these transfeminated persons 
were really men at first ; although succeeding years 
produced the manifesto or evidence of their virilities. 
Which although intended and formed, was not at first 
excluded : and that the examples hereof have under- 
gone no real or new transexion, but were Androgynally 
born, and under some kind of Hermaphrodites. For 
though Galen do favour the opinion, that the distinc- 
tive parts of sexes are only different in Position, that 
is, inversion or protrusion ; yet will this hardly be 
made out from the Anatomy of those parts. The 
testicles being so seated in the female, that they admit 
not of protrusion ; and the neck of the matrix wanting 
those parts which are discoverable in the organ of 

The second and most received acccption, is, that 
Hares are male and female by conjunction of both 
sexes; and such as are found in mankind, Poetically 
called Hermaphrodites ; supposed to be formed from 
the equality, or iion vktorie of either seed ; carry- 
ing about them the parts of ^lan and Woman ; 
although with great variety in perfection, site and 
ability; not only as Aristotle conceived, with a con- 
stant impotency in one ; but as later observers affirm, 
sometimes with ability of either venery. And there- 
fore the providence of some Laws have thought good, 
that at the years of maturity they should elect one 


sex, and the errors in tlie other should suffer a severer CHAP, 
punishment. Whereby endeavouring to prevent incon- XVII 
tinency, they unawares enjoyned perpetual chastity ; 
for being executive in both parts, and confined unto 
one, they restrained a natural power, and ordained a 
partial virginity. Plato and some of the llabbins 
proceeded higher; who conceived the first Man an 
Hermaphrodite; and Marcus Leo the learned Jew, in 
some sense hath allowed it ; affirming that Adam in 
one suppositum without division, contained both INIale 
and Female. And therefore whereas it is said in the 
text, That God created man in his own Image, in the 
Image of God created he him, male and female created 
he them : applying the singular and plural unto Adam, 
it might denote, that in one substance, and in himself 
he included both sexes, which was after divided, and 
the female called Woman. The opinion of Aristotle 
extendeth farther, from whose assertion all men should 
be Hermaphrodites ; for affirming that Women do not 
spermatize, and confer a place or receptacle rather then 
essential principles of generation, he deductively includes 
both sexes in mankind ; for from the father proceed 
not only males and females, but from him also must 
Hermaphroditical and masculo-feminine generations 
be derived, and a commixtion of both sexes arise from 
the seed of one. But the Schoolmen have dealt with 
that sex more hardly then any other ; who though they 
have not much disputed their generation, yet have 
they controverted their Resurrection, and raisen a 
querie, whether any at the last day should arise in the 
sex of Women ; as may be observed in the supplement 
of Aquinas. 

Now as we must acknowledge this Androgynal con- ConsUUngoj 
dition in Man, so can we not deny the like doth Zoman. 


CHAP, happen in beasts. Thus do we read in Pliny, that 

XVII Xerocs Chariot was drawn by four Hermaphroditical 

Mares, and Cafdati affirms he also beheld one at 

Antwerp. And thus may we also concede, that Hares 

have been of both sexes, and some have ocularlv con- 

firmed it; but that the whole species or kind should 

be bisexous or doubie-sexed, we cannot affirm, who 

have found the parts of male and female respectively 

distinct and single in any wherein we have enquired : 

Racch. De And the like success had Bacchimis in such as he 

Hermiphro- (^jssected. And whereas it is conceived, that beinor an 

hartniess Animal and delectable food unto man, nature 

hath made them with double sexes, that actively and 

passively performing they might more numerously 

increase; we forget an higher providence of nature 

whereby she especially promotes the multii)lication of 

Hares, which is by superfetation ; that is, a conception 

upon a conception, or an improvement of a second 

fruit before the first be excluded ; preventing heieby 

tlie usual intermission and vacant time of generation ; 

which is very common and frequently observable in 

Hares, mentioned long ago by Aristotle, Herodotus, and 

Pliirt/ ; and we have often observed, that after the first 

cast, there remain successive conceptions, and other 

younglings very immature, and far from their term of 


Su/ifr/eta- ^^r nccd any man to question this in Hares, for the 

tioH poss::-:e same we observe doth sometime happen in Women; 

(.„ci that for although it be true, that upon conception the 

Mntoaf-er- jnward oHfice of the matrix exactly closeth, so that it 

commonly admitteth nothing after; yet falleth it out 

.sometime, that in the act of coition, the avidity of 

that part dilateth it self, and receiveth a second 

burden ; which if it happen to be near in time unto the 


first, they do commonly both proceed unto perfection, CHAP, 
and have legitimate exclusions, periodically succeeding XVII 
each other. But if the superfetation be made with 
considerable intermission, the latter most commonly 
proves abortive; for the first being confirmed, en- 
grosseth the aliment from the other. However there- 
fore the project of Julia seem very plausible, and 
that way infallible, when she received not her pas- 
sengers, before she had taken in her lading, yet was 
there a fallibility therein : nor indeed any absolute 
security in the policy of adultery after conception. 
For the Matrix (which some have called another 
Animal within us, and which is not subjected unto 
the law of our will) after reception of its proper 
Tenant, may yet receive a strange and spurious inmate. 
As is confirmable by many examples in Pliny ; by 
Larisscea in Hippocrates and that merry one in Plauhis 
urged also by Ai'istotle : that is, oi Iphides and Hercules^ 
the one begat by Jupiter^ the other by AmpMti-yon 
upon Alcmwna as also in those super-conceptions, 
where one child was like the father, the other like the 
adulterer, the one favoured the servant, the other 
resembled the master. 

Now the grounds that begat, or much promoted the 
opinion of a double sex in Hares, might be some little 
bags or tumours, at first glance representing stones or 
Testicles, to be found in both sexes about the parts of 
generation ; which men observing in either sex, were 
induced to believe a masculine sex in both. But to 
speak properly, these are no Testicles or parts official 
unto generation, but glandulous substances that seem 
to hold the nature of Emunctories. For herein may 
be perceived slender perforations, at which may be 
expressed a black and faeculent matter. If therefore 


CHAP, from these we shall conceive a mixtion of sexes in 

XVII Hares, with fairer reason we may conclude it in Bevers ; 

whereof both sexes contain a double bag or Tumour 

in the groin, commonly called the Cod of Castor, as 

we have delivered before. 

Another ground were certain holes or cavities observ- 
able about the siedge : which being perceived in Males, 
made some conceive there might be also a foeminine 
nature in them. And upon this very ground, the 
same opinion hath passed upon the Hyaena, and is 
declared by Aristotle, and thus translated by Scal'iger-^ 
Quod autem aiunt utriusque sexus habere genitalia, 
falsiim est, quod videtur esse Jcemineum sub cauda est 
simile fignra fcemimno, verum pervimn non est ; and 
thus is it also in Hares, in whom these holes, although 
they seem to make a deep cavity, yet do they not 
perforate the skin, nor hold a community with any 
part of generation : but were (as Pliny delivereth) 
esteemed the marks of their age, the number of those 
deciding their number of years. In which opinion 
what truth there is we shall not contend ; for if in 
other Animals there be authentick notations, if the 
characters of years be found in the horns of Cows, or in 
the Antlers of Deer ; if we conjecture the age of Horses 
from joints in their docks, and undeniably presume it 
from their teetli ; we cannot affirm, there is in this 
conceit, any affront unto nature ; although who ever 
enquireth shall find no assurance therein. 

The last foundation was Retromingency or pissing 
backward ; for men observing both sexes to urine back- 
ward, or aversly between their legs, they might con- 
ceive there was a foeminine part in both ; wherein they 
are deceived by the ignorance of the just and proper 
site of the Pizzel, or part designed unto the Excretion 



of urine ; which in the Hare holds not the common CHAP. 
position, but is aversly seated, and in its distention XVII 
enclines unto the Coccix or Scut. Now from the 
nature of this position, there ensueth a necessity of 
Retrocopulation, which also promoteth the conceit : 
for some observing them to couple without ascension, 
have not been able to judge of male or female, or to 
determine the proper sex in either. And to speak 
generally, this way of copulation is not appropriate 
unto Hares, nor is there one, but many ways of coition : 
according to divers shapes and different conformations. 
For some couple laterally or sidewise, as Worms* 
some circularly or by complication, as Serpents : some 
pronely, that is, by contaction of the ventral parts in 
both, as Apes, Porcupines, Hedgehogs, and such as 
are termed ]\Iollia, as the Cuttle-fish and the Purple ; 
some mixtly, that is, the male ascending the female, 
or by application of the ventral parts of the one, unto 
the postick parts of the other, as most Quadrupeds : 
Some aversly, as all Crustaceous Animals, Lobsters, 
Shrimps, and Crevises, and also Retromingents, as 
Panthers, Tygers, and Hares. This is the constant 
Law of their Coition, this they observe and transgress 
not : onely the vitiosity of man hath acted the varieties 
hereof; nor content with a digression from sex or 
species, hath in his own kind run thorow the Anomalies 
of venery ; and been so bold, not only to act, but repre- 
sent to view, the irregular ways of Lust. 


Of Moles, or Molls. 

CHAP. '^ * ^ HAT Moles are blind and have no eyes, though 
XVIJI I a common opinion, is received with much 

A. variety ; some affirming only they have no 
sight, as OppmniLS, the Proverb Talpa Ccvcioj; and the 
word (nraXaj^^la, or Talpitas, which in Heaychms is 
made the same with Ccecitas : some that they have 
eyes, but no sight, as the text of ArMtotle seems to 
imply ; some neither eyes nor sight, as Albertus, Pliny ^ 
and the vulgar opinion ; some both eyes and sight, as 
^caliger, Aldrovandus, and some others. Of which 
opinions the last with some restriction, is most con- 
sonant unto truth : for that they have eyes in their 
head is manifest unto any, that wants them not in his 
own : and are discoverable, not only in old ones, but 
as we have observed in young and naked conceptions, 
taken out of the belly of the Dam. And he that 
exactly enquires into tiie cavity of tlicir cranies, may 
perhaps discover some propagation of nerves com- 
municated unto these parts. But that the humours 
together with their coats are also distinct (though 
Galen seem to affirm it) transcendeth our discovery; 
for separating these little Orbs, and including them 
in magnifying Glasses, we discerned no more then 
Aristotle mentions, to)v 6(f)da\/jLa)v ^eXaiva, that is, 
a black humour, nor any more if they be broken. 
That therefore they have eyes we must of necessity 
affirm ; but that they be comparatively incomplete we 
need not to deny : So Galen affirms the parts of genera- 
tion in women are imperfect, in respect of those of 


men, as the eyes of Moles in regard of other Animals; CHAP. 
So Aristotle terms them Tnjpovfievovi, wliich Gaza trans- XVllI 
lates Obloesos, and Scaliger by a word of imperfection 

Now as that they have eyes is manifest unto sense, 
so that they have sight not incongruous unto reason ; 
if we call not in question the providence of this provi- 
sion, that is, to assign the Organs, and yet deny the 
Office, to grant them eyes and withhold all manner of 
vision. For as the inference is fair, affirmatively 
deduced from the action to the Organ, that they have 
eyes because they see ; so is it also from the organ to 
the action, that they have eyes, therefore some sight 
designed, if we take the intention of Nature in every 
species, and except the casual impediments, or morbo- 
sities in individuals. But as their eves are more 
imperfect then others, so do we conceive of their sight 
or act of vision, for they will run against things, and 
hudling forwards fall from high places. So that they 
are not blind, nor yet distinctly see ; there is in them 
no Cecity, yet more then a Cecutiency ; they have 
sight enough to discern the light, though not perhaps 
to distinguish of objects or colours ; so are they not 
exactly blind, for light is one object of vision. And 
this (as Scaliger observeth) might be as full a sight 
as Nature first intended, for living in darkness under 
the earth, they had no further need of eyes then to 
avoid the light; and to be sensible when ever they 
lost that darkness of earth, which was their natural 
confinement. And therefore however Translators do 
render the word of Aristotle or Galen, that is, imper- 
fectos ohloesos or inchoatos, it is not much considerable ; 
for their eyes are sufficiently begun to finish this action, 
and competently perfect for this imperfect Vision. 


CHAP. And lastly, although they had neither eyes nor 
XVIIl sight, yet could they not be termed blind. For blind- 
ness being a privative term unto sight, this appellation 
is not admittible in propriety of speech, and will over- 
throw the doctrine of privations ; which presuppose 
positive forms or habits, and are not indefinite nega- 
tions, denying in all subjects, but such alone wherein 
the positive habits are in their proper Nature, and 
placed without repugnancy. So do we improperly say 
a Mole is blind, if we deny it the Organs or a capa- 
city of vision from its created Nature ; so when the 
text of John had said, that person was blind from his 
nativity, whose cecity our Saviour cured, it was not 
warrantable in Nonmis to say he had no eyes at all, 
as in the judgment of Hcinsius, he describeth in his 
paraphrase; and as some ancient Fathers affirm, that 
by this miracle they were created in him. And so 
though the sense may be accepted, that Proverb must 
be candidly interpreted, which maketh fishes Mute; 
and calls them silent which have no voice in Nature. 

Now this conceit is erected upon a misapprehension 
or mistake in the symtomes of vision ; men confound- 
ing abolishment, diminution and depravement, and 
naming that an abolition of sight, which indeed is 
but an abatement. For if vision be abolished, it is 
called ccecitas, or blindness ; if depraved and receive 
its objects erroneously. Hallucination; if diminished, 
hcbetudo vUus, caltgatio, or dimness. Now instead of 
a diminution or imperfect vision in the Mole, we affirm 
an abolition or total privation ; instead of a caligation 
or dimness, we conclude a cecity or blindness. Which 
hath been frequently inferred concerning other Animals; 
so some affirm the Water-Rat is blind, so Sammoniciu<i 
and Nkander do call the Mus-Araneus the shrew or 


Ranny, blind : And because darkness was before light, CHAP. 
the j^gyptians worshipped the same. So are Ccecilice XVIII 
or Slow-worms accounted blind, and the like we affirm 
proverbially of the Beetle ; although their eyes be 
evident, and they will five against lights, like many 
other Insects, and though also Aristotle determines, 
that the eyes are apparent in all flying Insects, though 
other senses be obscure, and not perceptible at all. 
And if from a diminution we may infer a total priva- 
tion, or affirm that other Animals are blind which do 
not acutely see, or comparatively unto others, we shall 
condemn unto blindness many not so esteemed ; for 
such as have corneous or homey eyes, as Lobsters and 
crustaceous Animals, are generally dim-sighted ; all 
Insects that have anfemice, o^ long horns to feel out 
their way, as Butterflyes and Locusts ; or their fore- 
legs so disposed, that they much advance before their 
heads, as may be observed in Spiders ; and if the Eagle 
were judge, we might be blind our selves. The expres- 
sion therefore of Scripture in the story of Jacob is 
surely with circumspection : And it came to pass when 
Jacob was old, and his eyes were dim, quajido calignnmt 
ocuU, saith Jerome and Tremellius, which are expressions 
of diminution, and not of absolute privation. 

Other concerns there are of Molls, which though not 
commonly opinioned are not commonly enough con- 
sidered : As the peculiar formation of their feet, the 
slender ossa lugalia, and Dogteeth, and how hard it is 
to keep them alive out of the Earth : As also the 
ferity and voracity of these animals ; for though they 
be contented with Roots, and stringy parts of Plants, 
or Wormes under ground, yet when they are above it 
Avill sometimes tear and eat one another, and in a large 
glass wherein a Moll, a Toad, and a Viper were in- 



CHAT, closed, we have known the Moll to dispatch them and 
XVI 1 1 to devour a good part of them both. 


Of I^ampries. 

WHETHER Lampries have nine eyes, as is 
received, we durst refer it unto Polyphe- 
mus, who had but one, to judge it. An 
error concerning eyes, occasioned by the error of eyes ; 
deduced from the appearance of diverse cavities or 
holes on either side, which some call eyes that care- 
lessly behold them ; and is not only refutable by 
experience, but also repugnant unto Reason. For 
beside the monstrosity they fasten unto Nature, in 
contriving many eyes, who hath made but two unto 
any Animal, that is, one of each side, according to the 
division of the brain; it were a superfluous inartificial 
act to place and settle so many in one plane ; for the 
two extreams would sufficiently perform the office of 
sight without the help of the intermediate eyes, and 
behold as much as all seven joyned together. For the 
visible base of the object would be defined by these 
two ; and the middle eyes, although they behold the 
same thing, yet could they not behold so much thereof 
as these ; so were it no advantage unto man to have a 
third eye between those two he hath already ; and the 
fiction of Argots seems more reasonable then this ; for 
though he had many eyes, yet were they placed in 
circumference and positions of advantage, and so are 
they placed in several lines in Spiders. 

Again, These cavities which men call eyes are seated 


out of the head, and where the Gils of other fish are CHAr. 
placed ; containing no Organs of sight, nor having any XIX 
Communication with the brain. Now all sense pro- ah sense 
ceeding from the brain, and that being placed {^^'l{"J^'/^' 
Galen observeth) in the upper part of the body, for 
the fitter situation of the eyes, and conveniency re- 
quired unto sight ; it is not reasonable to imagine that 
they are any where else, or deserve that name which are 
seated in other parts. And therefore we relinquish as 
fabulous what is delivered of Steriiopthalmiy or men 
with eyes in their breast, and when it is said by 
Solomon, A wise mans eyes are in his head, it is to be 
taken in a second sense, and affordeth no objection. 
True it is that the eyes of Animals are seated with 
some difference, but in sanguineous animals in the 
head, and that more forward then the ear or hole of 
hearing. In quadrupedes, in regard of the figure of 
their heads, they are placed at some distance; in 
latirostrous and flat-biird birds they are more laterally 
seated, and therefore when they look intently they 
turn one eye upon the object, and can convert their 
heads to see before and behind, and to behold two 
opposite points at once. But at a more easie distance 
are they situated in man, and in the same circumfer- 
ence with the ear ; for if one foot of the compass be 
placed upon the Crown, a circle described thereby will 
intersect, or pass over both the ears. 

The error in this conceit consists in the ignorance To-^vhaiuse 
of these cavities, and their proper use in nature ; for i^aLamprie 
this is a particular disposure of parts, and a peculiar <'" • 
conformation whereby these holes and sluces supply 
the defect of Gils, and are assisted by the conduit in 
the head ; for like cetaceous Animals and Whales, the 
Lamprie hath a fistula, spout or pipe at the back part 

I se>~ic. 


CHAP, of the head, whereat it spurts out water. Nor is it 
XIX only singular in this formation, but also in many other ; 
as in defect of bones, whereof it hath not one ; and 
for the spine or backbone, a cartilaginous substance 
without any spondyles, processes or protuberance what- 
soever. As also in the provision which Nature hath 
made for the heart ; which in this Animal is very 
strangely secured, and lies immured in a cartilage or 
gristly substance. And lastly, in the colour of the 
liver : which is in the Male of an excellent grass-green: 
but of a deeper colour in the Female, and will com- 
municate a fresh and durable verdure. 

Of Snayls. 

WHETHER Snayh have eyes some Learned 
men have doubted. For Scaliger terms 
them but imitations of eyes ; and Aristotle 
upon consequence denyeth them, when he affirms that 
Testacemui Animals have no eyes. But this now seems 
sufficiently asserted by the help of exquisite Glasses, 
which discover those black and atramentous spots or 
globales to be their eyes. 

That they have two eyes is the common opinion, 
but if they have two eyes, we may grant them to have 
no less than four, that is, two in the larger extensions 
above, and two in the shorter and lesser horns below, 
and this number may be allowed in these inferiour and 
exanguious animals ; since we may observe the arti- 
culate and latticed eyes in Flies, and nine in some 




Spiders : And in the great Phalangium Spider of CHAP; 
Ame?ica, we plainly number eight. XX 

But in sanguineous animals, quadrupeds, bipeds, or 
man, no such number can be regularly verified, or 
multiplicity of eyes confirmed. And therefore what 
hath been under this kind delivered, concerning the 
plurality, paucity or anomalous situation of eyes, is 
either monstrous, fabulous, or under things never seen 
includes good sense or meaning. And so may we 
receive the figment of Argus, who was an Hierogly- 
phick of heaven, in those centuries of eyes expressing 
the stars ; and their alternate wakings, the vicissitude 
of day and night. Which strictly taken cannot be 
admitted ; for the subject of sleep is not the eye, but 
the common sense, which once asleep, all eyes must 
be at rest. And therefore what is delivered as an 
Embleme of vigilancy, that the Hare and Lion do 
sleep with one eye open, doth not evince they are any 
more awake then if they were both closed. For the 
open eye beholds in sleep no more then that which is 
closed ; and no more one eye in them then two in 
other Animals that sleep with both open ; as some by 
disease, and others naturally which have no eye-lids 
at all. 

As for Polyphemus, although the story be fabulous, //aw things 
the monstrosity is not impossible. For the act of^^'^^^" 
Vision may be performed with one eye ; and in the (foubu. 
deception and fallacy of sight, hath this advantage 
of two, that it beholds not objects double, or sees two 
things for one. For this doth happen when the axis 
of the visive cones, diffused from the object, fall not 
upon the same plane ; but that which is conveyed into 
one eye, is more depressed or elevated then that which 
enters the other. So if beholding a Candle, we pro- 

VOL. II. u 


CHAP, triide either upward or downward the pupill of one 
XX eye, the object will appear double; but if we shut the 
other eye, and behold it with one, it will their appear 
but sintrle; and if we abduce the eye unto either 
corner, the object will not duplicate: for in that 
position the axis of the cones remain in the same 
plane, as is demonstrated in the opticks, and delivered 
by Galen, in his tenth De nsu paH'tum. 

Relations also there are of men that could make 
themselves invisible, which belongs not to this dis- 
course : but may serve as notable expressions of wise 
and prudent men, who so contrive their affairs, that 
although their actions be manifest, their designs are 
not discoverable. In this acception there is nothing 
left of doubt, and G'lges Ring remaineth still amongst 
us : for vulgar eves behold no more of wise men then 
doth the Sun : they may discover their exteriour and 
outward ways, but their interiour and inward pieces he 
only sees, that sees into their beings. 

Of the Chameleon. 

CONCERNING the Chameleon there generally 
passeth an opinion that it liveth only upon 
air, and is sustained by no other aliment : 
Thus much is in plain terms affirmed by Solinus, Pliny , 
and others, and by this periphrasis is the same described 
by Ovid. All which notwithstanding, upon enquiry I 
find tlie assertion niaiidy controvertible, and very much 
to fail in the three inducements of belief 

And first for its verity, although asserted by some, 


and traditionally delivered by others, yet is it very CHAP. 
questionable. For beside ^'Eliari, who is seldom defec- XXI 
tive in these accounts; Aristotle distinctly treating 
hereof, hath made no mention of this remarkable 
propriety : which either suspecting its verity, or pre- 
suming its falsity, he surely omitted : for that he 
remained ignorant of this account it is not easily con- 
ceiveable : it being the common opinion, and generally 
received by all men. Some have positively denied it, 
as Augustinus^ Niphus, Stobceus, Dalechampms, For- 
tunnis Licetzcs^ with many more; others have experi- 
mentally refuted it, as namely Johannes Landkis, who 
in the relation of Scaliger, observed a Chameleon to 
lick up a fly from his breast : But Bellonius hath been 
more satisfactorily experimental, not only affirming 
they feed on Flies, Caterpillars, Beetles and other Co„n,:e>,t. in 
Insects, but upon exenteration he found these Animals 
in their bellies : whereto we might also add the experi- 
mental decisions of the worthy Peireschius and learned 
Emanuel Vizzanius, in that Chameleon which had 
been often observed to drink water, and delight to feed 
on Meal-worms. And although we have not had the 
advantage of our own observation, yet have we received 
the like confirmation from many ocular spectators. 

As touching the verisimility or probable truth of 
this relation, several reasons there are which seem to 
overthrow it. For first, there are found in this Animal, 
the guts, the stomack, and other parts official unto 
nutrition ; which were its aliment the empty reception 
of air, their provisions had been superfluous. Now the 
wisdom of nature abhorring superfluities, and effecting 
nothing in vain, unto the intention of these operations, 
respectively contriveth the Organs ; and therefore 
where we find such Instruments, we may with strict- 

Oceil. Lucaii. 

52 rsEUDonoxiA 

C'HAP. ucss expect their actions; and where we discover them 
XXI not, we may with safety conckide the non-intention 
of their operations. So when we perceive that Bats 
have teats, it is not unreasonable to infer they suckle 
their voinijrlintjs with milk : but whereas no other 
flying Animal hath these parts, we cannot from them 
expect a viviparous exclusion ; but either a generation 
of eggs, or some vermiparous separation, whose navel 
is within it self at first, and its nutrition after not 
connexedly depending of its original. 
^ Again, Nature is so far from leaving any one part 
without its proper action, that she oft-times imposeth 
two or three labours upon one, so the Pizel in Animals 
is both official unto Urine and to generation, but the 
first and primary use is generation ; for some creatures 
enjoy that part which urine not. So the nostrils are 
useful both for respiration and smelling, but the prin- 
cipal use is smelling; for many have nostrils which 
have no lungs, as fishes, but none have lungs or respira- 
tion, which have not some shew, or some analogy 
of nostrils. Thus we perceive the providence of 
Nature f-ro- Natuve, tliat is, the wisdom of God, which disposeth 
^MM"uu't^^ of no })art in vain, and some parts unto two or three 
properf,.nc uses, will uot provide any without the execution of its 
proper office, nor where there is no digestion to be 
, made, make any parts inservient to that intention. 
Beside the remarkable teeth, the tongue of this 
animal is a second argument to overthrow this airy 
nutrication : and that not only in its proper nature, 
but also its peculiar figure. For of this part properly 
taken there are two ends ; that is, the formation of 
the voice, and the execution of tast ; for the voice, it 
can have no office in Chameleoiu, for they are mute 
Animals ; as beside fishes, are most other sorts of 



Lizards. As for their tast, if their nutriment be air, CHAP, 
neither can it be an Instrument thereof; for the body XXI 
of that element is ingustible, void of all sapidity, and 
without any action of the tongue, is by the rough 
artery or wezon conducted into the lungs. And there- 
fore Pliny much forgets the strictness of his assertion, 
when he alloweth excrements unto that Animal, that 
feedeth only upon Air; which notwithstanding with 
the urine of an Ass, he commends as a magicall 
Medicine upon our enemies. 

The figure of the tongue seems also to overthrow the 
presumption of this aliment, which according to exact 
delineation, is in this Animal peculiar, and seemeth 
contrived for prey. For in so little a creature it is at 
the least a palm long, and being it self very slow in 
motion, hath in this part a very great agility ; withall 
its food being flies and such as suddenly escape, it hath 
in the tongue a mucous and slimy extremity, whereby 
upon a sudden emission it inviscates and tangleth those 
Insects. And therefore some have thought its name 
not unsuitable unto its nature ; the nomination in 
Greek is a little Lion ; not so much for the resemblance ^otMO'^fw 
of shape, as affinity of condition ; that is for vigilancy 
in its prey, and sudden rapacity thereof, which it 
performeth not like the Lion with its teeth, but a 
sudden and unexpected ejaculation of the tongue. , 
This exposition is favoured by some, especially the old 
gloss upon Leviticus, whereby in the Translation of 
Jerome and the Septuagint, this Animal is forbidden ; 
what ever it be, it seems as reasonable as that of 
Isidore, who derives this name a Camelo et Leone, as 
presuml*iag herein resemblance with a Camell. 

As for the possibility hereof, it is not also unques- 
tionable ; and wise men are of opinion, the bodies of 




CHAP. Animals cannot receive a proper aliment from air ; for 
XXI beside that tast being (as Aristotle terms it) a kind of 
touch ; it is required the aliment should be tangible, and 
fall under the palpable affections of touch ; beside also 
that there is some sapor in all aliments, as being to be 
distinguished and judged by the gust ; which cannot 
be admitted in air : Beside these, I say, if we consider 
the nature of aliment, and the proper use of air in 
respiration, it will very hardly fall under the name 
hereof, or properly attain the act of nutrication. 
Requis!ut And first concerning its nature, to make a perfect 
Autrition into the body nourished, there is required a 
transmutation of the nutriment, now where this con- 
version or aggeneration is made, there is also required 
in the aliment a familiarity of matter, and such a com- 
munity or vicinity unto a living natiu'c, as by one act 
of the soul may be converted into the body of the 
living, and enjoy one common soul. Which cannot be 
effected by air, it concurring only with our flesh in 
common principles, which are at the largest distance 
from life, and common also unto inanimated constitu- 
tions. And therefore when it is said by Fernelius, and 
asserted by divers others, that we are only nourished 
by living bodies, and such as are some way proceeding 
from them, that is, the fruits, effects, parts, or seeds 
thereof; they have laid out an object verv agreeable 
unto assimulation ; for these indeed are fit to receive a 
quick and immediate conversion, as holding some com- 
munity with our selves, and containing approximate 
dispositions unto animation. 

Secondly, (as is argued by Aristotle against the 
Pythagoreans) whatsoever properly nourisheth before 
its assimulation, by the action of natural heat it 
receiveth a corpulency or incrassation progressional 


unto its conversion ; which notwithstanding cannot be CHAP, 
effected upon air; for the action of heat doth not XXI 
condense but rarifie that body, and by attenuation, 
rather then for nutrition, disposeth it for expulsion. 

Thirdly, (which is the argument of Hippocrates) all 
aliment received into the body, must be therein a 
considerable space retained, and not immediately 
expelled. Now air but momentally remaining in our 
bodies, it hath no proportionable space for its conver- 
sion ; only of length enough to refrigerate the heart ; 
which having once performed, lest being it self heated 
again, it should suffocate that part, it maketh no stay, 
but hasteth back the same way it passed in. 

Fourthly, The use of air attracted by the lungs, and 
■without which there is no durable continuation in life, 
is not the nutrition of parts, but the contemperation 
and ventilation of that fire always maintained in the 
forge of life ; whereby although in some manner it 
concurreth unto nutrition, yet can it not receive the 
proper name of nutriment. And therefore by Hip- 
pocrates it is termed Alimentum noii Alimentum, a De Aliment* 
nourishment and no nourishment. That is, in a 
large acception, but not in propriety of language ; 
conserving the body, not nourishing the same; nor 
repairing it by assimulation, but preserving it by 
ventilation ; for thereby the natural flame is preserved 
from extinction, and so the individuum supported in 
some way like nutrition. 

And though the air so entreth the Lungs, that by 
its nitrous Spirit doth affect the heart, and several 
ways qualifie the blood ; and though it be also admitted 
into other parts, even by the meat we chew, yet that it 
affordeth a proper nutriment alone, it is not easily 
made out. 




I'apour is 

n^hat Hit 
ntatter of 
Culinary or 
K itch in 
jire is. 

Again, Some arc so far from affirming the air to 
afford any nutriment, that they plainly deny it to be 
any Element, or that it entreth into mixt bodies as 
any principle in their compositions, but performeth 
other offices in the Universe ; as to fill all vacuities 
about the earth or beneath it, to convey the heat 
of the sun, to maintain fires and flames, to serve for 
the flight of volatils, respiration of breathing Animals, 
and refrigeration of others. And although we receive 
it as an Element, yet since the transmutation of 
Elements and simple bodies, is not beyond great 
question, since also it is noeasie matter to demonstrate 
that air is so much as convertible into water; how 
transH'utable it is into flesh, may be of deeper doubt. 

And although the air attracted mav be conceived to 
nourish the invisible flame of life, in as much as 
common and cidinary flames are nourished by the air 
about them ; we make some doubt whether air is the 
pabulous supply of fire, much less that flame is pro- 
perly air kindled. And the same before us, hath been 
denied by the Lord of Verulam^ in his Tract of Life 
and Death, and also by Dr. Jorden in his book of 
Mineral waters. For that which substantially main- 
taineth the fire, is the combustible matter in the 
kindled body, and not the ambient air, which affbrdeth 
exhalation to its fuliginous atomes ; nor that which 
causeth the flame properly to be termed air, but rather 
as he expresseth it, the accension of fuliginous exhala- 
tions, which contain an unctuosity in them, and arise 
from the matter of fuel, which opinion will salve many 
doubts, whereof the common conceit affbrdeth no 

As first. How fire is stricken out of flints r* that is, 
not by kindling the air from the collision of two hard 


bodies ; for then Diamonds should do the like better CHAP, 
than Flints : but rather from sulphureous inflamed XXI 
and even vitrified effluviums and particles, as hath 
been observed of late. The like saith J or den we 
observe in canes and woods, that are unctuous and full 
of oyl, which will yield fire by frication, or collision, 
not by kindling the air about them, but the inflamable 
oyl within them. Why the fire goes out without air? ''iky fire 
that is, because the fuliginous exhalations wanting ^^^J'"'^, 
evaporation recoil upon the flame and choak it, as is rcanting air, 
evident in cupping glasses; and the artifice of char- ""',^^/„ 
coals, where if the air be altogether excluded, the fire f""''"""^ 
goes out. Why some lamps include in those bodies inflame 
have bm-ned many hundred years, as that discovered X^'/"""^ 
in the Sepulchre of Tull'ia^ the sister of Cicero^ and that ") 
of Olilnus many years after, near Padua 't because what- 
ever was their matter, either a preparation of gold, or 
Naptha, the duration proceeded from the purity of 
their oyl which yielded no fuliginous exhalations to 
suffocate the fire ; For if air had nourished the flame, 
it had not continued many minutes, for it would have 
been spent and wasted by the fire. Why a piece of 
flax will kindle, though it touch not the flame 't because 
the fire extendeth further, then indeed it is visible, 
being at some distance from the week, a pellucide and 
transparent body, and thinner then the air it self. 
Why Mettals in their liquation, although they in- 
tensly heat the air above their surface, arise not yet 
into a flame, nor kindle the air about them ? because 
their sulphur is more fixed, and they emit not inflam- 
able exhalations. And lastly, why a lamp or candle 
burnetii only in the air about it, and inflameth not the 
air at a distance from it? because the flame extend- 
eth not beyond the inflamable effluence, but closely 


CHAP, adheres unto the original of its inflamation ; and 
XXI therefore it only warmeth, not kindleth the air about 
it. Which notwithstanding it will do, if the ambient 
air be impregnate with subtile inflamabilities, and such 
as are of quick accension ; as experiment is made in a 
close room ; upon an evaporation of spirits of wine and 
Camphire; as subterraneous fires do sometimes iiappen, 
and as Cretisa and Alexanders boy in the bath were set 
on fire by Naptha. 

Lastly, The Element of air is so far from nourishing 
the body, that some have questioned the power of 
water ; many conceiving it enters not the body in the 
power of aliment, or that from thence there proceeds a 
substantial supply. For beside that some creatures 
drink not at all ; Even unto our selves, and more 
perfect Animals, though many ways assistent thereto, 
it performs no substantial nutrition, serving for refri- 
geration, dilution of solid aliment, and its elixation in 
the stomack ; which from thence as a vehicle it conveys 
through less accessible cavities, and so in a rorid 
substance through the capillary cavities, into every 
part ; which having performed, it is afterward excluded 
by Urine, sweat and serous separations. And this 
opinion surely possessed the Ancients ; for when they 
so highly commended that water which is suddenly hot 
and cold, which is without all savour, the lightest, the 
thinnest, and wliich will soonest boil Beans or Pease, 
they had no consideration of nutrition ; whereunto 
had they had respect, they M'ould have surely com- 
manded gross and turbid streams, in whose confusion 
at least, there migiit be contained some nutriment; 
and not jejune or limped water, nearer the simplicity 
of its Element. Although, I confess, our clearest 
waters and such as seem simple unto sense, are much 


compounded unto reason, as may be observed in the CHAP, 
evaporation of large quantities of water; wherein XXI 
beside a terreous residence some salt is also found, as a seedo/ 
is also observable in rain water ; which appearing pure anhnat"' 
and empty, is full of seminal principles, and carrieth ^'"''''''''''^''« 
vital atomes of plants and Animals in it, which have zibavius, 
not perished in the great circulation of nature ; as '^'"- *• 
may be discovered from several Insects generated in 
rain water, from the prevalent fructification of plants 
thereby ; and (beside the real plant of Cornerius) from 
vegetable figurations, upon the sides of glasses, so 
rarely delineated in frosts. 

All which considered, severer heads will be apt 
enough to conceive the opinion of this Animal, not 
much unlike that of the Astomi, or men without 
mouths, in Pliny ; sutable unto the relation of the 
Mares in Spain, and their subventaneous conceptions, 
from the Western wind ; and in some way more 
unreasonable then the figment of Rabican the famous 
horse in Ariosto, which being conceived by flame and 
wind, never tasted grass, or fed on any grosser 
provender then air ; for this way of nutrition was 
answerable unto the principles of his generation. 
Which being not airy, but gross and seminal in the 
Chameleon ; unto its conservation there is required a 
solid pasture, and a food congenerous unto the prin- 
ciples of its nature. 

The grounds of this opinion are many; the first 
observed by Theophrastus, was the inflation or swelling 
of the body, made in this Animal upon inspiration or 
drawing in its breath ; which people observing, have 
thought it to feed upon air. But this effect is rather 
occasioned upon the greatness of its lungs, which in 
this Animal are very large, and by their backward 


CHAP, situation, afford a more observable dilation ; and 
XXI though tlieir lungs be less, the like inflation is also 
observable in Toads, but especially in Sentortoises. 

A second is the continual hiation or holding open 
its mouth, which men observing, conceive the intention 
thereof to receive the aliment of air ; but this is also 
occasioned bv the greatness of its lungs; for repletion 
whereof not having a sufficient or ready supply by its 
nostrils; it is enforced to dilate and hold open the 

The third is the paucity of blood observed in this 
Animal, scarce at all to be found but in the eye, and 
about the heart ; which defect being observed, inclined 
some into thoughts, that the air was a sufficient main- 
tenance for these exanguious parts. But this defect 
or rather paucity of blood, is also agreeable unto many 
other Animals, whose solid nutriment we do not con- 
trovert ; as may be observed in other sorts of Lizards, 
in Frogs and divers Fishes ; and therefore an Horse- 
leech will not readily fasten upon every fish ; and we 
do not read of much blood that was drawn from Frogs 
by Mice, in that famous battel of Homer. 

The last and most common ground which begat or 
promoted this opinion, is the long continuation hereof 
witiiout any visible food, which some observing, pre- 
cipitously conclude they eat not at all. It cannot be 
denied it is (if not the most of any) a very abstemious 
Animal, and such as by reason of its frigidity, paucity 
of blood, and latitancy in the winter (about which 
time the observations are often made) will long subsist 
without a visible sustentation. But a like condition 
may be also observed in many other Animals; for 
Lizards and Leeches, as we have made trial, will live 
some months without sustenance; and we have included 


Snails in glasses all winter, which have returned to CHAP, 
feed again in the spring. Now these notwithstanding, XXI 
are not conceived to pass all their lives without food ; 
for so to argue is fallacious, and is moreover sufficiently 
convicted by experience. And therefore probably 
other relations are of the same verity, which are of the y 
like affinity; as is the conceit of the Rhintace in Persia^ 
the Canis Levis of America, and the Manucodiata or 
bird of Paradise in India. 

To assign a reason of this abstinence in Animals, or 
declare how without a supply there ensueth no destruc- 
tive exhaustion, exceedeth the limits and intention of 
my discourse. Forturmcs Licetus in his excellent Tract, 
de his qni diu vivunt sine alimento, hath very ingeniously 
attempted it ; deducing the cause hereof from an equal 
conformity of natural heat and moisture, at least no 
considerable exuperancy in either; which concurring 
in an unactive proportion, the natural heat consumeth 
not the moisture (whereby ensueth no exhaustion) and 
the condition of natural moisture is able to resist the 
slender action of heat (whereby it needeth no repara- 
tion) and this is evident in Snakes, Lizards, Snails, and 
divers Insects latitant many months in the year ; which 
being cold creatures, containing a weak heat in a crass 
or copious humidity, do long subsist without nutrition. 
For the activity of the agent, being not able to over- 
master the resistance of the patient, there will ensue 
no deperdition. And upon the like grounds it is, that 
cold and phlegmatick bodies, and (as Hippocrates 
determineth) that old men will best endure fasting. 
Now the same harmony and stationary constitution, as 
it happeneth in many species, so doth it fall out some- 
time in Individuals. For we read of many who have 
lived long without aliment ; and beside deceits and 


CHAT, impostures, there may be veritable Relations of some, 
XXI who without a miracle, and by peculiarity of temper, 
have far out fasted Elias. Which notwithstanding 
doth not take off the miracle ; for that may be miracu- 
lously effected in one, which is naturally causable in 
another. Some naturally living unto an hundred ; 
unto which age, others notwithstanding could not 
attain without a naracle. 

Of the Ostrich. 

THE common opinion of the Ostrich^ Stnithio- 
camelus or Sparrozv-Camel conceives that it 
digesteth Iron ; and this is confirmed by the 
affirmations of many ; beside swarms of others, Rhodi- 
glnus in his prelections taketh it for granted, Johannes 
Langius in his Epistles pleadeth experiment for it; 
the common picture also confirmeth it, which usually 
describeth this Animal with an horshoe in its mouth. 
Notwithstanding upon enquiry we find it very question- 
able, and the negative seems most reasonably enter- 
tained ; whose verity indeed we do the rather desire, 
because hereby we shall relieve our ignorance of one 
occult quality ; for in tlie list thereof it is accounted, 
and in that notion imperiously obtruded upon us. For 
my part, although I have had the sight of this Animal, 
I have not had the opportunity of its experiment, but 
have received great occasion of doubt, from learned 
discourses thereon. 

For Aristotle and Oppianus who have particularly 
treated hereof are silent in this singularity; either 


omitting it as dubious, or as the Comment saith, CHAP. 
rejecting it as fabulous. Pliny speaketh generally, XXII 
affirming only, the digestion is wonderful in this 
Animal; ^lian delivereth, that it digesteth stones 
without any mention of Iron ; Leo Africanus, who lived 
in those Countries wherein they most abound, speaketh 
diminutively, and but half way into this assertion : 
Surdiim ac simplex animal est, quicquid invenit, absque 
delectu, usque ad ferrum devorat : Fernelius in his second 
De ahditis reriim causis, extenuates it, and Riolanus in 
his Comment thereof positively denies it. Some have 
experimentally refuted it, as Alhertus Magmis; and 
most plainly Ulysses Aldrovandus, whose words are 
these : Ego ferri frusta devorare, dum Tridenti essem, 
observavi, sed quce incocta rursus excerneret, that is, at 
my being at Trent, I observed the Ostrich to swallow 
Iron, but yet to exclude it undigested again. 

Now beside experiment, it is in vain to attempt 
against it by Philosophical argument, it being an 
occult quality, which contemns the law of Reason, and 
defends it self by admitting no reason at all. As for 
its possibility we shall not at present dispute ; nor will 
we affirm that Iron ingested, receiveth in the stomack How ipos- 
of the Ostrich no alteration at all ; but if any such "toliLkof 
there be, we suspect this effect rather from some way '^' Ostrich 
of corrosion, then any of digestion ; not any liquid iro^u 
reduction or tendance to chilification by the power 
of natural heat, but rather some attrition from an 
acide and vitriolous humidity in the stomack, which 
may absterse and shave the scorious parts thereof. 
So rusty Iron crammed down the throat of a Cock, 
will become terse and clear again in its gizzard : So 
the Counter which according to the relation of Amatus 
remained a whole year in the body of a youth, and 





»7ia/ tfif 
v;ould hnfe 
by their 

came out much consumed at last; mijrht suffer this 
dimiiuition, rather from sharp and acide humours, then 
the strength of natural heat, as he supposeth. So 
silver swallowed and retained some time in the body, 
will turn black, as if it had been dipped in Aqua 
fort'is^ or some corrosive water, but Lead will remain 
unaltered ; for that mettal containeth in it a sweet salt 
or sugar, whereby it resisteth ordinary corrosion, and 
will not easily dissolve even in Aqua fortu. So when 
for medical uses, we take down the filings of Iron or 
Steel, we must not conceive it passeth unaltered from 
us ; for though the grosser parts be excluded again, 
yet are the dissoluble parts extracted, whereby it 
becomes effectual in deopilations ; and therefore for 
speedier operation we make extinctions, infusions, and 
the like, whereby we extract the salt and active parts 
of the ^Medicine; which being in solution, more easily 
enter the veins. And this is that the Chymists mainly 
drive at in the attempt of their Aurum Potabtle; that 
is, to reduce that indigestible substance into such a 
form as may not be ejected by siege, but enter the 
cavities, and less accessible parts of the body, without 

The ground of this conceit is its swallowing down 
fragments of Iron, which men observing, by a froward 
illation, have therefore conceived it digesteth them ; 
which is an inference not to be admitted, as being a 
fallacy of the consecjuent, that is, concluding a position 
of the consequent, from the position of the antecedent. 
For many things are swallowed by Animals, rather for 
condiment, gust or medicament, then any substantial 
nutriment. So Poultrey, and especial Iv the Turkey, 
do of themselves take down stones ; and we have found 
at one time in the gi/zard of a Turkey no less then 


seven hundred. Now these rather concur unto diges- CHAP, 
tion, then are themselves digested ; for we have found XXII 
them also in the guts and excrements ; but their 
descent is very slow, for we have given them stones 
and small pieces of Iron, which eighteen days after we 
have found remaining in the gizzard. And therefore 
the experiment of Langkis and others might be fallible, 
whilst after the taking they expected it should come 
down within a day or two after. Thus also we swallow How cherry- 
Cherry-stones, but void them unconcocted, and we ^""Z^'^Ti 
usually say they preserve us from surfet ; for being to prevent 
hard bodies they conceive a strong and durable heat tatLg 
in the stomack, and so prevent the crudities of their Cherries. 
fruit : And upon the like reason do culinary operators 
observe, that flesh boiles best, when the bones are 
boiled with it. Thus dogs will eat grass, which they 
digest not : Thus Camels to make the water sapid, do 
raise the mud with their feet : Thus horses will knable 
at walls. Pigeons delight in salt stones. Rats will gnaw 
iron, and Aristotle saith the Elephant swalloweth 
stones. And thus may also the Ostrich swallow Iron ; 
not as his proper aliment, but for the ends above 
expressed, and even as we observe the like in other 

And whether these fragments of Iron and hard sub- 
stances swallowed by the Ostrich, have not also that 
use in their stomacks, which they have in other birds ; 
that is, in some way to supply the use of teeth, by 
commolition, grinding and compression of their proper 
aliment, upon the action of the strongly conformed 
muscles of the stomack ; as the honored Dr. Harvey 
discourseth, may also be considered. 

What effect therefore may be expected from the 
stomack of an Ostrich by application alone to further 



CHAP, digestion in ours, beside the experimental refute of 
XXII Galen, we refer it unto considerations above alledgcd ; 
Or whether there be any more credit to be given unto 
the Medicine of ^lian, who affirms the stones they 
swallow have a peculiar vertue for the eyes, then that 
of Hermolaus and Pliny drawn from the urine of this 
Animal ; let them determine who can swallow so 
strange a transmission of qualities, or believe that any 
Bird or flying Animal doth separately and distinctly 
urine beside the Bat. 

That therefore an Ostrich will swallow and take 
down Iron, is easily to be granted : that oftimes it 
pass entire away, if we admit of ocular testimony not 
to be denied. And though some experiment may also 
plead, that sometimes they are so altered, as not to be 
found or excluded in any discernable parcels : yet 
whether this be not effected by some way of corrosion, 
from sharp and dissolving humidities, rather then any 
proper digestion, chilifactive mutation, or alimental 
conversion, is with good reason doubted. 

Of Unicorns Horn. 

GREAT account and much profit is made of 
Uniconis horn, at least of that which beareth 
the name thereof; wherein notwithstanding, 
many I perceive suspect an Imposture, and some con- 
ceive there is no such Animal extant. Herein there- 
fore to draw up our determinations ; beside the several 
places of Scripture mentioning this Animal (which 
some may well contend to be only meant of the 


Rhinoceros) we are so far from denying there is any CHAP. 
Unicorn at all, that we affirm there are many kinds XXIII 
thereof. In the number of Quadrupedes, we wiW spmedouit 
concede no less then five: that is, the Indian Ox, the '-^ """ ^ 
Indian Ass, the Rhinoceros, the Oryx, and that which signijieth in 
is more eminently termed Monoceros^ or Unicornis, ^<=*^^^'"''- 
Some of the list of fishes ; as that described by Olaus, 
Albeiiiis and others : and some Unicorns we will allow 
even among Insects ; as those four kinds of nasicornous 
Beetles described by Muffetus. 

Secondly, Although we concede there may be many 
Unicorns, yet are we still to seek ; for whereunto to 
affix this Horn in question, or to determine from which 
thereof we receive this magnified Medicine, we have no 
assurance, or any satisfactory decision. For although 
we single out one, and eminently thereto assign the name 
of the Unicorn ; yet can we not be secure what creature 
is meant thereby ; what constant shape it holdeth, or 
in what number to be received. For as far as our 
endeavours discover, this animal is not uniformly 
described, but diff'erently set forth by those that 
undertake it. Pliny affirmeth it is a fierce and terrible The Uni- 
creature ; Vartomannus a tame and mansuete Animal : j,7"w^ 
those which Garcias ah Horto described about the cape reported by 
of good hope, were beheld with heads like horses ; — 
those which Vartomannus beheld, he described with the 
head of a Deer ; Pliny, jEUan, Solinus, and after these 
from ocular assurance, Paulus Venetus affirmeth, the 
feet of the Unicorn are undivided, and like the 
Elephants : But those two which VaHomannus beheld^ 
at Mecha, were as he describeth, footed like a Goat. 
As ^lian describeth, it is in the bigness of an Horse, 
as Vartomannus, of a Colt ; that which Thevet speaketh 
of was not so big as an Heifer; but Paidus Venet^is 


CHAP, affirmeth, they are but little less then Elephants. 

XXIII Which are discriminations very material, and plainly 
declare, that under the same name Authors describe 
not the same Animal : so that the Unicorns Horn 
of one, is not that of another, although we proclaim an 
equal vertue in all. 

Thirdly, Although we were agreed what Animal 
this was, or differed not in its description, yet would 
this also afford but little satisfaction ; for the Horn 
we commonly extol, is not the same with that of the 
Ancients. For that in the description of jElian and 
Pliny was black : this which is shewed amongst us is 
commonly white, none black ; and of those five which 
Scaligcr beheld, though one spadiceous, or of a light 
red, and two enclining to red, yet was there not any 
of this complexion among them. 
r Fourthly, What Horns soever they be which pass 
amongst us, they are not surely the Horns of any one 
kind of Animal, but must proceed from several sorts 
of Unicorns. For some are wreathed, some not : That 
famous one which is preserved at St. Dennis near Paris, 
hath wreathy spires, and chocleary turnings about it, 
which agreeth with the description of the Unicorns 
Horn in Julian. Those two in the treasure of St. 
Mark are plain, and best accord with those of the 
Indian Ass, or the descriptions of other Unicorns: 
That in the Repository of the electour of Saxone is 
plain and not hollow, and is believed to be a true Land 
Unicorns Horn. Albertui Mag-wns describeth one ten 
foot long, and at the base about thirteen inches 
compass: And that of ^/t^M^rr/? which Goropiiis Becanus 
describeth, is not much inferiour unto it; which best 
agree unto the descriptions of the Sea- Unicorns ; for 
these, as Olaus affirmeth, are of that strength and 



bigness, as able to penetrate the ribs of ships. The CHAP. 
same is more probable, because it was brought from XXIII 
Island, from whence, as Becanus affirmeth, three other 
were brought in his days : And we have heard of some 
which have been found by the Sea-side, and brought 
unto us from America. So that while we commend 
the Unicorns Horn, and conceive it peculiar but unto 
one animal ; under apprehension of the same vertue, 
we use very many ; and commend that effect from all, 
which every one confineth unto some one he hath 
either seen or described. 

Fifthly, Although there be many Unicorns^ and con- 
sequently many Horns, yet many there are which bear 
that name, and currantly pass among us, which are no 
Horns at all. Such are those fragments atid pieces 
of Lapis Ceratites, commonly termed Cornu fossile, 
whereof Bcetius had no less than twenty several sorts 
presented him for Unicorns Horn. Hereof in subter- 
raneous cavities, and under the earth there are many 
to be found in several parts of Germany ; which are 
but the lapidescencies and petrifactive mutations of 
hard bodies ; sometimes of Horn, of teeth, of bones, 
and branches of trees, whereof there are some so imper- 
fectly converted, as to retain the odor and qualities 
of their originals ; as he relateth of pieces of Ash and 
Walnut. Again, in most, if not all which pass amongst 
us, and are extolled for precious Horns, we discover 
not an affection common unto other Horns ; that is, 
they mollifie not with fire, they soften not upon 
decoction or infusion, nor will they afford a jelly, or 
mucilasrinous concretion in either; which notwith- 
standing we may effect in Goats horns, Sheeps, Cows 
and Harts-horn, in the Horn of the Rhinoceros^ the 
horn of the Pristis or Sword fish. Nor do they become 



used in 
what it is. 

CHAP, friable or easily powderable by Philosophical calcina- 
XXIII tion, that is, from the vapor or steam of water, but 
split and rift contrary to others horns. Briefly, many 
of those commonly received, and whereof there be so 
many fragments preserved in England, are not only no 
Horn, but a substance harder then a bone, that is, 
parts of the tooth of a Morse or Sea-horse; in the 
midst of the solider part contained a curdled grain, 
which is not to be found in Ivory. This in Northern 
Regions is of frequent use for hafts of knives or hilts 
of swords, and being burnt becomes a good remedy for 
fluxes : but Antidotally used, and exposed for Unicorns 
Horn, it is an insufferable delusion ; and with more 
veniabie deceit, it might have been practised in Harts- 

The like deceit may be practised in the teeth of other 
Sea-animals ; in the teeth also of the Hippopotamus, 
.' or great Animal which frequenteth the River Niltis : 
For we read that the same was anciently used instead 
of Ivory or Elephants tooth. Nor is it to be omitted, 
what hath been formerly suspected, but now confirmed 
by Olaus Wo7-mhts, and Thomas Bartholinus and others, 
that those long Horns preserved as pretious rarities in 
many places, are but the teeth of Narhwales, to be 
found about Island, Greenland and other Northern 
regions ; of many feet long, commonly wreathed, very 
deeply fastned in the upper jaw, and standing directly 
DeUnicornu. forward, graphically described in Barthol'uius, according 
unto one sent from a Bishop of Island, not separated 
from the crany. Hereof A/creator hath taken notice 
in his description of Island : some relations hereof 
there seem to be in Purchas, who also delivereth that 
the Horn at Windsor, was in his second voyage brought 
hither by Frobishcr. These before the Northern dis- 


coveries, as unknown rarities, were carried by Merchants CHAP. 
into all parts of Europe-, and though found on the XXIII 
Sea-shore, were sold at very high rates ; but are now 
become more common, and probably in time will prove 
of little esteem ; and the bargain of Julkcs the third, 
be accounted a very hard one, who stuck not to give^ 
many thousand crowns for one. 

Nor is it great wonder we may be so deceived in 
this, being daily gulled in the brother Antidote Bezoar ; 
whereof though many be false, yet one there passeth 
amongst us of more intollerable delusion ; somewhat 
paler then the true stone, and given by women in the 
extremity of great diseases, which notwithstanding is 
no stone, but seems to be the stony seed of some 
Lithospermum or greater Grumwell; or the Lobus 
Echinatus of Clusius^ called also the Bezoar Nut ; for 
being broken, it discovereth a kernel of a leguminous 
smell and tast, bitter like a Lupine, and will swell and 
sprout if set in the ground, and therefore more service- 
able for issues, then dangerous and virulent diseases. 

Sixthly, Although we were satisfied we had the 
Unicorns Horn, yet were it no injury unto reason to 
question the efficacy thereof, or whether those vertues 
pretended do properly belong unto it. For what we 
observe, (and it escaped not the observation of Paulus 
Jovius many years past) none of the Ancients ascribed 
any medicinal or antidotal vertue unto the Unicorns 
Horn ; and that which ^lian extolleth, who was the ^ 
first and only man of the Ancients who spake of the 
medical vertue of any Unicom, was the Horn of the 
Indian Ass; whereof, saith he, the Princes of those 
parts make bowls and drink therein, as preservatives 
against Poyson, Convulsions, and the Falling-sickness. 
Now the description of that Horn is not agreeable 



CHAP, unto that we commend; for that (saith he) is red 
XXIII above, white below, and black in the middle; which is 
very different from ours, or any to be seen amongst 
us. And thus, though the description of the Unicom 
be very ancient, yet was there of old no vertue ascribed 
unto it ; and although this amongst us receive the 
opinion of the same vertue, yet is it not the same Horn 
whereunto the Anticnts ascribed it. 

Lastly, Although we allow it an Antidotal efficacy, 
and such as the Ancients commended, yet are there 
some vertues ascribe<l thereto by Moderns not easily 
to be received ; and it hath surely fain out in this, 
as other magnified medicines, whose operations effec- 
tual in some diseases, are presently extended unto 
all. That some Antidotal quality it may have, we 
have no reason to deny ; for since Elks Hoofs and 
Horns are magnified for Epilepsies, since not only the 
bone in the heart, but the Horn of a Deer is Alexi- 
pharmacal, and ingredient into the confection of Hya- 
cinth, and the Electuary of Maximilian ; we cannot 
without prejudice except against the efficacy of this. 
But when we affirm it is not only Antidotal to proper 
venoms, and substances destructive by qualities we 
cannot express; but that it resisteth also Sublimate, 
Arsenick, and poysons wliich kill by second qualities, 
that is, by corrosion of parts ; I doubt we exceed the 
properties of its nature, and the promises of experi- 
ment will not secure the adventure. And therefore 
in such extremities, whether there be not more probable 
relief from fat oyly substances, which are the open 
tyrants over salt and corrosive bodies, then precious 
and cordial medicines which operate by secret and 
(lisput.ible proprieties; or whether he that swallowed 
Lime, and drank down Mercury water, did not more 

Ex/ruhi: e 
of Poisons. 


reasonably place his cure in milk, butter or oyl, then CHAP, 
if he had recurred unto Pearl and Bezoar, common XXIII 
reason at all times, and necessity in the like case 
would easily determine. 

Since therefore there be many Unicorns ; since that 
whereto we appropriate a Horn is so variously de- 
scribed, that it seemeth either never to have been seen 
by two persons, or not to have been one animal ; 
Since though they agreed in the description of the 
animal, yet is not the Horn we extol the same with 
that of the Ancients ; Since what Horns soever they 
be that pass among us, they are not the Horns of one, 
but several animals ; Since many in common use and 
high esteem are no Horns at all ; Since if there were 
true Horns, yet might their vertues be questioned ; 
Since though we allowed some vertues, yet were not 
others to be received; with what security a man may 
rely on this remedy, the mistress of fools hath already 
instructed some, and to wisdom (which is never t/O 
wise to learn) it is not too late to consider. 


That all Animals of the Land, are in their 
kind in the Sea. 

THAT all Animals of the Land, are in their 
kind in the Sea, although received as a prin- 
ciple, is a tenent very questionable, and will 
admit of restraint. For some in the Sea are not to be 
matcht by any enquiry at Land, and hold those shapes 
which terrestrious forms approach not ; as may be 
observed in the Moon - fish, or Orthragoriscus, the 


CHAP, several sorts of Kaia's, Torpedo''s, Oysters, and many 
XXIV more, and some there are in the Land which were never 
maintained to be in the Sea, as Panthers, Hyajna's, 
Camels, Sheep, Molls, and others, which carry no 
HisiPryof name in Icthyology, nor are to be found in the exact 
x/descriptions of jRondoIetitis, Gesner, or Ald7-ovaiidiis. 
Again, Though m.any there be which make out 
their nominations, as the Hedg-hog, Sea-serpents and 
others ; yet are there also very many that bear the 
name of animals at Land, which hold no resemblance 
in corporal configuration ; in which account we com- 
pute Vtdpeada^ Cants, Rana, Passer, Ciiculus, Asellus, 
Tardus, Lepus, etc. Wherein while some are called 
the Fox, the Dog, the Sparrow or Frog-fish : and are 
known by common names with those at Land ; yet as 
their describers attest, they receive not these appella- 
tions from a total similitude in figure, but any concur- 
rence in common accidents, in colour, condition or 
single conformation. As for Sea-horses which much 
confirm this assertion; in their common descriptions, 
tliey are but Crotesco deliniations which fill up empty 
spaces in Maps, and meer pictorial inventions, not any 
Physical shapes : sutable unto those which (as Pliny 
delivereth) Praxiteles long ago set out in the Temple of 
Domitius. For that which is commonly called a Sea- 
horse, is properly called a Morse, and makes not out 
that shape. That which the Ancients named Hippo- 
campus is a little animal about six inches long, and 
not preferred beyond the classis of Insects. That 
which they termed Hippopotamus an amphibious animal, 
' about the Itiver Nile, so little resembleth an horse, that 
as Mathioliis observeth, in all except the feet, it better 
makes out a swine. That which they termed a Lion, 
was but a kind of Lobster : that which they called the 


Bear, was but one kind of Crab : and that which they CHAP, 
named Bos marinus, was not as we conceive a fish XXIV 
resembling an Ox, but a Skait or Thornback, so named 
from its bigness, expressed by the Greek word Botis^ 
which is a prefix of augmentation to many words in 
that language. 

And therefore although it be not denied that some 
in the water do carry a justifiable resemblance to some 
at Land, yet are the major part which bear their 
names unlike; nor do they otherwise resemble the 
creatures on earth, then they on earth the constella- 
tions which pass under animal names in heaven : nor 
the Dos fish at Sea much more make out the Dog of 
the Land, then that his cognominal or name-sake in the 
heavens. Now if from a similitude in some, it be 
reasonable to infer a correspondence in all, we may 
draw this analogy of animals upon plants ; for veget- 
ables there are which carry a near and allowable 
similitude unto animals. We might also conclude that Fab. column. 
animal shapes were generally made out in minerals : rarioHbus 
for several stones there are that bear their names in Orchis, 
relation to animals or their parts, as Lapis anguinu^, cophora, An- 
Conchites, Echinites, Encephalites, ^gopthalimis, and thropophora 
many more ; as will appear in the Writers of Minerals, 
and especially in Bcetius and Aldrovandus. 

Moreover if we concede, that the animals of one 
Element, might bear the names of those in the other, 
yet in strict reason the watery productions should have 
the prenomination : and they of the land rather derive 
their names, then nominate those of the Sea. For the 
watery plantations were first existent, and as they 
enjoyed a priority in form, had also in nature precedent 
denominations : but falling not under that Nomen- 
clature of Adam, which unto terrestrious animals as- 


CHAP, signed a name appropriate unto their natures: from suc- 
XXIV ceeding spectators they received arbitrary appellations : 
and were respectively denominated unto creatures 
known at Land ; who in themselves had independent 
names and not to be called after them, which were 
created before them. 

Lastly, By this assertion we restrain the hand of 
God, and abridge the variety of the creation ; making 
the creatures of one Element, but an acting over those 
of another, and conjoyning as it were the species of 
things which stood at distance in the intellect of God ; 
and though united in the Chaos, had several seeds of 
their creation. For although in that indistinguisht 
mass, all things seemed one ; yet separated by the 
voice of God, according to their species, they came 
out in incommunicated varieties, and irrelative semi- 
nalities, as well as divided places ; and so although we 
say the world was made in six days, yet was there as it 
were a world in every one ; that is, a distinct crea- 
tion of distinguisht creatures ; a distinction in time of 
creatures divided in nature, and a several approbation 
and survey in every one. 


Concerning the common course of Diet, in 
making choice of some Animals, and ab- 
staining from eating others. 

WHY we confine our food unto certain 
Animals, and totally reject some others; 
how these distinctions crept into several 
Nations ; and whether this practice be built upon solid 


reason, or chiefly supported by custom or opinion ; CHAP, 
may admit consideration. XXV 

For first there is no absolute necessity to feed on any ; 
and if we resist not the stream of Authority, and 
several diductiQiis Jfrom. holy Scripture : there was no 
Sarcophagle before the flood ; and without the eating Eating of 
of flesh, our fathers from vegetable aliments, preserved ^'"'^' 
themselves unto longer lives, then their posterity by 
any other. For whereas it is plainly said, I have given Gen. i. 29. 
you every herb which is upon the face of all the earth, 
and every tree, to you it shall be for meat ; presently The natural 
after the deluge, when the same had destroyed or ^^^^"^^"-^^ 
infirmed the nature of vegetables, by an expression oiimfaircdby 
enlargement, it is again delivered : Every moving ' ' "' "^'" 
thing that liveth, shall be meat for you, even as the Gen. 9. 3. 
green herb, have I given you all things. 

And therefore although it be said that Ahel was a 
Shepherd, and it be not readily conceived, the first 
men would keep sheep, except they made food thereof : 
great Expositors will tell us, that it was partly for 
their skins, wherewith they were cloathed, partly for 
their milk, whereby they were sustained ; and partly 
for Sacrifices, which they also offered. 

And though it may seem improbable, that they 
offered flesh, yet eat not thereof; and Ahel can hardly 
be said to offer the firstlings of his flock, and the fat 
or acceptable part, if men used not to tast the same, 
whereby to raise such distinctions • some will confine 
the eating of flesh unto the line of Cain^ who extended 
their luxury, and confined not unto the rule of God. 
That if at any time the line of Seih eat flesh, it was 
extraordinary, and only at their sacrifices ; or else (as 
Grotius hinteth) if any such practice there were, it was 
not from the beginning ; but from that time when the 


CHAP, waics of men were corrupted, and whereof it is said, 
XXV that the wickedness of mans heart was great ; the 
Eatineof more righteous part of mankind probably conforming 
iabnfiot' "'^to the diet prescribed in Paradise, and the state of 
toccmmon innoccncy. And yet however the practice of men 
^old. ' conformed, this was the injunction of God, and might 
be therefore sufficient, without the food of flesh. 

That they fed not on flesh, at least the faithful 
party before the flood, may become more probable, 
because they refrained the same for some time after. 
For so was it generally delivered of the golden age 
and rcif[n of Saturn : which is conceived the time of 
Noah, before the building of Babel. And he that 
considereth how agreeable this is unto the traditions 
of the Gentiles ; that that age was of one tongue : 
that Saturn devoured all his sons but three ; that he 
was the son of Oceanus and Thetis ; that a Ship was 
his Symbole ; that he taught the culture of vineyards, 
and the art of husbandry, and was therefore described 
with a sickle, may well conceive, these traditions had 
their original in Noah. Nor did this practice terminate 
in him, but was continued at least in many after : as 
(beside the Pythagoreans of old, Bannyans now in 
\/ India., who upon single opinions refrain the food of 
flesh) ancient records do hint or plainly deliver. 
Although we descend not so low, as that oi JEsclepiades 
delivered by Porphyrixis, that men began to feed on 
ir«pt iiroxnt flesh in the raign of Pygmaleon brother of Dido, who 
invented several torments, to punish the eaters of 

Nor did men only refrain from the flesh of beasts 

at first, but as some will have it, beasts from one 

another. And if we should believe very grave conjec- 

^' I turers, carnivorous animals now, were not flesh devourers 


then, according to the expression of the divine provision CHAP, 
for them. To every beast of the earth, and to every XXV 
fowl of the air, I have given every green herb for meat, Gen. i. 36. 
and it was so. As is also collected from the store laid 
up in the Ark ; wherein there seems to have been no ^^"^"^ /^ 
fleshly provision for carnivorous Animals. For of ' 

every kind of unclean beast there went but two into 
the Ark : and therefore no stock of flesh to sustain 
them many days, much less almost a year. 

But when ever it be acknowledged that men began to - 
feed on flesh, yet how they betook themselves after 
to particular kinds thereof, with rejection of many 
others, is a point not clearly determined. As for the 
distinction of clean and unclean beasts, the original is 
obscure, and salveth not our practice. For no Animal 
is naturally unclean, or hath this character in nature ; 
and therefore whether in this distinction there were 
not some mystical intention : whether Moses after the How Moses 
distinction made of unclean beasts, did not name these '^Iftilguish 
so before the flood by anticipation : whether this dis- ^'^'"'^ ""''' 
tinction before the flood, were not only in regard of uncUan 
sacrifices, as that delivered after was in regard of food : ^^"^^ *''' 
(for many were clean for food, which were unclean 
for sacrifice) or whether the denomination were but 
comparative, and of beasts less commodious for food, 
although not simply bad, is not yet resolved. 

And as for the same distinction in the time of Muses, 
long after the flood, from thence we hold no restric- 
tion, as being no rule unto Nations beside the Jezvs 
in dietetical consideration, or natural choice of diet, 
they being enjoyned or prohibited certain foods upon 
remote and secret intentions. Especially thereby to 
avoid community with the Gentiles upon promiscuous 
commensality : or to divert them from the Idolatry 


CHAP, of Kgypt whence they came, they were enjoyned to 
XXV eat the Gods of Eg^/pt in the food of Sheep and Oxen. 
Withall in this distinction of Animals the considera- 
tion was hieroglyphical ; in the bosom and inward 
sense implying an abstinence from certain vices sym- 
bolically intimated from the nature of those animals ; 
as may be well made out in the prohibited meat of 
Swine, Cony, Owl, and many more. 

At least the intention was not medical, or such as 

might oblige unto conformity or imitation ; For some 

we refrain which that Law alloweth, as Locusts and 

many others; and some it prohibiteth, which are 

accounted good meat in strict and Medical censure: 

£is (beside many fishes which have not finns and scales,) 

the Swine, Cony and Hare, a dainty dish with the 

Ancients ; as is delivered by Galen, testified by Martial, 

as the popular opinion implied, that men grew fair by 

the flesh thereof: by the diet of Caio, that is Hare and 

Inter Cabbage; and the Jus nigrum, or Black broath of 

mauj'^^rima ^^^ Spartam, which was made with the blood and 

Lepus. bowels of an Hare. 

And if we take a view of other Nations, we shall 
discover that they refrained many meats up>on the 
like considerations. For in some the abstinence was 
symbolical; so Pyilingoran enjoyned abstinence from 
fish : that is, luxurious and dainty dishes ; So accord- 
ing to Herodotus, some Egyptians refrained swines flesh, 
as an impure and sordid animal : which whoever but 
touched, was fain to wash himself, 
f Some abstained superstitiously or upon religious 
consideration : So the Syrians refrained Fish and 
Pigeons ; the Egyptians of old. Dogs, Eeles and Croco- 
diles ; though Leo AJ)'icanns delivers, that many of 
late, do eat them with good gust : and Herodotus also 


affirmeth, that the Egyptians of Elephantina (unto CHAP, 
whom they were not sacred,) did eat thereof in elder XXV 
times : and Writers testify, that they are eaten at this 
day in India and America. And so, as Cassar reports, Lib. 3. de 
unto the ancient Britains it was piaculous to tast a ^ ° * * 
Goose, which dish at present no taljle is without. 

Unto some Nations the abstinence was political and 
for some civil advantage : So the Thessalians refrained 
Storks, because they destroyed their Serpents ; and the 
like in sundry animals is observable in other Nations. 

And under all these considerations were some animals 
refrained : so the Jews abstained from swine at first 
symbolically, as an Emblem of impurity ; and not for 
fear of the Leprosie, as Tacitus would put upon them. 
The Cretians superstitiously, upon tradition that 
Jupiter was suckled in that countrey by a Sow. Some 
Egyptians politically, because they supplyed the labour 
of plowing by rooting up the ground. And upon 
like considerations perhaps the Phcenicians and Syrians 
fed not on this Animal: and as Solinus reports, the 
Arabians also and Indians. A great part of mankind AuI. Gtii. 
refraining one of the best foods, and such as Pythagoras ' " ■*' 
himself would eat ; who, as Arisfoxenus records, refused 
not to feed on Pigs. 

Moreover while we single out several dishes and Certain 
reject others, the selection seems but arbitrary, or^^^J^J/- 
upon opinion ; for many are commended and cryed up ^^"twith 

the Ancieuts 

in one age, which are decryed and nauseated in another, not so much 
Thus in the dayes of Mecenas, no flesh was preferred '^*""*"^ 
before young Asses ; which notwithstanding became 
abominable unto succeeding appetites. At the table 
of Heliogahalus the combs of Cocks were an esteemed 
service; which country stomacks will not admit at 
ours. The Sumen or belly and dugs of swine with 
VOL. 11. F 




Odyss. 4 


Non dc 
re cibaria. 
Cast, de esu 
Gal. Alim. 
fac lib. 3. 

and sometimes beaten and bruised unto death: 
the womb of the same Animal, especially that was 
barren, or else had cast her young ones, though a 
tough and membranous part, was magnified by Roman 
Palats; wliereunto nevertheless we cannot perswade 
our stomacks. How Alec., Muriay and Garum^ would 
humour our gust I know not; but surely few there 
are that could delight in their Cyceon\ that is, the 
common draught of Honey, Cheese, parcht Barley- 
flower, Oyl and Wine; which notwithstanding was 
commended mixture, and in high esteem among them. 
We mortifie our selves with the diet of fish, and think 
we fare coursly if we refrain from the flesh of other 
animals. But antiquity held another opinion hereof: 
When Pythagoras in prevention of luxury advised, not 
so much as to tast on fish. Since the Rhodians were 
wont to call them clowns that eat flesh : and since 
Plato to evidence the temperance of the noble Greeks 
before Troy, observed, that it was not found they fed 
on fish, though they lay so long near the Hellespont ; 
and was only observed in the companions of Menelmis, 
that being almost starved, betook themselves to fishing 
about Pharos. 

Nor will (I fear) the attest or prescript of Philoso- 
phers and Physitians, be a sufficient ground to confirm 
or warrant common practice, as is deducible from 
ancient Writers, from Hippocrates, Galen, Simeon, Sethi: 
and the later tracts of Xonmis and Castellaims. So 
Aristotle and Albeiius commend the flesh of young 
Hawks : Galen the flesh of Foxes about Autumn when 
they feed on Grapes : but condemneth Quails, and 
ranketh Geese but with Ostriches ; which notwith- 
standing, present practice and every table extolleth. 
Men think they liavc fared hardly, if in times of 


extremity they have descended so low as Dogs: but CHAP. 
Galen delivereth, that young, fat and gelded, they XXV 
were the food of many Nations : and Hippocrates Cai. simpi. 
ranketh the flesh of Whelps with that of Birds : who ^'"^tipX^' 
also commends them against the Spleen, and to promote morbis de 
conception. The opinion in Galens time, which Pliny 
also followeth, deeply condemned Horse-flesh, and con- 
ceived the very blood thereof destructive ; but no diet 
is more common among the Tartars^ who also drink 
their blood. And though this may only seem an 
adventure of Northern stomacks, yet as Hcrodottis tells 
us, in the hotter clime of Persia, the same was a con- 
vivial dish, and solemnly eaten at the feasts of their 
nativities : whereat they dressed whole Horses, Camels 
and Asses ; contemning the Poverty of Grecian feasts, 
as unfurnished of dishes sufficient to fill the bellies of 
their guests. 

Again, While we confine our diet in several places, 
all things almost are eaten, if we take in the whole 
earth : for that which is refused in one country, is 
accepted in another, and in the collective judgment 
of the world, particular distinctions are overthrown. 
Thus were it not hard to shew, that Tigers, Elephants, 
Camels, Mice, Bats and others, are the food of several 
countries; and Leriiis y/iih others delivers, that some •- 
Americans eat of all kinds, not refraining Toads and 
Serpents : and some have run so high, as not to spare 
the flesh of man : a practise inexcusable, nor to be 
drawn into example, a diet beyond the rule and largest 
indulgence of God. 

As for the objection against beasts and birds of 
prey, it acquitteth not our practice, who observe not 
this distinction in fishes: nor regard the same in our 
diet of Pikes, Perches and Eels ; Nor are we excused 



CHAP, herein, if we examine the stomacks of Mackerels, Cods, 
XXV and Whitings. Nor is the foulness of food sufficient to 
justifie our choice ; for (heside that their natural heat 
is able to convert the same into laudable aliment) we 
refuse not many whose diet is more impure then some 
which we reject ; as may be considered in hogs, ducks, 
puets, and many more. 

Thus we perceive the practice of diet doth hold no 
certain course, nor solid rule of selection or confine- 
ment; Some in an indistinct voracity eating almost 
any, others out of a timorous pre-opinion, refraining 
very many. Wherein indeed necessity, reason and 
Physick, are the best determinators. Surely many 
animals may be fed on, like many plants; though not 
in alimental, yet medical considerations: Whereas 
having raised Antipathies by prejudgement or educa- 
tion, we often nauseate proper meats, and abhor that 
diet which disease or temper requireth. 
A problem. Now whether it were not best to conform unto the 
simple diet of our fore-fathers; whether pure and 
simple waters were not more healthfuU then fermented 
liquors; whether there be not an ample sufficiency 
without all flesh, in the food of honey, oyl, and the 
several parts of milk : in the variety of grains, pulses, 
and all sorts of fruits; since either bread or beverage 
may be made almost of all ? whether nations have 
rightly confined unto several meats.'' or whether the 
common food of one countrey be not more agreeable 
unto another ? how indistinctly all tempers apply unto 
the same, and how the diet of youth and old age is 
confounded : were considerations much concerning 
health, and might prolong our days, but must not 
this discourse. 



Of Sperma-Ceti, and the Sperma-Ceti Whale. 

WHAT Sperma-Ceti is, men might justly 
doubt, since the learned Hqfmannus in l)is 
work of Thirty years, saith plainly, Nescio De medica- 
quicl sit. And therefore need not wonder at the variety ^^^^^ 
of opinions ; while some conceived it to be flos maris, 
and many, a bituminous substance floating upon 
the sea. 

That it was not the spawn of the Whale, according 
to vulgar conceit, or nominal appellation Phylosophers 
have always doubted, not easily conceiving the Seminal 
humour of Animals, should be inflamable; or of a 
floating nature. 

That it proceedeth from a Whale, beside the relation 
of Clusius and other learned observers, was indubitably 
determined, not many years since by a Sperma-Ceti 
Whale, cast on our coast of Norfolk. Which, to lead Near Weiis. 
on further inquiry, we cannot omit to inform. It 
contained no less then sixty foot in length, the head 
somewhat peculiar, with a large prominency over the 
mouth ; teeth only in the lower JaM% received into 
fleshly sockets in the upper. The Weight of the 
largest about two pound : No gristly substances in the 
mouth, commonly called Whale-bones ; Only two short 
Anns seated forwardly on the back ; the eyes but small, 
the pizell large, and prominent. A lesser Whale of 
this kind above twenty years ago, was cast upon the Near 

1 Hunstanton. 

same shore. 

The discription of this Whale seems omitted by 
Gesner^ Rondeletius^ and the first Editions of Aldro- 


CHAP, vandu^; but describeth the latin impression of Pajeiis, 
XXVI in the Exoticks of Clusuis, and the natural history of 
Niremberg-ius ; but more amply in Icons and figures 
of Johnstonus. 

Mariners (who are not the best Nomenclators) called 
it a Juhartas^ or rather Gibbartas. Of the same appel- 
lation we meet with one in Rondelet'ms, called by the 
French Gibbar, from its round and Gibbous back. 
The name G'lbbarta we find also given unto one kind 
of Greenland Whales : But this of ours seemed not to 
answer the Whale of that denomination ; but was more 
agreeable unto the Trumpa or Sperma-Ceti Whale : 
according to the account of our Greenland describers 
in Purchas. And maketli the third among the eight 
remarkable Whales of that Coast. 

Out of tiie head of this Whale, having been dead 
divers days, and under putrifaction, flowed streams of 
oyi and Sperma-Ceti ; which was carefully taken up 
and preserved by the Coasters. But upon breaking 
up, the Magazin of Sperma-Ceti, was found in the 
head lying in folds and courses, in the bigness of goose 
eggs, encompassed with large flakie substances, as large 
as a mans head, in form of hony-combs, very white 
and full of oyl. 

Some resemblance or trace hereof there seems to be 
in the Physiter or Cap'idolio of Rondelethut -, while he 
delivers, that a fatness more liquid then oyl, runs from 
the brain of that animal ; which being out, the Reliques 
are like the scales of Sardinos pressed into a mass; 
which melting with heat, are again concreted by cold. 
And this many conceive to have been the fish which 
swallowed Jonas. Although for the largeness of the 
mouth, and frequency in those seas, it may possibly be 
the Lamia. 


Some part of the Sperma-Ceti found on the shore CHAP, 
was pure, and needed little depuration ; a great part XXVI 
mixed with fetid oyl, needing good preparation, and 
frequent expression, to bring it to a flakie consistency. 
And not only the head, but other parts contained it. 
For the carnous parts being roasted, the oyl dropped 
out, an axungious and thicker parts subsiding ; the oyl 
it self contained also much in it, and still after many 
years some is obtained from it. 

Gi-eenland Enquirers seldom meet with a Whale 
of this ' kind : and therefore it is but a contingent 
Commodity, not reparable from any other. It flameth t/ 
white and candent like Camphire, but dissolveth not 
in aqua fortis, like it. Some lumps containing about 
two ounces, kept ever since in water, afford a fresh 
and flosculous smell. Well prepared and separated 
from the oyl, it is of a substance unlikely to decay, 
and may out last the oyl required in the Composition 
of Mathiolus. 

Of the large quantity of oyl, what first came forth 
by expression from the Sperma-Ceti, grew very white 
and clear, like that of Almonds or Ben. What came 
by decoction was red. It was found to spend much in 
the vessels which contained it : It freezeth or coagu- 
lateth quickly with cold, and the newer soonest. It 
seems different from the oyl of any other animal, and 
very much frustrated the expectation of our soap- 
boylers, as not incorporating or mingling with their 
lyes. But it mixeth well with painting Colours, 
though hardly drieth at all. Combers of wooll made 
use hereof, and Country people for cuts, aches and 
hard tumors. It may prove of good Medical use ; and 
serve for a ground in compounded oyls and Balsams. 
Distilled, it affords a strong oyl, with a quick and 


CHAP, pierciiig water. Upon Evaporation it gives a balsame, 
XXVI which is better performed with Turpentine distilled 
with Sperma-Ceti. 

Had the abominable scent permitted, enquiry had 
been made into that strange composure of the head, 
and hillock of flesh about it. Since the Work-men 
affirmed, they met with Sperma-Ceti before they came 
to the bone, and the head yet preserved, seems to 
confirm the same. The Sphincters inserving unto the 
Fistula or spout, might have been examined, since they 
are so notably contrived in other cetaceous Animals; 
as also the Larynx or Throtle, whether answerable 
unto that of Dolphins and Porposes in the strange 
composure and figure which it maketh. What figure 
the stomack maintained in this Animal of one jaw 
of teeth, since in Porposes, which abound in both, the 
ventricle is trebly divided, and since in that formerly 
taken nothing was found but Weeds and a Loligo. 
The heart, lungs, and kidneys had not escaped ; 
wherein are remarkable differences from Animals of 
the land, likewise what humor the bladder contained, 
but especially the seminal parts, which might have 
determined the difference of tiiat humour; from this 
which beareth its name. 

In vain it was to rake for Ambergreece in the panch 
of this Leviathan^ as Greenland discoverers, and attests 
of experience dictate, that they sometimes swallow 
great lumps thereof in the Sea; insufferable fetour 
denying that enquiry. And yet if, as Paracelsus 
Cuidukis encourageth, Ordure makes the best Musk, and from 
req'uiiibeV the most fetid substances may be drawn the most 
odoriferous Essences ; all that had not Vespasians Nose, 
might boldly swear, here was a subject fit for such 



Compendiously of sundry Tenants concerning 
other Animals, which examined, prove 
either false or dubious. 

1. A ND first from great Antiquity, and before the 
/ \ Melody of Syrens, the Musical note of 

A. jL. Swans hath been commended, and that they 
sing most sweetly before their death. For thus we 
read in PZa^o, that from the opinion of Metempsucho&is^ 
or transmigration of the souls of men into the bodies 
of beasts most sutable unto their humane condition, 
after his death, Orpheus the Musician became a Swan. 
Thus was it the bird of Apollo the god of Musick by 
the Greeks \ and an Hieroglyphick of musick among the 
Egyptians, from whom the Greeks derived the concep- 
tion ; hath been the affirmation of many Latines, and 
hath not wanted assertors almost from every Nation. 

All which notwithstanding, we find this relation o/Swans, 
doubtfully received by jElian, as an hear-say account ^"„gi„"'' 
by Bellonius, as a false one by Pliny, expresly refuted ^^f"^^ ^''^^• 
by Myndius in Athenctiis ; and severely rejected by 
Scaliger ; whose words unto Cardan are these : De 
Cygixi vero cantu suavissimo quern cnm parente menda- 
ciorum Grcecia jactare ausus est, ad Ludani tribunal, 
apiid qnem novi aliquid dicas, statuo. Authors also 
that countenance it, speak not satisfactorily of it. 
Some affirming they sing not till they die ; some that 
they sing, yet die not. Some speak generally, as 
though this note were in all ; some but particularly, 
as though it were only in some ; some in places remote, 
and where we can have no trial of it ; others in places 
where every experience can refute it ; as Aldrovandxis 


CHAP, upon relation delivered, concerning the jNIusick of the 
XXV'II Swans on tlie river of Thames near London. 
Thefisura- Now that whicli countenanceth, and probably con- 
uontoht fj,.,^eth this opinion, is the strange and unusual con- 
Kikt,a»d formation of the wind pipe, or vocal organ in this 
mon'swans. auiuial ; obscrved first by Aldrovandus^ and conceived 
by some contrived for this intention. For in its 
length it far exceedeth the gullet ; and hath in the 
chest a sinuous revolution, that is, when it ariseth 
from the lungs, it ascendeth not directly unto the 
throat, but descending first into a capsulary reception 
of the breast bone ; by a Serpentine and Trumpet 
recurvation it ascendeth again into the neck ; and so 
bv the length thereof a great quantity of air is received, 
and by the figure thei-eof a Musical modulation effected. 
But to speak indifferently, this formation of the 
Weazon, is not peculiar unto the Swan, but common 
also unto the Platea or Shovelard, a bird of no 
Musical throat ; And as Aldwvandus confesseth, may 
thus be contrived in the Swan to contain a larger stock 
of air, whereby being to feed on weeds at the bottom, 
they might the longer space detain their heads under 
water. But were this formation peculiar, or had they 
unto this eff'ect an advantage from this part : yet have 
they a known and open disadvantage from another; 
that is, a flat bill. For no Latirostrous animal (whereof 
nevertheless there are no slender numbers) were ever 
commended for there note, or accounted among those 
animals which have been instructed to speak. 

When therefore we consider the dissention of 
Authors, the falsity of relations, the indisposition 
of the Organs, and the immusical note of all we ever 
beheld or heard of; if generally taken and compre- 
hending all Swans, or of all places, we cannot assent 


thereto. Surely he that is bit with a Tarantula, shall CHAP. 
never be cured by this Musick ; and with the same XXVII 
hopes we expect to hear the harmony of the Spheres, 

2. That there is a special propriety in the flesh ofthe 
of Peacocks, roast or boiled, to preserve a long time """"^ 
incorrupted, hath been the assertion of many; stands 
yet confirmed by Austin^ De Civitate Dei ; by Gygas 
Semp-onius^ in Aldrovandus ; and the same experiment 
we can confirm our selves, in the brawn or fleshly parts 
of Peacoks so hanged up with thred, that they touch 
no place whereby to contract a moisture ; and hereof 
we have made trial both in summer and winter. The 
reason, some, I perceive, attempt to make out from 
the siccity and driness of its flesh, and some are content 
to rest in a secret propriety thereof. As for the siccity 
of the flesh, it is more remarkable in other animals, as 
Eagles, Hawks, and birds of prey; That it is a propriety 
or agreeable unto none other, we cannot with reason ad- 
mit : for the same preservation, or rather incorruption 
we have observed in the flesh of Turkeys, Capons, Hares, 
Partridge, Venison, suspended freely in the air, and after 
a year and a half, dogs have not refused to eat them. 

As for the other conceit, that a Peacok is ashamed 
when he looks on his legs, as is commonly held, and 
also delivered by Cardan ; beside what hath been said 
against it by Scaliger \ let them believe that hold 
specificial deformities ; or that any part can seem 
unhandsome to their eyes, which hath appeared good 
and beautiful unto their makers. The occasion of this 
conceit, might first arise from a common observation, 
that when they are in their pride, that is, advance 
their train, if they decline their neck to the ground, they 
presently demit, and let fall the same : which indeed 
they cannot otherwise do ; for contracting their body, 


CHAP, and being forced to draw in their foreparts to establish 

XXVI I the hinder in the elevation of the train ; if the foreparts 

depart and incline to the ground, the hinder grow too 

weak, and suffer the train to fall. And the same in 

some degree is also observable in Turkeys. 

o/tkestork. 3, That Storks are to be found, and will only live in 
llepublikes or free States, is a pettv conceit to advance 
the opinion of popular policies, and from Antipathies 
in nature, to disparage Monarchical government. But 
how far agreeable unto truth, let them consider who 
read in Pl'iny^ that among the Thessalians who were 
governed by Kings, and much abounded with Serpents, 
it was no less then capital to kill a Stork. That the 
Ancient Egyptiayis honoured them, whose government 
was from all times Monarchical. That Bellonius 
affirmeth, men make them nests in France. That 
relations make them common in Persia^ and the 

ler. 8. 7. domiuious of the great Turk. And lastly, how Jeremy 
the Prophet delivered himself unto his countreymen, 
whose government was at that time Monarchical. The 
Stork in the heaven knowing her appointed time, the 
Turtle, Crane and Swallow observe the time of their 
coming, but my people know not the judgment of 
the Lord. Wherein to exprobate their stupidity, he 
induceth the providence of Storks. Now if the bird 
had been unknown, the illustration had been obscure, 
and the exprobation not so proper. 

o/the 4. That a Bittor maketh that mugient noise, or as 

we term it Bumping, by putting its bill into a reed as 
most believe, or as Bellonuis and Aldrovaiidiis conceive, 
by putting the same in water or mud, and after a while 
retaining the air by suddenly excluding it again, is not 
so easily made out. For my own part, though after 
diligent enquiry, I could never behold them in this 



motion ; Notwithstanding by others whose observations CHAP. 
Ave have expressly requested, we are informed, that XXVII 
some have beheld them making this noise on the shore, 
their bills being far enough removed from reed or 
water; that is, first strongly attracting the air, and 
unto a manifest distention of the neck, and presently 
after with great contention and violence excluding the 
same again. As for what others affirm of putting 
their bill in water or mud, it is also hard to make out. 
For what may be observed from any that walketh the 
Fens, there is little intermission, nor any observable 
pawse, between the drawing in and sending forth of 
their breath. And the expiration or breathing forth 
doth not only produce a noise, but the inspiration or 
hailing in of the air, affordeth a sound that may be 
heard almost a flight-shot. 

Now the reason of this strange and peculiar noise, is 
deduced from the conformation of the wind-pipe, which 
in this bird is different from other volatiles. For at 
the upper extream it hath no fit Larinx, or throttle to 
qualify the sound, and at the other end, by two 
branches deriveth it self into the lungs. Which 
division consisteth only of Semicircular fibers, and 
such as attain but half way round the part ; By which 
formation they are dilatable into larger capacities, and 
are able to contain a fuller proportion of air ; which 
being with violence sent up the weazon, and finding no 
resistance by the Larinx, it issueth forth in a sound 
like that from caverns, and such as sometimes subter- 
raneous eruptions, from hollow rocks afford. As 
Aristotle observe th in a Problem, and is observable in sed. 15. 
pitchers, bottles, and that instrument which Aponensis 
upon that Problem describeth, wherewith in Aristotles 
time Gardiners affrighted birds. 


CHAP. Whether the large perforations of the extremities 
XXVII of the weazon, in the ahdonien, admitting large quantity 
of ayr within the cavity of its memhrans, as it doth 
in Frogs; may not much assist this mugiency or 
boation, may also be considered. For such as have 
beheld them making this noise out of the water, 
observe a large distention in their bodies; and their 
ordinary note is but like that of a Raven. 
o/i*M/s. 5. That whelps are blind nine days and then begin 
to see, is the common opinion of all, and some will be 
apt enough to descend unto oaths upon it. But this I 
find not answerable unto experience, for upon a strict 
observation of many, I have scarce found any that see 
the ninth day, few before the twelfth, and the eyes 
of some not open before the fourteenth day. And this 
is agreeable unto the determination of ^m^ofZ^ : who 
computeth the time of their anopsie or non-vision by 
that of their gestation. For some, saith he, do go 
with their young the sixt part of a year, two days over 
or under, that is, about sixty days or nine weeks ; and 
the whelps of these see not till twelve days. Some go 
the fifth part of a year, that is, seventy-one days, and 
these, saith he, see not before the fourteenth day. 
Others do go the fourth part of the year, that is, three 
whole months, and these, saith he, are without sight 
no less then seventeen days. Wherein although the 
accounts be different, vet doth the least thereof exceed 
the term of nine days, which is so generally received. 
And this compute of AristotU doth generally overthrow 
the common cause alleadged for this effect, that is, a 
precipitation or over-hasty exclusion before the birth 
be perfect, according unto the vulgar Adage, Festinans 
cants ccecos pant catulos : for herein the whelps of 
longest gestation, are also the latest in vision. The 


manner hereof is this. At the first littering, their CHAP. 
eyes are fastly closed, that is, by coalition or joining XXVII 
together of the eyelids, and so continue untill about 
the twelfth day ; at which time they begin to separate, 
and may be easily divelled or parted asunder; they 
open at the inward Canthis or greater Angle of the 
eye, and so by degrees dilate themselves quite open. 
An effect very strange, and the cause of much obscurity, 
wherein as yet mens enquiries are blind, and satisfac- 
tion not easily acquirable. What ever it be, thus 
much may we observe, those animals are only excluded 
without sight, which are multiparous and multifidous, 
that is, which have many at a litter, and have also 
their feet divided into many portions. For the 
Swine, although multiparous, yet being bisulcous, and 
only cloven hoofed, is not excluded in this manner, 
but farrowed with open eyes, as other bisulcous 

6. The Antipathy between a Toad and a Spider, o/a Toad 
and that they poisonously destroy each other, is very "'spider. 
famous, and solemn stories have been written of their 
combats ; wherein most commonly the victory is given 
unto the Spider, Of what Toads and Spiders it is to 
be understood would be considered. For the Phalan- 
gium and deadly Spiders, are different from those we 
generally behold in England. However the verity 
hereof, as also of many others, we cannot but desire ; 
for hereby we might be surely provided of proper 
Antidotes in cases which require them ; But what we 
have observed herein, we cannot in reason conceal ; 
who having in a Glass included a Toad with several 
Spiders, we beheld the Spiders without resistance to 
sit upon his head and pass over all his body ; which at 
last upon advantage he sAvallowed down, and that in 



CHAP, few hours, unto the number of seven. And in the like 
XXV'II manner will Toads also serve Bees, and are accounted 
enemies unto their Hives. 
o/a Lion 7. Whether a Lion be also afraid of a Cock, as is 
" "^ ■ related by many, and believed by most, were very easie 
in some places to make trial. Although how far they 
stand in fear of that animal, we may sufficiently under- 
, stand, from what is delivered by Camerarius, whose 
words in his Symbola are these : Nostris teviporibu.s in 
Aula serenusimi Princ'ipis BavaricF, unus ex Leonihis 
miris saUibus in vicinam ciijicsdain domus aream sese 
d'lmisit, nhi GaUinaceorum cantum aut clamores nihil 
rcformidans, ipsos una cum plurimis gaUinis devoravit. 
That is, In our time in the Court of the Prince of 
Bavaria, one of the Lions leaped down into a Neigh- 
bours yard, where nothing regarding the crowing or 
noise of the Cocks, he eat them up with many other 
Hens. And therefore a very unsafe defensative it is 
against the fury of this animal (and surely no better 
then Virginity or bloud Royal) which Pliny doth 
place in Cock broth : For herewith, saith he, whoever is 
De sacrificiis anointed (especially if Garlick be boiled therein) no 
etmagia. l^qji q^ Pauthcr will touch him. But of an higher 
nature it were, and more exalted Antipathy, if that 
were certain which Prochis delivers, that solary Dccmons, 
and such as appear in the shape of Lions, will disappear 
and vanish, if a Cock be presented upon them. 

8. It is generally conceived, an Ear-wig hath no 
Wings, and is reckoned amongst impennous insects by 
many ; but he that shall narrowly observe them, or 
shall with a needle put aside the short and sheathy 
cases on their back, may extend and draw forth two 
wings of a proportionable length for flight, and larger 
then in many flies. The experiment of Pennius is yet 


more perfect, who with a Rush or Bristle so pricked CHAP. 
them as to make them flie. XXVII 

9. That Worms are exanguious Animals, and such of Worms. 
as have no bloud at all, is the determination of Philo- 
sophy, the general opinion of Scholars, and I know 

not well to dissent from thence my self. If so, surely 
we want a proper term whereby to express that humour 
in them which so strictly resembleth bloud : and we 
refer it unto the discernment of others what to deter- 
mine of that red and sanguineous humor, found more 
plentifully about the Torquis or carneous Circle of 
great Worms in the Spring, affording in Linnen or 
Paper an indiscernable tincture from bloud. Or 
wherein that differeth from a vein, which in an 
apparent blew runneth along the body, and if dexter- 
ously pricked with a lancet, emitteth a red drop, which 
pricked on either side it will not readily afford. 

In the upper parts of Worms, there are likewise 
found certain white and oval Glandulosities, which 
Authors term Eggs, and in magnifying Glasses, they 
also represent them ; how properly, may also be en- 
quired ; since if in them there be distinction of Sexes, 
these Eggs are to be found in both. For in that 
which is presumed to be their coition, that is, their 
usual complication, or lateral adhesion above the 
ground, dividing suddenly with two Knives the adher- 
ing parts of both, I have found these Eggs in either. 

10. That Flies, Bees, etc. do make that noise or 
humming sound by their mouth, or as many believe 
with their wings only, would be more warily asserted, 
if we consulted the determination of Aristotle, who as 
in sundry other places, so more expresly in his book 
of respiration, affirmeth this sound to be made by the 
illision of an inward spirit upon a pellicle or little 



CHAP, membrane about the precinct or pectoral division of 
XXVII their body. If we also consider that a Bee or Flie, so 
it be able to move the body, will buz, though its head 
be off; that it will do the like if deprived of wings, 
reserving the head, whereby the body may be the 
better moved. And that some also which are big and 
lively will hum without either head or wing. 

Nor is it only the beating upon this little mem- 
brane, by the inward and con-natural spirit as Aristotle 
determines, or the outward air as Scaliger conceiveth, 
which afFordeth this humming noise, but most of the 
other parts may also concur hereto ; as will be mani- 
fest, if while they hum we lay our finger on the back 
or other parts ; for thereupon will be felt a serious or 
jarring motion like that which happeneth while we 
blow on the teeth of a comb through paper ; and so 
if the head or other parts of the trunk be touched with 
oyl, the sound will be much impaired, if not destroyed : 
for those being also dry and membranous parts, by 
attrition of the spirit do help to advance the noise : 
And therefore also the sound is strongest in dry 
weather, and very weak in rainy season, and toward 
winter ; for then the air is moist, and the inward spirit 
growing weak, makes a languid and dumb allision upon 
the parts. 
o/a Tainci. 11. There is found in the Summer a kind of Spider 
called a Tainct, of a red colour, and so little of body 
that ten of the largest will hardly outway a grain ; this 
by Country people is accounted a deadly poison unto 
Cows and Horses ; who, if they suddenly die, and 
swell thereon, ascribe their death hereto, and will 
commonly say, they have licked a Tainct. Now to 
satisfie the doubts of men we have called this tradition 
unto experiment; we have given hereof unto Dogs, 


Chickens, Calves and Horses, and not in the singular CHAP, 
number; yet never could find the least disturbance XXVII 
ensue. There must be therefore other causes enquired 
of the sudden death and swelling of cattle ; and perhaps 
this insect is mistaken, and unjustly accused for some 
other. For some there are which from elder times have 
been observed pernicious unto cattle, as the Buprestis 
or Burstcow, the Pityocampe or Eruca Pinuum, by 
DioscorideSy Galen and u^tius, the Staphilinus described 
by Aristotle and others, or those red Phalangious 
Spiders like Cantharides mentioned by Muff'etas. Now 
although the animal may be mistaken and the opinion 
also false, yet in the ground and reason which makes 
men most to doubt the verity hereof, there may be 
truth enough, that is, the inconsiderable quantity of 
this insect. For that a poison cannot destroy in so 
small a bulk, we have no reason to affirm. For if, as 
Leo Africanm reporteth, the tenth part of a grain of >^ 
the poison of Nubia, will dispatch a man in two hours ; granum 
if the bite of a Viper and sting of a Scorpion, is not ^ubiae. 
conceived to impart so much ; if the bite of an Asp 
will kill within an hour, yet the impression scarce 
visible, and the poison communicated not ponderable ; 
we cannot as impossible reject this way of destruc- 
tion; or deny the power of death in so narrow a 

12. Wondrous things are promised from the Glow- ry//,# 
worm ; from thence perpetual lights are pretended, ^^'^■-■^•""': 
and waters said to be distilled which alford a lustre 
in the night ; and this is asserted by Cardan, Alhertus, 
Gaudentinus, Mizaldus, and many more. But hereto 
we cannot with reason assent : for the light made by 
this animal depends much upon its life. For when 
they are dead they shine not, nor alwaies while they 




CHAP, live ; but are obscure or light, according to the pro- 
XXVII trusion of their luminous parts, as observation will 
instruct us. For this flammeous light is not over all 
the body, but only visible on the inwai-d side ; in a 
small white part near the tail. When this is full and 
seemeth protruded, there ariseth a flame of a circular 
figure and Emerald green colour ; which is discernable 
in any dark place in the day ; but when it falleth and 
seemeth contracted, the light disappcareth, and the 
colour of the part only remaineth. Now this light, as 
it appeareth and disappeareth in their life, so doth it go 
quite out at their death. As we have observed in some, 
which preserved in fresh grass have lived and shined 
eighteen days ; but as they declined, and the luminous 
humor dryed, their light grew languid, and at last 
went out with their lives. Thus also the Torpedo^ 
which alive hath a power to stupifie at a distance, 
hath none upon contaction being dead, as Galen and 
Rondelet'ius particularly experimented. And this hath 
also disappointed the mischief of those intentions, 
which study the advancement of poisons ; and fancy 
destructive compositions from Asps or Vipers teeth, 
from Scorpions or Hornet stings. For these omit 
their efficacy in the death of the individual, and act 
but dependantly on their forms. And thus far also 
those Philosophers concur with us, which held the Sun 
and Stars were living creatures, for they conceived 
their lustre depended on their lives ; but if they ever 
died, their light must also perish. 

It were a Notable piece of Art to translate the light 
from the Bononian Stone into another Body ; he that 
would attempt to make a shining Water from Glow- 
worms, must make trial when the Splendent part is 
V fresh and turgid. For even from the great American 


Glow-worms^ and Flaming Flies, the light declineth as CHAP. 
the luminous humor dryeth. XXVII 

Now whether the light of animals, which do not 
occasionally shine from contingent causes, be of Kin 
unto the light of Heaven ; whether the invisible flame of 
life received in a convenient matter, may not become 
visible, and the diffused astherial light make little 
Stars by conglobation in idoneous parts of the com- 
positum : whether also it may not have some original 
in the seed and spirit analogous unto the Element of 
Stars, whereof some glympse is observable in the little 
refulgent humor, at the first attempts of formation : 
Philosophy may yet enquire. 

True it is, that a Glow-worm will afford a faint 
light, almost a days space when many will conceive it 
dead ; but this is a mistake in the compute of death, 
and term of disanimation ; for indeed, it is not then 
dead, but if it be distended will slowly contract it self 
again, which when it cannot do, it ceaseth to shine 
any more. And to speak strictly, it is no easie matter 
to determine the point of death in Insects and Crea- 
tures who have not their vitalities radically confined 
unto one part ; for they are not dead when they cease 
to move or afford the visible evidences of life ; as may 
be observed in Flies, who when they appear even 
desperate and quite forsaken of their forms ; by vertue 
of the Sun or warm ashes will be revoked unto life, 
and perform its functions again. 

Now whether this lustre, a while remaining after 
death, dependeth not still upon the first impression, 
and light communicated or raised from an inward 
spirit, subsisting a while in a moist and apt recipient, 
nor long continuing in this, or the more remarkable 
Indian Glow-worm ; or whether it be of another 




N'emalab k 



A Ha(u>a! 
o/ genera- 
lion in Ho- 

Nature, and proceedeth from different causes of illumi- 
nation ; yet since it confessedly subsisteth so little a 
while after their lives, how to make perpetual lights, 
and sublunary moons thereof as is pretended, we ration- 
ally doubt, though not so sharply deny, with Scaliger 
and Muffetus. 

13. The wisdom of the Pismire is magnified by all, 
and in the Panegyricks of their providence we alwaies 
meet with this, that to prevent the growth of Corn 
which they store up, they bite off the end thereof: 
And some have conceived that from hence they have 
their name in Hebrew : From whence ariseth a conceit 
that Corn will not grow if the extreams be cut or 
broken. But herein we find no security to prevent 
its germination ; as having made trial in grains, whose 
ends cut off have notwithstanding suddenly sprouted, 
and accordingly to the Law of their kinds; that is, 
the roots of barley and oats at contrary ends, of wheat 
and rye at the same. And therefore some have 
delivered that after rainy weather thev dry these 
grains in the Sun ; which if effectual, we must conceive 
to be made in a high degree and above the progression 
of Malt; for that Malt will grow, this year hath in- 
formed us, and that unto a perfect ear. 

And if that be true which is delivered by many, and 
we shall further experiment, that a decoction of Toad- 
stools if poured upon earth, will produce the same 
again: If Sow-thistles will abound in places manured 
with dung of Hogs, which feeds much upon that 
plant: If Horse-dung reproduceth oats; If winds and 
rains will transport the seminals of plants; it will not 
be easie to determine where the power of generation 
ceaseth. The forms of things may lie deeper then we 
conceive them; seminal principles may not be dead in 



of pints: iKit maMdkniig: ai tbe CHIP. 
sadietaKB to thdr ■! >iMi. sefcws 


Wkidi MtnvHfasUaA^ is 
iiie; it bcng m» readF 1 > ' « m »b m> t» 
> in A«t4dls; aad ke hosI dg^ 


HAT .^ J .- . : •? vdk rfoyaib 

tl*e Ice. - AiKwat^*'*^ 

i ; : - > . :swTi in 

■ ..•• ; . . - ; :-~: > . . ..« ■AT he 

-ned in C: .-n: ^ >- . jiar or two 

^V :-:':: :'■ _ C'-' .'^ ,- ':c - ' -: ■_: ,-''''■; white. c«- 

:'■ :.: \ - : .: :..-: . : > :. -V :;:.:■ . v ; • > . •.■.,■.: ->tion- 

-..\- !•;: -: :.:. ,,- . ■•;•;-." - .. -to it : 

Sir:;: .^:'::: :;■; :' :■. r.\.:. ^ .,. .:■ the 

L . s c . . „ . . : : : . larhite remaoDeth. 

Whe:; :: ^...eoat of tliegTauMlo,|gaUKtuic^ 

gtrm c: re. : ^ Fjc. a-^> -ijumpewlmiif informelh 


CHAP, us, seemed to many of doubt : for at the blunter end 

XXVIII it is not discovered after the Chicken is formed ; by 

this also the yelk and white are continued, whereby 

it may conveniently receive its nutriment from them 


Now that from such slender materials, nature should 
effect this jsroduction it is no more then is observed in 
other animals; and even in grains and kernels, the 
greatest part is but the nutriment of that generative 
particle, so disproportionable unto it. 
OfEift. A greater difficulty in the doctrine of Eggs, is, how 

the sperm of the Cock prolificates and makes the oval 
conception fruitful, or how it attaineth unto every 
Egg, since the vitellary or place of the yelk is very 
high : Since the ovary or part where the white in- 
volveth it, is in the second region of the matrix, which 
is somewhat long and inverted : Since also a Cock will 
in one day fertilate the whole racemation or cluster of 
Eggs, which are not excluded in many weeks after. 

But these at last, and how in the Cicatricula or little 
pale circle, formation first beginneth, how the Gran do 
or tredle, are but the poles and establishing particles 
of the tender membrans, firmly conserving the floating 
parts, in their proper places, with many other observ- 
ables, that ocular Philosopher, and singular discloser 
of truth, Dr. Harvey hath discovered, in that excel- 
lent discourse of Generation ; So strongly erected 
upon the two great pillars of truth, experience and 
solid reason. 

That the sex is discernable from the figure of Eggs, 

or that Cocks or Hens proceed from long or round 

ones, as many contend, experiment will easily frustrate. 

The Mgript'xans observed a better way to hatch 

their Eggs in Ovens, then the Bahylonians to roast 


them at the bottom of a sling, by swinging them CHAP. 
round about, till heat from motion had concocted XXVIII 
them ; for that confuseth all parts without any such 

Though slight distinction be made between boiled 
and roasted Eggs, yet is there no slender difference, 
for the one is much drier then the other : the Egg 
expiring less in the elixation or boiling ; whereas in 
the assation or roasting, it will sometimes abate a 
dragm ; that is, threescore grains in weight. So a 
new laid Egg will not so easily be boiled hard, because 
it contains a greater stock of humid parts ; which must 
be evaporated, before the heat can bring the inexhal- 
able parts into consistence. 

Why the Hen hatcheth not the Egg in her belly, or 
maketh not at least some rudiment thereof within her 
self, by the natural heat of inward parts, since the 
same is performed by incubation from an outward 
warmth aifter .? Why the Egg is thinner at one extream ? 
Why there is some cavity or emptiness at the blunter 
end ? Why we open them at that part ? Why the 
greater end is first excluded ? Why some Eggs are all 
red, as the Kestrils; some only red at one end, as 
those of Kites and Buzzards ? why some Eggs are 
not Oval but Round, as those of fishes ? etc. are 
problems, whose decisions would too much enlarge this 

That Snakes and Vipers do sting or transmit their o/Snakes, 
mischief by the tail, is a common expression not easily '^'^' 
to be justified ; and a determination of their venoms 
unto a part, wherein we could never find it ; the poison 
lying about the teeth, and communicated by bite, in 
such are destructive. And therefore when biting 
Serpents are mentioned in the Scripture, they are not 


CHAT, differentially set down from such as mischief by stings ; 

XXVIII nor can conclusions be made conformable to this 

opinion, because when the Rod of Moses was turned 

into a Serpent, God determinately commanded him to 

take up the same by the tail. 

Nor are all Snakes of such empoisoning qualities, 
as common opinion presumeth ; as is confirmable from 
the ordinary green Snake with us, from several histories 
of domestick Snakes, from Ophiophagous nations, and 
such as feed upon Serpents. 

Surely the destructive delusion of Satan in this 
shape, hath much enlarged the opinion of their mis- 
chief. Which notwithstanding was not so high with 
the heathens, in whom the Devil had wrought a better 
opinion of this animal, it being sacred unto the 
Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, and the common 
symbole of sanity. In the shape whereof jEsculapiia 
the God of health appeared unto the Romans, accom- 
panied their Embassadors to Rome from Epidannis; 
and the same did stand in the Tibenne Isle upon the 
Temple of jEsculapius. 

Some doubt many have of the Tarantula, or poisonous 
Spider of Culahr'ia, and that magical cure of the bite 
V thereof by Musick. But since we observe that many 
attest it from experience : Since the learned Kircherius 
hath positively averred it, and set down the songs and 
tunes solemnly used for it ; Since some also affirm the 
Tarantula it self will dance upon certain stroaks, 
whereby they set their instruments against its poison ; 
we shall not at all question it. 

Much wonder is made of the Boramez, that strange 

y plant-animal or vegetable Lamb of Tartary, which 

Wolves delight to feed on, which hath the shape of a 

Lamb, afFordeth a bloody juyce upon breaking, and 


liveth while the plants be consumed about it. And CHAP. 
yet if all this be no more, then the shape of a Lamb XXVIII 
in the flower or seed, upon the top of the stalk, as we 
meet with the forms of Bees, Flies and Dogs in some 
others ; he hath seen nothing that shall much wonder 
at it. 

It may seem too hard to question the swiftness of 
Tigers, which hath therefore given names unto Horses, 
Ships and Rivers, nor can we deny what all have thus 
affirmed ; yet cannot but observe, that Jarobus Bont'nis •/ 
late Phvsitian at Java in the East Indies^ as an ocular 
and frequent witness is not afraid to deny it; to 
condemn Fliny who affirmeth it, and that indeed it 
is but a slow and tardigradous animal, preying upon 
advantage, and otherwise may be escaped. 

Many more there are whose serious enquiries we 
must request of others, and shall only awake considera- 
tions. Whether that common opinion that Snakes do 
breed out of the back or spinal marrow of man, doth 
build upon any constant root or seed in nature ; or 
did not arise from contingent generation, in some 
single bodies remembred by Fliny or others, and might 
be paralleld since in living corruptions of the guts and 
other parts ; which regularly proceed not to putrifac- 
tions of that nature. 

Whether the Story of the Rem.ora be not unreason- 
ably amplified ; whether that of Bernacles and Goose- 
trees be not too much enlarged ; whether the common 
history of Bees will hold, as large accounts have de- 
livered ; whether the brains of Cats be attended with 
such destructive malignities, as Dioscorides and others 
put upon them. 

As also whether there be not some additional help 
of Art, unto the Numismatical and Musical shells, 


CHAP, which we sometimes meet with in conchjlious collec- 

XXVIII tions among us ? 

^Vhether the fasting spittle of man be poison unto 
Snakes and Vipers, as experience hath made us doubt ? 
Whether the Nightingals setting with her breast 
against a thorn, be any more then that she placeth 
some prickels on the outside of her nest, or roosteth in 
thorny and prickly places, where Serpents may least 
approach her? Whether Mice may be bred by putri- 
faction as well as univocall production, as may be easily 
believed, if that receit to make Mice out of wheat will 
Helm Imago hold, which Heljuont hath delivered. Whether Quails 
ennen i, t c. ^^^^ ^^^ idiosyncracy or peculiarity of constitution, 
do innocuously feed upon Hellebore, or rather some- 
time but medically use the same; because we perceive 
that Stares, which are commonly said harmlessly to 
feed on Hemlock, do not make good the tradition ; 
and he that observes what vertigoes, cramps and 
convulsions follow thereon in these animals, will be 
of our belief. 


Of many popular and received Tenents 

concerning Man, which examined, 

prove either false or dubious. 

Of the Erectness of Man. 


HAT only Man hath an Erect figure, and CHAP 
for to behold and look up toward heaven, I 
according to that of the Poet, 

Pronaque cum spectant anirnalia ccetera terrain, 
Os homini sublime dedit, calumque tueri 
Jussit, et erectos ad sydera tollere vuUus, 

is a double assertion, whose first part may be true, if 

we take Erectness strictly, and so as Galen hath defined 

it ; for they only, saith he, have an Erect figure, whose ir/iatyi^'e 

spine and thigh-bone are carried in right lines ; and so '"'l^"Zfiy 

indeed of any we yet know, Man only is Erect. For ^'"^• 

the thighs of other animals do stand at Angles with 

their spine, and have rectangular positions in Birds, 

and perfect Quadrupeds. Nor doth the Frog, though 

stretched out, or swimming, attain the rectitude of 

J/a/i, or carry its thigh without all angularity. And 

thus is it also true, that Man only sitteth, if we define 





sciante or 


sitting to be a firmation of the body upon the Ischias : 
wherein if the position be just and natural, the Thigh- 
bone lieth at right angles to the Spine, and the Leg- 
bone or Tibia to the Thigh. For others when they 
seem to sit, as Dogs, Cats, or Lions, do make unto 
their Spine acute angles with their Thigh, and acute 
to the Thigh with their Shank. Thus is it likewise 
true, what Aristotle aliedgeth in that Problem ; why 
Man alone suffereth pollutions in the Night, because 
Man only lyeth upon his Back ; if we define not the 
same by every supine position, but when the Spine is 
in rectitude with the Thigh, and both with the arms 
lie parallel to the Horizon : so that a line through 
their Navel will pass through the Zenith and Centre 
of the Earth. And so cannot other Animals lie upon 
their Backs : for though the Spine lie parallel with 
the Horizon, yet will their Legs incline, and lie at 
angles unto it. And upon these three divers positions 
in Man, wherein the Spine can only be at right lines 
with the Thigh, arise those remarkable postures, 
prone, supine and erect ; which are but differenced in 
situation, or in angular postures upon the Back, the 
Belly and the Feet. 

But if Erectness be popularly taken, and as it is 
largely opposed unto proneness, or the posture of 
animals looking downwards, carrying their venters or 
opposite part to the Spine, directly towards the Earth, 
it may admit of question. For though in Serpents and 
Lizards we may truly allow a proneness, yet Galen 
acknowledgeth that perfect Quadrupeds, as Horses, 
Oxen and Camels, are but partly prone, and have some 
part of Erectness. And Birds or flying Animals, are 
so far from this kind of proneness, that they are almost 
Erect ; advancing the Head and Breast in their pro- 


gression, and only prone in the Act of volitation or CHAP, 
flying. And if that be true which is delivered of the I 
Pengin or Atiser Magellaniais, often described in ohurveaUo 
Maps about those Straits, that they go Erect h^e g^',^'"j^'^^ 
Men, and with their Breast and Belly do make one Mergus 
line perpendicular unto the axis of the Earth ; it will "^^°'^' 
almost make up the exact Erectness of Man. Nor 
will that Insect come very short which we have often 
beheld, that is, one kind of Locust which stands not 
prone, or a little inclining upward, but in a large 
Erectness, elevating alwaies the two fore Legs, and 
sustaining it self in the middle of the other four : by 
Zoographers called Mantis, and by the common people Descrihen 
of Provence, Prega^ Dio, the Prophet and praying «^'""""»'^- 
Locust ; as being generally found in the posture of 
supplication, or such as resembleth ours, when we lift y 
up our hands to Heaven. 

As for the end of this Erection ; to look up toward 
Heaven ; though confirmed by several testimonies, and 
the Greek Etymology of Man, it is not so readily to be 
admitted ; and as a popular and vain conceit was 
Anciently rejected by Galen-, who in his third, De iisu 
partium, determines, that Man is Erect, because he was 
made with hands, and was therewith to exercise all 
Arts, which in any other figure he could not have 
performed ; as he excellently declareth in that place, 
where he also proves that Man could have been made 
neither Quadruped nor Centaur. 

And for the accomplishment of this intention, that 
is, to look up and behold the Heavens, Man hath a 
notable disadvantage in the Eye lid ; whereof the 
upper is far greater than the lower, which abridgeth 
the sight upwards ; contrary to those of Birds, who 
herein have the advantage of Man : Lisomuch tliat the 


CHAP. Learned Plempius is bold to affirm, that if he had had 
I the formation of the Eye-lids, he would have contrived 

piemp. them quite otherwise. 

grap'hil'"° '^^^ ground and occasion of this conceit was a literal 
apprehension of a figurative expression in Plato, as 
GaleJi thus delivers ; To opinion that Ma7i is Erect to 
look up and behold the Heavens, is a conceit only fit 
for those that never saw the Fu<th Uranoscopus, that 
is, the Beholder of Heaven ; which hath its Eyes so 
placed, that it looks up directly to Heaven ; which 
Man doth not, except he recline, or bend his head 
backward : and thus to look up to Heaven, agreeth 
not only unto Men, but Asses; to omit Birds with 
long necks, which look not only upwards, but round 
about at pleasure. And therefore Meji of this opinion 
understood not Plato when he said that Man doth 
Sursum aspicere ; for thereby was not meant to gape, 
or look upward with the Eye, but to have his thoughts 
sublime; and not only to behold, but speculate their 
Nature, with the Eve of the understandin";. 

Now although Galen in this place makes instance but 
in one, yet are the other fishes, whose Eyes regard the 
Heavens, as Plane, and Cartilagineous Fishes; SisPecti- 
nals, or such as have their bones made laterally like a 
Comb ; for when they apply themselves to sleep or rest 
upon the white side, their Eyes on the other side look 
upward toward Heaven, For Birds, they generally carry 
their heads Erectly like Man, and have advantage in 
their upper Eye-lid ; and many that have long necks, and 
bear their heads somewhat backward, behold far more of 
the Heavens, and seem to look above the aequinoxial 
Circle. And so also in many Quadrupeds, although 
their progression be partly prone, yet is the sight of 
their Eye direct, not respecting the Earth but Heaven ; 


and make an higher Arch of altitude then our own. CHAP. 
The position of a Frog with his head above water I 
exceedeth these; for therein he seems to behold a 
large part of the Heavens, and the acies of his Eye to 
ascend as high as the Tropick ; but he that hath 
beheld the posture of a Bittor, will not deny that iiPoMc/ 
beholds almost the very Zenith. eur heads. 


Of the Heart. 

THAT the Heart of Man is seated in the left mw a 
side, is an asseveration, which strictly taken, i^'^piaceTL 
is refutable by inspection, whereby it appears ^" ^<"<>'- 
the base and centre thereof is in the midst of the 
chest; true it is, that the Mucro or Point thereof 
inclineth unto the left ; for by this position it giveth 
way unto the ascension of the midriff, and by reason 
of the hollow vein could not commodiously deflect 
unto the right. From which diversion, nevertheless 
we cannot so properly say tis placed in the left, as that 
it consisteth in the middle, that is, where its centre 
resteth ; for so do we usually say a Gnomon or Needle 
is in the middle of a Dial, although the extreams may 
respect the North or South, and approach the circum- 
ference thereof. 

The ground of this mistake is a general observation 
from the pulse or motion of the Heart., which is more 
sensible on this side ; but the reason hereof is not to 
be drawn from the situation of the Heart., but the 
site of the left ventricle wherein the vital Spirits are 
laboured ; and also the great Artery that conveieth 



CHAP, them out ; both which are situated on the left. Upon 
II this reason Epithems or cordial Applications are justly 
applied unto the left Breast ; and the Wounds under 
the fifth Rib may be more suddenly destructive if 
made on the sinister side, and the Spear of the Souldier 
that peirced our Saviour, is not improperly described, 
when Painters direct it a little towards the left. 

The other ground is more particular and upon 
inspection ; for in dead Bodies especially lying upon the 
Spine, the Heart doth seem to incline unto the left. 
Which happeneth not from its proper site; but besides 
its sinistrous gravity, is drawn that way by the great 
Artery, which then subsideth and haleth the Heart 
unto it. And therefore strictly taken, the Heart is 
seated in the middle of the Chest ; but after a careless 
and inconsiderate aspection, or according to the readiest 
sense of pulsation, we shall not quarrel, if any affirm 
it is seated toward the left. And in these considera- 
tions must Ai-'istotle be salved, when he affirmeth the 
Heart of Man is placed in the left side, and thus in 
a popular acception may we receive the Periphrasis 
of Perstus ; when he taketh the part under the left 
— Leva Pap for the Heart-, and if rightly apprehended, it 
mam[ikE coHcemeth not this controversie, when it is said in 
Ecdesiastes : The Heart of a wise Man is in the right 
side, but that of a Fool in the left, for thereby may be 
implied, that the Heart of a wise Man delighteth in 
the right way, or in the path of Vertue ; that of a 
Fool in the left or road of Vice; according to the 
mystery of the Letter of Pythafforas, or that expression 
in Jonah, concerning sixscore thousand, that could not 
discern between their right hand and their left, or 
knew not good from evil. 

That assertion also that Man proportionally hath 


the largest brain, I did I confess somewhat doubt; and CHAP. 
conceived it might have failed in Birds, especially such II 
as having little Bodies, have yet large Cranies, and 
seem to contain much Brain, as Snipes, Woodcocks, etc. 
But upon trial I find it very true. The Brains of a 
]\Ian, Archangelus and Bauhinus observe, to weigh four 
pound, and sometime five and a half. If therefore a 
Man weigh one hundred and fourty pounds, and his 
Brain but five, his Weight is 27. times as much as his 
brain, deducting the weight of that five pound which 
is allowed for it. Now in a Snipe, which weighed four 
ounces two dragnis, I find the Brains to weigh but half 
a dragm ; so that the weight of the Body (allowing 
for the Brain) exceeded the weight of the Brain, sixty 
seven times and an half. 

More controvertible it seemeth in the Brains of 
Sparrows, whose Cranies are rounder, and so of larger 
capacity : and most of all in the Heads of Birds, upon 
the first formation in the Egg, wherein the Head seems 
larger then all the Body, and the very Eyes almost as 
big as either. A Sparrow in the total we found to 
weigh seven dragms and four and twenty grans; 
whereof the Head a dragm, but the Brain not fifteen 
grains; which answereth not fully the proportion of 
the brain of Man. And therefore it is to be taken 
of the whole Head with the Brains, when Scaliger Histor. 
objecteth that the Head of a Man is the fifteenth part f^^'^^' 
of his Body ; that of a Sparrow, scarce the fifth. 




PUurisie is. 

Of Pleurisies. 

THAT Pleurisies are only on the left side, is a 
popular Tenent not only absurd but dangerous. 
From the misapprehension hereof, men omit- 
ting the opportunity of remedies, which otherwise they 
would not neglect. Chiefly occasioned by the Ignor- 
ance oi Anatomy and the extent of the part affected ; 
which in an exquisite Pleurisie is determined to be the 
skin or membrane which invested the Ribs, for so it is 
defined, Inflammatio memhrance castas siiccingentis \ An 
Inflammation, either simple, consisting only of an hot 
and sanguineous affluxion ; or else denominable from 
other humours, according to the predominancy of melan- 
choly, flegm, or choler. The membrane thus inflamed, 
is properly called Pleura ; from whence the disease hath 
its name ; and this investeth not only one side, but 
overspreadeth the cavity of the chest, and affordeth a 
common coat unto the parts contained therein. 

Now therefore the Pleura being common unto both 
sides, it is not reasonable to confine the inflammation 
unto one, nor strictly to determine it is alwaies in the 
side ; but sometimes before and behind, that is, inclin- 
ing to the Spine or Breast-bone ; for thither this 
Coat extendeth ; and therefore with equal propriety 
we may affirm, that ulcers of the lungs, or iVpostems 
of the brain do happen only in the left side ; or that 
Ruptures are confinable unto one side, whereas the 
Peritoneum or Rib of the Belly may be broke, or its 
perforations relaxed in either. 



Of the Ring-finger. 

A N opinion there is, which magnifies the fourth 
/\ Finger of the left Hand ; presuming therein a 
X jL cordial relation, that a particular vessel, nerve, 
vein or artery is conferred thereto from the heart, and 
therefore that especially hath the honour to bear our 
Rings. Which was not only the Christian practice 
in Nuptial contracts, but observed by Heathens, as 
Alexander ah Alexandra, Gell'uis, Macrobins and Pierius 
have delivered, as Levinus Lemnius hath confirmed, 
who afiirms this peculiar vessel to be an artery, and 
not a Nerve, as Antiquity hath conceived it ; adding 
moreover that Rings hereon peculiarly affect the Heart; 
that in Lipothymies or swoundings he used the frica- 
tion of this Finger with saffron and gold : that the 
ancient Physitians mixed up their Medicines here- 
with ; that this is seldom or last of all affected with the 
Gout, and when that becometh nodous. Men continue 
not long after. Notwithstanding all which we remain 
unsatisfied, nor can we think the reasons alleadged 
sufficiently establish the preheminency of this Finger. 

For first, Concerning the practice of Antiquity, the 
custom was not general to wear their Rings either on 
this hand or Finger ; for it is said, and that emphati- 
cally in Jeremiah, Si fuerit Jeconias filius Joachim regis 
Judm annuliLS in manu dextra med, inde evallam eujn : 
Though Coniah the son of Joachim King of Jndah, 
were the signet on my right Hand, yet would I pluck 
thee thence. So is it observed by Pliny, that in the 
portraits of their Gods, the Rings were worn on the 
Finger next the Thnnh ; that the Romans wore them 


CHAP, also upon their little Finger, as Hero is described in 

IV Petronius ; some wore them on the middle Fhiger, as 

the ancient Gaicles and Britans ; and some upon the 

fore-Finffer, as is deduceable from Julius Pollux : who 

names that Ring Corionos, 

Again, That the practice of the ancients, had any 
such respect of cordiality or reference unto the Heart, 
Rings '^^ill much be doubted, if we consider their Rings were 

anciently made of iron ; such was that oi Prometheus^ who is con- 
ceived the first that brought them in use. So, as Pliny 
affirmeth,for many years the Senators of Rome did not 
wear any Rings of Gold ; but the slaves wore generally 
Iron Rings until their manumission or preferment to 
some dignity. That the Lacedemonians continued their 
Iron Rings unto his dales, Plimj also deliveretii, and 
surely they used few of Gold ; for beside t\it\X Lycurgus 
prohibited that mettal, we read in Athenccus, that 
having a desire to guild the face of Apollo, they en- 
quired of the Oracle where they might purchase so much 
Gold; and were directed unto Croesus King of Lydia. 

Moreover whether the Ancients had any such inten- 
tion, the grounds which they conceived in Vein, Nerve 
or Artery, are not to be justified, nor will inspection 
confirm a peculiar vessel in this Finger. For as 
Anatomy informeth, the Basilica vein dividing into 
two branches below the cubit, the outward sendeth 
two surcles unto the thumb, two unto the fore-finger, 
and one unto the middle finger in the inward side ; 
the other branch of the Basilica sendeth one surcle 
unto the outside of the middle finger, two unto the 
Ring, and as many unto the little fingers ; so that 
they all proceed from the Basilica, and are in equal 
numbers derived unto every one. In the same manner 
are the branches of the axillary artery distributed into 


the Hand ; for below the cubit it divideth into two CHAP. 
parts, the one running along the Radius, and passing IV 
by the wrest or place of the pulse, is at the Fingers 
subdivided into three Branches; whereof the first con- 
veyeth two surcles unto the Thumb, the second as 
many to the ioxQ-Fhiger, and the third one unto the 
middle Finger ; the other or lower division of the 
artery descendeth by the ulna, and furnisheth the 
other Fingers; that is the middle with one surcle, and 
the Ring and little Fingers with two. As for the ivhctcetkt 
Nerves, they are disposed much after the same manner, ^<:'2" 
and have their original from the Brain, and not the 
Heart, as many of the Ancients conceived; which is 
so far from affording Nerves unto other parts, that it 
receiveth very few it self from the sixth conjugation, 
or pair of Nerves in the Brain. 

Lastly, These propagations being communicated 
unto both Hands, we have no greater reason to wear 
our Rings on the left, then on the right ; nor are 
there cordial considerations in the one, more then the 
other. And therefore when Forestus for the stanching 
of blood makes use of Medical applications unto the 
fourth Finger, he confines not that practice unto the 
left, but varieth the side according to the nostril bleed- 
ing. So in Feavers, where the Heart primarily suffereth, 
we apply Medicines unto the wrests of either arm ; so 
we touch the pulse of both, and judge of the affections 
of the Heart by the one as well as the other. And 
although in indispositions of Liver or Spleen, con- 
siderations are made in Phlebotomy respectively to 
their situation ; yet when the Heart is affected. Men 
have thought it as effectual to bleed on the right as 
the left ; and although also it may be thought, a 
nearer respect is to be had of the left, because the 


CHAP, great artery proceeds from the left ventricle, and so is 
IV nearer that arm ; it admits not that consideration. 
For under the channel bones the artery divideth into 
two great branches, from which trunk or point of 
division, the distance unto either Hand is equal, and 
the consideration also answerable. 

All which with many respective Niceties, in order 
unto parts, sides, and veines, are now become of less 
consideration, by the new and noble doctrine of the 
circulation of the blood. 

And therefore Macrohius discussing the point, hath 
alleadged another reason ; affirming that the gestation 
of Rings upon this Hand and Finger, might rather be 
used for their conveniency and preservation, then any 
cordial relation. For at first (saith he) it was both 
free and usual to wear Rings on either Hand ; but after 
that luxury encreased, when pretious gems and rich 
insculptures were added, the custom of wearing them 
on the right Hand was translated unto the left; for 
that Hand being less imployed, thereby they were best 
preserved. And for the same reason they placed them 
on this Finger ; for the Thumb was too active a Finger, 
and is commonly imployed with either of the rest: the 
Index or fore-Finger was too naked whereto to commit 
their pretiosities, and hath the tuition of the Thumb 
scarce unto the second joint : the middle and little 
Finger they rejected as ext reams, and too big or too 
little for their Rings, and of all chose out the fourth, as 
being least used of any, as being guarded on either side, 
and having in most this peculiar condition, that it cannot 
be extended alone and by it self,but will be accompanied 
by some Finger on either side. And to this opinion 
assenteth Alexander ub Alexandra, Anmdum nnptialem 
prior (L'tas in sinistra fcrehat, crediderim ne attereretur. 


Now that which begat or promoted the common CHAP, 
opinion, was the common conceit that the Heart was IV 
seated on the left side ; but how far this is verified, we 
have before declared. The Egyptian practice hath 
much advanced the same, who unto this Finger derived ^ 
a Nerve from the Heart ; and therefore the Priest 
anointed the same with precious oyls before the Altar. 
But how weak Anatomists they were, which were so (■ 
good Embalmers, we have already shewed. And 
though this reason took most place, yet had they 
another which more commended that practice : and 
that was the number whereof this Finger was an 
Hieroglyphick. For by holding down the fourth 
Finger of the left Hand, while the rest were extended, 
they signified the perfect and magnified number of six. 
For as Pierlus hath graphically declared. Antiquity 
expressed numbers by the Fingers of either Hand : on 
the left they accounted their digits and articulate 
numbers unto an hundred ; on the right Hand hundreds 
and thousands ; the depressing this Finger, which in 
the left Hand implied but six, in the right indigitated 
six hundred. In this way of numeration, may we 
construe that of Juvenal concerning Nestor, 

Qui per tot scecula mortem 

DistuUt, atque suos jam dextra computat annos. 

And however it were intended, in this sense it will 
be very elegant what is delivered of Wisdom, Prov. 3. 
Length of daies is in her right Hand, and in her left 
Hand riches and honour. 

As for the observation of Lcmniiis an eminent 
Physitian, concerning the Gout ; however it happened 
in his Country, we may observe it otherwise in ours; 
that is, that chiragrical persons do suffer in this Finger Hand-Gouty 
as well as in the rest, and sometimes first of all, and ^'"""'^ 


CHAP, sometimes no where else. And for the mixing up 
IV medicines herewith ; it is rather an argument of 
opinion, then any considerable effect ; and we as 
highly conceive of the practice in D'lapahnn, that is, in 
the making of that plaister, to stir it with the stick 
of a Palm. 

Of the right and left Hand. 

IT is also suspicious, and not with that certainty to 
be received, what is generally believed concerning 
the right and left hand; that Men naturally 
make use of the right, and that the use of the other 
is a digression or aberration from that way which 
nature generally intendeth. We do not deny that almost 
all Nations have used this hand, and ascribed a pre- 
heminence thereto : hereof a remarkable passage there 
is in the 48. of Genesis, And Joseph took them both, 
Ephraim in his right hand towards Israels left hand, 
and Manasses in his left hand towards Israels right 
hand, and Israel stretched out his right hand and laid 
it upon Ephraims head, who was the younger, and his 
left hand upon Manasses head, guiding his hands wit- 
tingly, for Manasses was the first-born ; and when 
Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand upon 
the head of Ephraim, it displeased him, and he held 
up his fathers hand to remove it from Ephraims head 
unto Manasses head, and Joseph said, Not so my 
father, for this is the first-born, put thy right hand 
upon his head : The like appeareth from the ordinance 
of Moses in the consecration of their Priests, Then 


shalt thou kill the Ram, and take of his blood, and CHAP, 
put it upon the tip of the right ear of Aaron, and V 
upon the tip of the right ear of his sons, and upon the 
thumb of the right hand, and upon the great toe of 
the right foot, and sprinkle the blood on the Altar 
round about. That the Persians were wont herewith 
to plight their faith, is testified by Diodorus : That 
the Greeks and Romam made use hereof, beside the 
testimony of divers Authors, is evident from their 
custom of discumbency at their meals, which was upon 
their left side, for so their right hand was free, and 
ready for all service. As also from the conjunction of 
the rinht hands and not the left observable in the 
Roman medals of concord. Nor was this only in use 
with divers Nations of Men, but was the custom of 
whole Nations of Women ; as is deduceable from the^ 
Amazones in the amputation of their right breast, 
whereby they had the freer use of their bow. All 
which do seem to declare a natural preferment of the 
one unto motion before the other ; wherein notwith- 
standing: in submission to future information, Ave are 
unsatisfied unto great dubitation. 

For first, if there were a determinate prepotency in 
the risht, and such as ariseth from a constant root in 
nature, we might expect the same in other animals, 
whose parts are also differenced by dextrality ; wherein 
notwithstanding we cannot discover a distinct and 
complying account ; for we find not that Horses^ Buls, 
or Mules, are generally stronger on this side. As for 
Animals whose forelegs more sensibly supply the use 
of arms, they hold, if not an equality in both, a pre- 
valency oft-times in the other, as Squirrels, Apes, and 
Monkies ; the same is also discemable in Parrets, who 
feed themselves more commonly by the left-leg, and 




IVheiue the 
activity in 
men pro- 

filius dextrx. 

Men observe that the Eye of a Tumbler is biggest, 
not constantly in one, but in the bearing side. 

That there is also in Men a natural prepotency in 
the right, we cannot with constancy affirm, if we make 
observation in children ; who permitted the freedom 
of both, do oft-times confine unto the left, and are 
not without great difiiculty restrained from it. And 
therefore this prevalency is either uncertainly placed 
in the laterality, or custom determines its differency. 
Which is the resolution of Arhtotle in that Problem, 
which enquires why the right side being better then 
the left, is equal in the senses? because, saith he, the 
right and left do differ by use and custom, which have 
no place in the senses. For right and left as parts 
inservient unto the motive faculty, are differenced by 
degrees from use and assuefaction, according whereto 
the one grows stronger and oft-times bigger then the 
other. But in the senses it is otherwise ; for they 
acquire not their perfection by use or custom, but at 
the first we equally hear and see with one Eye, as well 
as with another. And therefore, were this indifferency 
permitted, or did not constitution, but nature deter- 
mine dextrality, there would be many more Scevolaes 
then are delivered in story ; nor needed we to draw 
examples of the left, from the sons of the right hand ; 
as we read of seven thousand in the Army of the 
Benjam'ites. True it is, that although there be an 
indifFerency in either, or a prevalency indifferent in 
one, yet is it most reasonable for uniformity, and 
sundry respective uses, that Men should apply them- 
selves to the constant use of one ; for there will other- 
wise arise anomalous disturbances in manual actions, 
not only in civil and artificial, but also in Military 
affairs, and the several actions of war. 


Secondly, The grounds and reasons alleadged for the CHAP, 
right, are not satisfactory, and afford no rest in their V 
decision. Scaliger finding a defect in the reason of 
Aristotle^ introduceth one of no less deficiency himself; 
Ratio materialis (saith he) sanguinis crassitudo simul et 
rnultitudo ; that isj the reason of the vigour of this 
side, is the crassitude and plenty of blood ; but this 
is not sufficient; for the crassitude or thickness of 
blood affordeth no reason why one arm should be 
enabled before the other, and the plenty thereof, why 
both not enabled equally. Fallopius is of another 
conceit, deducing the reason from the Azygos or ve7ia 
nine paii, a large and considerable vein arising out of 
the cava or hollow vein, before it enters the right 
ventricle of the Heart, and placed only in the right 
side. But neither is this perswasory ; for the Azygos 
communicates no branches unto the arms or legs on 
either side, but disperseth into the Ribs on both, and 
in its descent doth furnish the left Emulgent with one 
vein, and the first vein of the loins on the right side 
with another ; which manner of derivation doth not con- 
fer a peculiar addition unto either. CcbUus Rodiginus 
undertaking to give a reason of Ambidexters and Left- 
handedMen, delivereth a third opinion : Men, saith he, 
are Ambidexters, and use both Hands alike, when the 
heat of the Heart doth plentifully disperse into the 
left side, and that of the Liver into the right, and the 
spleen be also much dilated ; but Men are Left-handed 
when ever it happeneth that the Heart and Liver are 
seated ^a the left-side ; or when the Liver is on the 
right side, yet so obducted and covered with thick 
skins, that it cannot diffuse its vertue into the right. 
Which reasons are no way satisfactory ; for herein the 
spleen is injustly introduced to invigorate the sinister 


CHAP, side, which bcinp dilated it would rather infirm and 
V debilitate. As for any tunicles or skins which should 
hinder the Liver from enabling dextral parts ; we 
must not conceive it difFuseth its vertue by meet irra- 
diation, but by its veins and proper vessels, which 
common skins and teguments cannot impede. And 
for the seat of the Heart and Liver in one side, 
whereby Men become Left-handed^ it happcneth too 
rarely to countenance an effect so common ; for the 
seat of the Liver on the left side is monstrous, and 
rarely to be met with in the observations of Physi- 
tians. Others not considering ambidextrous and Left- 
handed Men, do totally submit unto the efficacy of the 
Liver ; which though seated on the right side, yet by 
the subclavian division doth equidistantly communi- 
cate its activity unto either Arm ; nor will it salve the 
doubts of observation ; for many are Right-handed 
whose Livers are weakly constituted, and many use the 
left, in whom that part is strongest ; and we observe in 
Apes, and other animals, whose Liver is in the right, 
no regular prevalence therein. 

And therefore the brain, especially the spinal marrow, 
which is but the brain prolonged, hath a fairer plea 
hereto ; for these are the principles of motion, wherein 
dextrality consists ; and are divided within and without 
the Crany. By which division transmitting Nerves 
respectively unto either side ; according to the indiff'er- 
ency, or original and native prepotency, there ariseth an 
equality in both, or prevalency on either side. And 
so may it be made out, what many may wonder at, 
why some most actively use the contrary Arm and 
Leg; for the vigour of the one dependeth upon the 
upper part of the spine, but the other upon the lower. 

And therefore many things are Philosophically de- 


livered concerning right and left, which admit of some CHAP. 
suspension. That a Woman upon a masculine concep- V 
tion advanceth her right Leg, will not be found to 
answer strick observation. That males are conceived 
in the right side of the womb, females in the left, 
though generally delivered, and supported by ancient 
testimony, will make no infallible account ; it happen- 
ing oft times that males and females do lie upon 
both sides, and Hermaphrodites for ought we know on 
either. It is also suspitious what is delivered concern- 
ing the right and left testicle, that males are begotten 
from the one, and females from the other. For though 
the left seminal vein proceedeth from the emulgent, 
and is therefore conceived to carry down a serous and 
feminine matter ; yet the seminal Arteries which send 
forth the active materials, are both derived from the 
great Artery. Beside this original of the left vein was 
thus contrived, to avoid the pulsation of the great 
Artery, over which it must have passed to attain unto 
the testicle. Nor can we easily infer such different effects 
from the divers situation of parts which have one end 
and office ; for in the kidneys which have one office, the 
right is seated lower then the left, whereby it lieth 
free, and giveth way unto the Liver. And therefore 
also that way which is delivered for masculine genera- 
tion, to make a strait ligature about the left testicle, 
thereby to intercept the evacuation of that part, de- 
serveth consideration. For one sufticeth unto genera- 
tion, as hath been observed in semicastration, and oft 
times in camous ruptures. Beside, the seminal ejacu- 
lation proceeds not immediately from the testicle, but ^<^'"« 
from the spermatick glandules ; and therefore Aristotle suUmay 
affirms (and reason cannot deny) that although there ^^^'^'^J' 
be nothing diffused from the testicles, an Horse or Bull be sett. 


CHAP, may generate after castration ; that is, from the stock 
V and remainder of seminal matter, already prepared and 
stored up in the Prostates or grandules of generation. 

Thirdly, Although we should concede a right and 
left in Nature, yet in this common and received 
account we may err from the proper acception ; mis- 
taking one side for another; calling that in Man and 
other animals the right which is the left, and that the 
left which is the right, and that in some things right 
and left, which is not properly either. 

For first the right and left, are not defined by 
Phylosophers according to common acception, that is, 
respectively from one Man unto another, or any con- 
stant site in each ; as though that should be the right 
in one, which upon confront or facing, stands athwart 
or diagonally unto the other ; but were distinguished 
according to the activity and predominant locomotion 
upon either side. Thus Aristotle in his excellent Tract 
de incessu animalium^ ascribeth six positions unto 
Animals, answering the three dimensions ; which he 
determineth not by site or position unto the Heavens, 
but by their faculties and functions ; and these are 
Imum summum, Jnte Reti-o, Dextra et Sbiistra : that is, 
the superiour part, where the aliment is received, that 
the lower extream, where it is last expelled ; so he 
termeth a Man a plant inverted ; for he supposeth the 
root of a Tree the head or upper part thereof, whereby 
it receiveth its aliment, although therewith it respects 
the Center of the Earth, but with the other the 
Zenith ; and this position is answerable unto longi- 
tude. Those parts are anteriour and measure pro- 
fundity, where the senses, especially the Eyes are 
placed, and those posterior which are opposite here- 
unto. The dextrous and sinistrous parts of the body, 


make up the latitude ; and are not certain and inaltei - CHAP, 
able like the other; for that, saith he, is the right side, V 
from whence the motion of the body beginneth, that 
is, the active or moving side; but that the sinister 
which is the weaker or more quiescent part. Of the 
same determination were the Platonicks and Pytha- 
goreans before him; who conceiving the heavens an 
animated body, named the East^ the right or dex- 
trous part, from whence began their motion : and thus 
the Greeks, from whence the Latins have borrowed their 
appellation, have named this hand Se^ia, denominating 
it not from the site, but office, from Se-^o/xac capio, that 
is, the hand which receiveth, or is usually implied in 
that action. 

Now upon these grounds we are most commonly 
mistaken, defining that by situation which they deter- 
mined by motion ; and giving the term of right hand 
to that which doth not properly admit it. For first, 
Many in their Infancy are sinistrously disposed, and 
divers continue all their life 'ApiaTcpoi, that is, left 
handed, and have but weak and imperfect use of the 
right ; now unto these, that hand is properly the right, 
and not the other esteemed so by situation. Thus may 
Aristotle be made out, when he affirmeth the right claw 
of Crabs and Lobsters is biggest, if we take the right 
for the most vigorous side, and not regard the relative 
situation : for the one is generally bigger then the 
other, yet not alwayes upon the same side. So may it 
be verified what is delivered by Scaliger in his Com- 
ment, that Palsies do oftnest happen upon the left 
side, if understood in this sense ; the most vigorous 
part protecting it self, and protruding the matter upon 
the weaker and less resistive side. And thus the Law 
of Common- Weals, that cut off the right hand of 






or fit/or 

Malefactors, if Philosophically executed, is impartial ; 
otherwise the amputation not equally punisheth all. 

Some are 'A/u,0tSe'^iot, that is, ambidextrous or right 
handed on both sides ; which happeneth only unto 
strong and Athletical bodies, whose heat and spirits 
are able to afford an ability unto both. And therefore 
Hippocrates saith, that Women are not ambidextrous, 
that is, not so often as Men ; for some are found, which 
indifferently make use of both. And so mav Aristotle 
say, that only Men are ambidexterous ; of this consti- 
tution was Asteropci'us in Homer, and PartJienopeics the 
Theban Captain in Statiiis: and of the same, do some 
conceive our Father Adam to have been, as being per- 
fectly framed, and in a constitution admitting least 
defect. Now in these Men the right hand is on both 
sides, and that is not the left which is opposite unto 
the right, according to common acception. 

Again, Some are 'A/j,(f)apt,a-repol, as Galen hath ex- 
pressed it ; that is, ambilevous or left-handed on both 
sides ; such as with agility and vigour have not the use 
of either : who are not gymnastically composed : nor 
actively use those parts. Now in these there is no 
right hand : of this constitution are many Women, 
and some Men, who though they accustom themselves 
unto either hand, do dexterously make use of neither. 
And therefore although the Political advice of Aristotle 
be very good, that Men should accustom themselves to 
the command of either hand : yet cannot the execution 
or performance thereof be general : for though there 
be many found that can use both, yet will there divers 
remain that can strenuously make use of neither. 

Lastly, These lateralities in Man are not only fal- 
lible, if relatively deternnned unto each other, but made 
in reference unto the heavens and (juarters of the 


Globe : for those parts are not capable of these condi- CHAP, 
tions in themselves, nor with any certainty respectively V 
derived from us, nor from them to us again. And 
first in regard of their proper nature, the heavens 
admit not these sinister and dexter respects; there 
being in them no diversity or difference, but a simplicity 
of parts, and equiformity in motion continually suc- 
ceeding each other ; so that from what point soever 
we compute, the account will be common unto the 
whole circularity. And therefore though it be plaus- -i 
ible, it is not of consequence hereto what is delivered ^ 
by Solinus. That Man was therefore a Microcosm or 
little World, because the dimensions of his positions 
were answerable unto the greater. For as in the 
Heavens the distance of the North and Southern pole, 
which are esteemed the superiour and inferiour points, 
is equal unto the space between the East and West, 
accounted the dextrous and sinistrous parts thereof; 
so is it also in Man, for the extent of his fathome or 
distance betwixt the extremity of the fingers of either 
hand upon expansion, is equal unto the space between 
the sole of the foot and the crown. But this doth but 
petionarily infer a dextrality in the Heavens, and we 
may as reasonably conclude a right and left laterality 
in the Ark or naval edifice of Noah. For the length 
thereof was thirty cubits, the breadth fifty, and the 
height or profundity thirty ; which well agreeth unto 
the proportion of Man, whose length, that is, a per- 
pendicular from the vertex unto the sole of the foot is 
sextuple unto his breadth, or a right line drawn from 
the ribs of one side to another ; and decuble unto his 
profundity; that is, a direct line between the breast 
bone and the spine. 

Again, They receive not these conditions with any i- 


CHAP, assurance or stability from our selves. For the relative 
V foundations and points of denomination, are not fixed 
and certain, but variously designed according to ima- 
gination. The Philosopher accounts that East from 
whence the Heavens begin their motion. The Astro- 
nomer regarding the South and Meridian Sun, calls 
that the dextrous part of Heaven which respecteth his 
right hand ; and that is the West. Poets respecting 
the West, assign the name of right unto the North, 
Declarable whlch Tcgardeth their right hand; and so must that 
from the q£ Ov'id be cxplaiued utqiLC dxujc dextra Zonw totidemqucc 

original r z i ^ 

expression, siiiistrd. But Augurs or Southsayers turning their 
'■ '^' face to the East, did make the right in the South; 
which was also observed by the Hehreivs and Chaldeans. 
Now if we name the quarters of Heaven respectively 
unto our sides, it will be no certain or invariable deno- 
mination. For if we call that the right side of Heaven 
which is seated Easterly unto us, when we regard the 
Meridian Sun ; the inhabitants beyond the .^Equator 
and Southern Tropick when they face us, regarding 
the Meridian, will contrarily defme it ; for unto them, 
the opposite part of Heaven will respect the left, and 
U the Sun arise to their right. 

And thus have we at large declared that although 
the right be most commonly used, yet hath it no 
regular or certain root in nature. Since it is not con- 
firmable from other Animals : Since in Children it 
seems either indifferent or more favourable in the 
other ; but more reasonable for uniformity in action, 
that Men accustom unto one : Since the grounds and 
reasons urged for it, do not sufficiently support it: 
Since if there be a right and stronger side in nature, 
yet may we mistake in its denomination ; calling that 
the right which is the left, and the left which is the 


right. Since some have one right, some both, some CHAP, 
neither. And lastly, Since these affections in Man are V 
not only fallible in relation unto one another, but 
made also in reference unto the Heavens, they being 
not capable of these conditions in themselves, nor with 
any certainty from us, nor we from them again. 

And therefore what admission we ow unto manv 
conceptions concerning right and left, requireth circum- 
spection. That is, how far we ought to rely upon the 
remedy in Kiranides^ that is, the left eye of an Hedg- 
hog fried in oyl to procure sleep, and the right foot of 
a Frog in a Dears skin for the Gout ; or that to dream 
of the loss of right or left tooth, presageth the death 
of male or female kindred, according to the doctrine 
of Artemidorus. What verity there is in that numeral 
.conceit in the lateral division of Man by even and 
odd, ascribing the odd unto the right side, and even 
unto the left ; and so by parity or imparity of letters 
in Mens names to determine misfortunes on either side 
of their bodies ; by which account in Greek numera- 
tion, Hephcestns or Vulcan was lame in the right foot, 
and Anibal lost his right eye. And lastly, what 
substance there is in that Auspicial principle, and 
fundamental doctrine of Ariolation, that the left hand 
is ominous, and that good things do pass sinistrously 
upon us, because the left hand of man respected the 
right hand of the Gods, which handed their favours 
unto us. 



Of Swimming and Floating. 

THAT Men swim naturally, if not disturbed by 
fear; that Men being drowned and sunk, do 
float the ninth day when their gall breaketii ; 
that Women drowned, swim prone, but Men supine, or 
upon their backs ; are popular affirmations, whereto we 
cannot assent. And first, that Man should switn natur- 
ally, becausewe observeit is no lesson unto other Animals, 
we are not forward to conclude; for other Animals 
swim in the same manner as they go, and need no 
other way of motion for natation in the water, then for 
progression upon the land. And this is true whether 
they move per latera^ that is, two legs of one side 
together, which is Tollutation or ambling; or per 
diametrum, lifting one foot before, and the cross foot 
behind, which is succussation or trotting ; or whether 
per frontem or cjuadratiim, as Scallger terms it, upon a 
square base, the legs of both sides moving together, as 
Froffs and salient Animals, which is properly called 
leaping. For by these motions they are able to sup- 
port and impel themselves in the water, without altera- 
tion in the stroak of their legs, or position of their 

But with Man it is performed otherwise ; for in 
regard of site he alters his natural posture and swim- 
meth prone; whereas he walketh erect. Again, in 
progression the arms move parallel to the legs, and 
the arms and legs unto each other ; but in natation 
they intersect and make all sorts of angles. And 
lastly, in progressive motion, the arms and legs do 
move successively, but in natation both together ; all 


which aptly to perform, and so as to support and CHAP, 
advance the body, is a point of Art, and such as VI 
some in their young and docile years could never 
attain. But although swimming be acquired by art, 
yet is there somewhat more of nature in it then we 
observe in other habits, nor will it strictly fall under 
that definition ; for once obtained, it is not to be 
removed ; nor is there any who from disuse did ever 
yet forget it. 

Secondly, That persons drowned arise and float the 
ninth day when their gall breaketh, is a questionable 
determination both in the time and cause. For the 
time of floating, it is uncertain according to the time 
of putrefaction, which shall retard or accelerate accord- 
ing to the subject and season of the year; for as we 
observed, Cats and Mice will arise unequally, and at 
different times, though drowned at the same. Such as 
are fat do commonly float soonest, for their bodies 
soonest ferment, and that substance approacheth nearest 
unto air : and this is one of Aristotles reasons why dead 
Eels will not float, because saith he, they have but 
slender bellies, and little fat. 

As for the cause, it is not so reasonably imputed n^h 
unto the breaking of the gall as the putrefaction or i^^-^'jioat 
corruptive firmentation of the body, whereby \\v^ after a time. 
unnatural heat prevailing, the putrifying parts do 
suffer a turgescence and inflation, and becoming aery 
and spumous affect to approach the air, and ascend unto 
the surface of the water. And this is also evidenced 
in Eggs, whereof the sound ones sink, and such as are 
addled swim, as do also those which are termed hypen- 
emia or wind-eggs ; and this is also a way to separate 
seeds, whereof such as are corrupted and steril, swim ; 
and this agreeth not only unto the seed of plants lockt 


CHAP, up and capsulated in their husks, but also unto the 
VI sperm and seminal humour of Man ; for such a passage 
hath Aristotle upon the Inquisition and test of its 

That the breaking of the gall is not the cause hereof, 
experience hath informed us. For opening the abdo- 
men, and taking out the gall in Cats and Mwe, they did 
notwithstanding arise. And because we had read in 
RhodigimiS of a Tyrant, who to prevent the emergency 
of murdered bodies, did use to cut off their lungs, and 
found Mens minds possessed with this reason ; we 
committed some unto the water without lungs, which 
notwithstanding floated with the others. And to 
compleat the experiment, although we took out the 
guts and bladder, and also perforated the Cranium, 
yet would they arise, though in a longer time. From 
\ these observations in other Animals, it may not be 
unreasonable to conclude the same in Man, who is too 
noble a subject on whom to make them expressly, and 
the casual opportunity to rare almost to make any. 
Now if any should ground this effect from gall or 
choler, because it is the highest humour and will be 
above the rest ; or being the fiery humour will readiest 
surmount the water, we must confess in the common 
putrescence it may promote elevation, which the break- 
ing of the bladder of gall, so small a part in Man, 
cannot considerably advantage. 

Lastly, That Women drowned float prone, that is, 
with their bellies downward, but Men supine or up- 
ward, is an assertion wherein the hoti or point it self 
is dubious; and were it true, the reason alledged for 
it, is of no validity. The reason yet currant was first 
expressed by Pliny, veluti pidori defimctorum parcente 
natiira, nature modestly ordaining this position to con- 


ceal the shame of the dead; which hath been taken CHAP, 
up by Solinus, Rhodiginus, and many more. This VI 
indeed (as Scaliger termeth it) is ratio civilis non philo- 
sophica, strong enough for morality of Rhetoricks, not 
for Philosophy or Physicks. For first, in nature the 
concealment of secret parts is the same in both sexes, 
and the shame of their reveal equal : so Adam upon 
the tast of the fruit was ashamed of his nakedness as 
well as Eve. And so likewise in America and Countries v 
unacquainted with habits, where modesty conceals 
these parts in one sex, it doth it also in the other ; and 
therefore had this been the intention of nature, not 
only Women but Men also had swimmed downwards ; 
the posture in reason being common unto both, where 
the intent is also common. 

Again, While herein we commend the modesty, we 
condemn the wisdom of nature : for that prone position 
we make her contrive unto the Woman, were best 
agreeable unto the Man, in whom the secret parts are 
very anteriour and more discoverable in a supine and 
upward posture. And therefore Scaliger declining 
this reason, hath recurred unto another from the dif- 
ference of parts in both sexes ; Qtiod ventre vasto sunt 
rmiUeres plenoque intesttnis, itaqv£ minus impkttir et 
subsidet, inanior maribus quibus nates prceponderant : If 
so, then Men with great bellies will float downward, 
and only CalUpygoe^ and Women largely composed 
behind, upward. But Anatomists observe, that to 
make the larger cavity for the Infant, the hanch bones 
in Women, and consequently the parts appendant are 
more protuberant then they are in Men. They who 
ascribe the cause unto the breasts of Women, take 
not away the doubt ; for they resolve not why children 
float downward, who are included in that sex, though 


CHAP, not in the reason alleadgcd. But hereof we cease to 
VI discourse, lest we undertake to afford a reason of the 
"^o/thecaute ^ goldeii tooth, that is, to invent or assign a cause when 
ZtHchdispute ^'^ remain unsatisfied or unassured of the effect. 
-.vasmade, That a Marc will sooner drown then a Horse, though 
pr<K'edan commonly opinion'd, Is not I fear experienced: nor is 
imfoiiure. ^jjg same observed, in the drowning of Whelps and 
Kitl'ms. But that a Man cannot shut or open 
'his eyes under water, easie experiment may convict. 
Whether Cripples and mutilated Persons, who have 
lost the greatest part of their thighs, will not sink but 
float, their lungs being abler to waft up their bodies, 
which are in others overpoised by the hinder legs ; we 
have not made experiment. Thus much we observe, 
that Animals drown downwards, and the same is ob- 
servable in Frogs, when the hinder legs are cut off. 
But in the air most seem to perish headlong from high 
places; however Vulcan thrown from Heaven, be made 
to fall on his feet. 



Concerning Weight. 

HAT Men weigh heavier dead then alive, if 
experiment hath not failed us, we cannot 
reasonably grant. For though the trial hereof 
cannot so well be made on the bodv of Man, nor will 
the difference be sensible in the abate of scruples and 
dragms, yet can we not confirm the same in lesser 
Animals, from whence the inference is good ; and the 
affirmative of P/i«?y saith, that it is true in all. For 
exactly weighing and strangling a Chicken in the 
Scales; upon an immediate ponderation, we could 


discover no sensible difference in weight; but suffering CHAP. 
it to lie eight or ten hours, untill it grew perfectly VII 
cold, it weighed most sensibly lighter ; the like we 
attempted, and verified in Mice, and performed their 
trials in Scales, that would turn upon the eighth or 
tenth part of a grain. 

Now whereas some alledge that spirits are lighter 
substances, and naturally ascending, do elevate and 
waft the body upward, whereof dead bodies being 
destitute, contract a greater gravity ; although we 
concede that spirits are light, comparatively unto the 
body, yet that they are absolutely so, or have no 
weight at all, we cannot readily allow. For since 
Philosophy affirmeth, that spirits are middle sub- 
stances between the soul and body, they must admit 
of some corporiety, which supposeth weight or gravity. 
Beside, in carcasses warm, and bodies newly disani- 
mated, while transpiration remaineth, there do exhale 
and breath out vaporous and fluid parts, which carry 
away some power of gravitation. Which though we 
allow, we do not make answerable unto living expira- 
tion ; and therefore the Chicken or Mice were not so 
light being dead, as they would have been after ten 
hours kept alive ; for in that space a man abateth 
many ounces. Nor if it had slept, for in that space of 
sleep, a Man will sometimes abate fourty ounces ; nor 
if it had been in the middle of summer, for then a 
Man weigheth some pounds less, then in the height 
of winter; according to experience, and the statick 
Aphorisms of Sanctoriits. 

Again, Whereas Men affirm they perceive an addi- 
tion of ponderosity in dead bodies, comparing them 
usually unto blocks and stones, whensoever they lift or 
carry them ; this accessional preponderancy is rather 


CHAP, in appearance then reality. For being destitute of 
VII any motion, they confer no relief unto the Agents, or 
Elevators ; which makes us meet with the same com- 
plaints of gravity in animated and living bodies, where 
the Nerves subside, and the faculty locomotive seems 
abolished ; as may be observed in the lifting or sup- 
porting of persons inebriated, Apoplectical, or in 
Lypothymies and swoundings, 

Many are also of opinion, and some learned Men 
maintain, that Men are lighter after meals then before, 
and that by a supply and addition of spirits obscuring 
the gross ponderosity of the aliment ingested ; but 
the contrary hereof we have found in the trial of 
sundry persons in different sex and ages. And we con- 
ceive Men may mistake if they distinguish not the 
sense of levity unto themselves, and in regard of the 
scale or decision of trutination. For after a draught 
of wine, a Man may seem lighter in himself from 
sudden refection, although he be heavier in the balance, 
from a corporal and ponderous addition ; but a Man in 
the morning is lighter in the scale, because in sleep 
some pounds have perspired ; and is also lighter unto 
himself, because he is refected. 

And to speak strictly, a Man that holds his breath 
is weightier while his lungs are full, then upon expira- 
tion. For a bladder blown is weightier then one 
empty, and if it contain a quart, expressed and emptied 
it will abate about a quarter of a grain. And there- 
fore we somewhat mistrust the experiment of a pumice 
stone taken up by Maniantis, in his Comment upon 
Avicenna, where declaring how the rarity of parts, and 
numerosity of pores, occasioneth a lightness in bodies, 
he affirms that a pumice-stone powdered, is lighter 
then one entire ; which is an experiment beyond our 


satisfaction ; for beside that abatement can hardly be CHAP, 
avoided in the Trituration ; if a bladder of good VII 
capacity will scarce include a grain of air, a pumice 
of three or four dragms, cannot be presumed to contain 
the hundred part thereof; which will not be sensible 
upon the exactest beams we use. Nor is it to be taken 
strictly which is delivered by the learned Lord Verulam^ 
and referred unto further experiment ; That a dissolu- 
tion of Iron in aquafortis^ will bear as good weight as 
their bodies did before, notwithstanding a great deal 
of waste by a thick vapour that issueth during the 
working ; for we cannot find it to hold neither in Iron 
nor Copper, which is dissolved with less ebullition ; 
and hereof we made trial in Scales of good exactness : 
wherein if there be a defect, or such as will not turn 
upon quarter grains, there may be frequent mistakes 
in experiments of this nature. That also may be 
considered which is delivered by Hamerus Poppius, Basilica 
that Antimony calcin'd or reduced to ashes by a ^"'""°""- 
burning glass, although it emit a gross and pon- 
derous exhalation, doth rather exceed then abate its 
former gravity. Nevertheless, strange it is; how very 
little and almost insensible abatement there will be 
sometimes in such operations, or rather some encrease, 
as in the refining of metals, in the test of bone 
ashes, according to experience : and in a burnt brick, 
as Monsieur de Clave affirmeth. Mistake may be made Ues Pierres. 
in this way of trial, when the Antimony is not weighed 
immediately upon the calcination ; but permitted the 
air, it imbiheth the humidity thereof, and so repaireth 
its gravity. 



Of the passage of Meat and Drink. 

THAT there are different passages for Meat and 
Drink, the Meat or dry aliment descending by 
the one, the Drink or moistening vehicle by the 
other, is a popular Tenent in our daies, but was the 
assertion of learned men of old. For the same was 
affirmed by Plato, maintained by Eustathius in Macro- 
biuSf and is deducible from Eratosthenes, Eupolis and 
Euripides. Now herein Men contradict experience, 
not well understanding Anatomy, and the use of parts. 
For at the Throat there are two cavities or conducting 
parts; the one the Oesophagus or Gullet, seated next the 
spine, a part official unto nutrition, and whereby the 
aliment both wet and dry is conveied unto the stomack ; 
the other (by which tis conceived the Drink doth pass) 
is the weazon, rough artery, or wind-pipe, a part 
iaservient to voice and respiration ; for thereby the 
air descendeth into the lungs, and is communicated unto 
the heart. And therefore all Animals that breath or 
have lungs, have also the weazon ; but many have the 
gullet or feeding channel, which have no lungs or wind- 
pipe; as fishes which have gils, whereby the heart is 
refrigerated ; for such thereof as have lungs and respira- 
tion, are not without the weazon, as Whales and 
cetaceous Animals. 

Again, Beside these parts destined to divers offices, 
there is a peculiar provision for the wind-pipe, that is, 
a cartilagineous flap upon the opening of the Larinx 
or Throttle, which hath an open cavity for the admis- 
sion of the air; but lest thereby either meat or drink 
should descend, Providence hath placed the Epiglottis^ 


Ligula, or flap like an Ivy leaf, which alwaies closeth CHAP, 
when we swallow, or when the meat and drink passeth VIII 
over it into the gullet. Which part although all have 
not that breath, as all cetaceous and oviparous Ani- 
mals, yet is the weazon secured some other way ; and 
therefore in Whales that breath, least the water should 
get into the lungs, an ejection thereof is contrived by 
a Fistula or spout at the head. And therefore also 
though birds have no Epiglottis, yet can they so con- 
tract the rim or chink of their Larinx, as to prevent 
the admission of wet or dry ingested ; either whereof 
getting in, occasioneth a cough, until it be ejected. 
And this is the reason why a Man cannot drink and iv/,ya»,an 
breath at the same time; why, if we laugli while we '"""f '^""^ 

•' ' o ana breath 

drink, the drink flies out at the nostrils ; why, when at once. 
the water enters the weazon, IMen are suddenly drowned; -^"^creon //« 

•^ Pcet, if the 

and thus must it be understood, when we read of owe story be 
that died by the seed of a Grape, and another by an [l^^^^n , 
hair in milk. 

Now if any shall still aflRrni, that some truth there 
is in the assertion, upon the experiment of Hippo- 
crates, who killing an Hog after a red potion, found 
the tincture thereof in the Larinx ; if any will urge the 
same from medical practice, because in affections both 
of Lungs and weazon, Physitians make use of syrupes, 
and lambitive medicines ; we are not averse to acknow- 
ledge, that some may distil and insinuate into the 
wind-pipe, and medicines may creep down, as well as 
the rheum before them ; yet to conclude from hence, 
that air and water have both one common passage, 
were to state the question upon the weaker side of the 
distinction, and from a partial or guttulous irrigation, 
to conclude a total descension. 



Of Sneezing. 

CONCERNING Sternutation or Sneezing, and the 
custom of saluting or blessing upon that 
motion, it is pretended, and generally believed 
to derive its original from a disease, wherein Sternuta- 
tion proved mortal, and such as Sneezed, died. And 
this may seem to be proved from Carohis Sigonitis, 
, who in his History of Italt/, makes mention of a Pesti- 
lence in the time of Gregory the Great, that proved 
pernitious and deadly to those that Sneezed, Which 
notwithstanding will not sufficiently determine the 
grounds hereof: that custom having an elder jEra, 
then this Chronology affordeth. 

For although the age of Gregory extend above a 
thousand, yet is this custom mentioned by A'pulekis^ in 
the Fable of the Fullers wife, who lived three hundred 
years before; by Pliny in that Problem of his, Cur 
Sternutantes salutantur ; and there are also reports that 
Tiberius the Emperour, otherwise a very sower Man, 
would perform this rite most punctually unto others, 
and expect the same from others, unto himself 
Petronius Arbiter^ who lived before them both, and 
was Proconsul of Bythinia in the raign of Nero, hath 
mentioned it in these words, Gyton collectione spiriUis 
plennSy ter continue ita stemutavit ut grabatum con- 
cuteret, ad quern motum Eumolpus conversus, Salvere 
Gytona jubet. Ccelim Rhodiginus hath an example 
hereof among the Greeks, far antienter than these, that 
is, in the time of Cyrus the younger ; when consulting 
about their retreat, it chanced tliat one among them 
Sneezed; at the noise whereof, the rest of the Souldiers 


called upon Jujnter Soter. There is also in the CHAP. 
Greek Anthology, a remarkable mention hereof in an IX 
Epigram, upon one Proclus ; the Latin whereof we ^^^''"'""' 
shall deliver, as we find it often translated. Epigrams, 

Titulo eU 

]^on potis est Proclus digitis emungere nasum, Suo-eiceis. 

Namq ; est pro nasi mole pusilla manus : 
Non vocat tile Jovem sternutans, quippe nee audit 

Sternutamentum, tarn procul aure sonat. 
Proclus with his hand his uose can never wipe, 

His hand too little is his nose to gripe ; 
He Sneezing calls not Jove, for why? he hears 

Himself not Sneeze, the sound's so far from's ears. 

Nor was this only an ancient custom among the 
Greeks and Romans, and is still in force with us, but is De rebus 
received at this day in remotest parts of Africa. For '^ "^'"°'^""' 
so we read in Codignus; that upon a Sneeze of the '^ 
Emperour of Moiwmoiapa, there passed acclamations 
successively through the City. And as remarkable an 
example there is of the same custom, in the remotest 
parts of the East, recorded in the travels of Pinto. 

But the history will run much higher, if we should 
take in the Ralnnical account hereof; that Sneezing 
was a mortal sign even from the first Man ; until it was 
taken oif by the special supplication of Jacob. From 
whence, as a thankful acknowledgment, this salutation ' 
first began ; and was after continued by the expression Buxt. Lex. 
of Tohim Chavini, or vita bona, by standers by, upon all 
occasion of Sneezing. 

Now the ground of this ancient custom was probably 
the opinion the ancients held of sternutation, which 
they generally conceived, to be a good sign or a bad, 
and so upon this motion accordingly used, a Salve or 
ZeO o-wo-oj/, as a gratulation for the one, and a depreca- 
tion for the other. Now of the waies whereby they 





or Sneesin^ 

Sect. 33. 

In ■what 
cases a sign 
of good. 
2. King 4. 

In whni of 

enquired and determined its signality ; the first was 
natural, arising from Physical causes, and consequences 
oftentimes naturally succeeding this motion ; and so it 
might be justly esteemed a good sign. For Sneezing 
being properly a motion of the brain, suddenly expel- 
ling through the nostrils what is offensive unto it, it 
cannot but afford some evidence of its vigour ; and 
therefore saith Aristotle, they that hear it, irpocrKwovaiv 
o)9 I'epov, honour it as somewhat sacred, and a sign of 
Sanity in the diviner part ; and this he illustrates from 
the practice of Physitians, who in persons near death, 
do use Sternutatories, or such medicines as provoke 
unto Sneezing ; when if the faculty awaketh, and 
Sternutation ensueth, they conceive hopes of life, and 
with ffratulation receive the signs of safetv. And so 
is it also of good signality, according to that of Hippo- 
crates, that Sneezing cureth the hicket, and is profitable 
unto Women in hard labour ; and so is it good in 
Lethargies, Apoplexies, Catalepsies, and Coma's. And 
in this natural way it is sometime likewise of bad 
effects or signs, and may give hints of deprecation ; as 
in diseases of the chest ; for therein Hippocrates con- 
demneth it as too much exagitating : in the beginning 
of Catarrhs according unto Avicenna, as hindering 
concoction, in new and tender conceptions (as Flint/ 
observeth) for then it endangers abortion. 

The second way was superstitious and Augurial, as 
CcbHus Rhodig'imis hath illustrated in testimonies, as 
ancient as Theocritus and Homer : as appears from 
the Athenian Master, who would have retired, because 
a Boat-man Sneezed; and the testimony of Austin, 
that the Ancients were wont to go to bed again if they 
Sneezed while they put on their shoe. And in this 
way it was also of good and bad signification ; so 


Aristotle hath a Problem, why Sneezing from noon unto CHAP, 
midnight was good, but from night to noon unlucky ? So IX. 
Eustathncs upon Homer observes, that Sneezing to the 
left hand was unlucky, but prosperous unto the right ; 
so, as Plutarch relateth, when Themistocles sacrificed in 
his galley before the battle of Xerxes^ and one of the 
assistants upon the right hand sneezed ; Euphrantides 
the Southsayer, presaged the victory of the Greeks^ and 
the overthrow of the Persians. 

Thus we may perceive the custom is more ancient 
then commonly conceived ; and these opinions hereof 
in all ages, not any one disease to have been the occa- 
sion of this salute and deprecation. Arising at first 
from this vehement and affrighting motion of the 
brain, inevitably observable unto the standers by ; 
from whence some finding dependent effects to ensue ; 
others ascribing hereto as a cause what perhaps but 
casually or inconnexedly succeeded ; they might proceed 
unto forms of speeches, felicitating the good, or depre- 
cating the evil to follow. 

Of the Jews. 

THAT Jews stink naturally, that is, that in 
their race and nation there is an evil savour, 
is a received opinion we know not how to 
admit ; although concede many questionable points, 
and dispute not the verity of sundry opinions which 
are of affinity hereto. We will acknowledg that cer- 
tain odours attend on animals, no less then certain 
colours ; that pleasant smels are not confined unto 


CHAP, vegetables, but found in divers animals, and some more 
X richly then in plants. And though the Problem of 
Aristotle enquire why no animal smels sweet beside the 
Parde? yet later discoveries add divers sorts of Mon- 
kei/Sy the Civet Cat and Gazeln, from which our Musk 
proceedeth. We confess that beside the smell of the 
species, there may be individual odours, and every 
Man may have a proper and peculiar savour ; which 
although not perceptible unto Man, who hath this 
sense, but weak, yet sensible unto Dogs, who hereby 
can single out their masters in the dark. We will not 
deny that particular Men have sent forth a pleasant 
savour, as Theophrastus and Plutarch report of Alex- 
ander the great, and Tzetzes and Cardan do testifie of 
themselves. That some may also emit an unsavory 
odour, we have no reason to deny ; for this may happen 
from the quality of what they have taken ; the Faetor 
whereof may discover it self by sweat and urine, as 
being unmasterable by the natural heat of Man, not to 
be dulcified by concoction beyond an unsavory condi- 
tion : the like may come to pass from putrid humours, 
as is often discoverable in putrid and malignant feavers. 
And sometime also in gross and humid bodies even in 
the latitude of sanity ; the natural heat of the parts 
being insufficient for a perfect and through digestion, 
and the errors of one concoction not rectifiable by 
another. But that an unsavory odour is gentilitious 
or national unto the Jexcs, if rightly understood, we 
Cixnnot well concede ; nor will the information of reason 
or fence induce it. 
p For first, Upon consult of reason, there will be found 
no easie assurance to fasten a material or tempera- 
mental propriety upon any nation ; there being scarce 
any condition Cbut what depends upon clime) which is 



not exhausted or obscured from the commixture of CHAP, 
introvenient nations either by commerce or conquest; X 
much more Avill it be difficult to make out this affection 
in the Jeivs ; whose race however pretended to be pure, 
must needs have suffered inseparable commixtures with 
nations of all sorts ; not only in regard of their prose- 
lytes, but their universal dispersion ; some being posted 
from several parts of the earth, others quite lost, and 
swallowed up in those nations where they planted. 
For the tribes of Reuben^ Gad^ part of Manasses and 
Naphthali, which were taken by Assur^ and the rest at 
the Sacking of Samaria, which were led away by 
Salmanasser into Assyria, and after a year and half 
arrived at Arsereth, as is delivered in Esdras ; these I 
say never returned, and are by the Jews as vainly 
expected as their Messias. Of those of the tribe of 
Judah and Benjamin, Avhich were led captive into 
Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, many returned under 
Zorobabel; the rest remained, and from thence long 
after upon invasion of the Saracens, fled as far as 
India,; where yet they are said to remain, but with 
little difference from the Gentiles. 

The Tribes that returned to Judea, were afterward 
widely dispersed ; for beside sixteen thousand which 
Titus sent to Rome unto the triumph of his father 
Vespasian, he sold no less then an hundred thousand 
for slaves. Not many years after, Adrian the Em- 
perour, who ruined the whole Countrey, transplanted 
manv thousands into Spain, from whence they dis- 
persed into divers Countreys, as into France and 
England, but were banished after from both. From 
Spain they dispersed into Africa, Italy, Constantinople, 
and the Dominions of the Turk, where they remain as 
yet in very great numbers. And if (according to good 


CHAP, relations) wliere they may freely speak it, they forbear 
X not to boast that there are at present many thousand 
Jews in Spane^ France and England, and some dis- 
pensed withall even to the degree of Priesthood ; it is 
a matter very considerable, and could they be smelled 
out, would much advantage, not only the Church of 
Christ, but also the coffers of Princes. 

Now having thus lived in several Countries, and 
alwaies in subjection, they must needs have suffered 
many commixtures ; and we are sure they are not 
exempted from the common ccmtagion of Venery con- 
tracted first from Christians. Nor as fornications 
unfrequent between them both ; there commonly pass- 
ing ojiinions of invitement, that their Women desire 
copulation with them rather then their own Nation, 
and affect Christian carnality above circumcised venery. 
It being therefore acknowledged, that some are lost, 
evident that others are mixed, and not assured that 
any are distinct, it will be hard to establish this quality 
upon the Jcics, unless we also transfer the same unto 
those whose generations are mixed, whose genealogies 
^are Jewish, and naturally derived from them. 

Again, if we concede a National unsavouriness in 

any people, yet shall we find the Jews less subject 

hereto then any, and that in those regards which most 

powerfully concur to such effects, that is, their diet 

The Jews and generation. As for their diet whether in obedi- 

Ve7"te!n/>er. ^^^^ uttto the prcccpts cf reason, or the injunctions of 

titt- parsimony, therein tiiey are very temperate ; seldom 

offending in ebriety or excess of drink, nor erring in 

gulosity or superfluity of meats ; whereby they prevent 

indigestion and crudities, and conse(]uently putrescence 

of iuiinors. They have in abomination all flesh maimed, 

or the inwards any way vitiated ; and therefore eat no 


meat but of their own killing. They observe not only CHAP. 
fasts at certain times, but are restrained unto very few X 
dishes at all times ; so few, that whereas St. Peters 
sheet will hardly cover our Tables, their Law doth 
scarce permit them to set forth a Lordly feast ; nor 
any way to answer the luxury of our times, or those of 
our fore-fathers. For of flesh their Law restrains them 
many sorts, and such as compleat our feasts : That 
Animal, Propter convivia natum, they touch not, nor 
any of its preparations, or parts so much in respect at Quanta est 
Roman Tables, nor admit they unto their board, Hares, fibA'o^os^ 
Conies, Herons, Plovers or Szaajis. Of Fishes they only p°nit Apros ! 
taste of such as have both fins and scales ; which are propter con- 
comparatively but few in number, such only, saith """"^ "^'"'"• 
Arktotle, whose Egg or spawn is arenaceous ; whereby 
are excluded all cetaceous and cartilagious Fishes; 
many pectinal, whose ribs are rectilineal : many costal, 
which have their ribs embowed ; all spinal, or such as 
have no ribs, but only a back bone, or somewhat 
analogous thereto, as Eels, Congers, Lximpries ; all that 
are testaceous, as Oysters, Codes, Wilks, Scollops, 
Muscles; and likewise all crustaceous, as Crabs, Shrimps 
and Lobsters. So that observing a spare and simple 
diet, whereby they prevent the generation of crudities ; 
and fasting often whereby they might also digest them; 
they must be less inclinable unto this infirmity then 
any other Nation, whose proceedings are not so reason- 
able to avoid it. 

As for their generations and conceptions (which are 
the purer from good diet,) they become more pure and 
perfect by the strict observation of their Law ; upon 
the injunctions whereof, they severely observe the times 
of Purification, and avoid all copulation, either in the 
uncleauness of themselves, or impurity of their Women. 


CHAP. A Rule, I fear, not so well observed by Christians ; 
X whereby not only conceptions are prevented, but if they 
proceed, so vitiated and defiled, that durable inquina- 
tions remain upon the birth. Which, when the con- 
ception meets with these impurities, must needs be 
very potent ; since in the purest and most fair concep- 

Z'\naUrZ^ ^^°"'"^' ^^*^"^^ ^^" ^^^^^'e thc causc of Pox and Meazels, 

causes 0/ the fi'om principles of that nature; that is, the raenstrous 

MeaZl inipurities in the Mothers blood, and virulent tinctures 

contracted by the Infant, in the nutriment of the 


Lastly, Experience will convict it ; for this offensive 
odor is no way discoverable in their Synagogues where 
many are, and by reason of their number could not be 
concealed : nor is the same discernable in commerce or 
conversation with such as are cleanly in Apparel, and 
decent in their Houses. Surely the Viziars and Ttirk- 
ish Basha's are not of this opinion ; who as Sir Henry 
Blunt informeth, do generally keep a Jew of their 
private Counsel. And were this true, the Jews them- 
selves do not strictly make out the intention of their 
Law, for in vain do they scruple to approach the dead, 
who livingly are cadaverous, or fear any outward pollu- 
tion, whose temper pollutes themselves. And lastly, 
were this true, yet our opinion is not impartial; for 
unto converted Jews who are of the same seed, no Man 
imputeth this unsavoury odor; as though Aromatized 
by their conversion, they lost their scent with their 
Religion, and smelt no longer then they savoured of 
the Jew. 

Now the ground that begat or propagated this 
assertion, might be the distasteful aversness of the 
Christian from the Jew^ upon the villany of that fact, 
which made them abominable and stink in the nostrils 



of all Men. Which real practise, and metaphorical CHAP, 
expression, did after proceed into a literal construe- X 
tion ; but was a fraudulent illation ; for such an evil 
savour their father Jacob acknowledged in himself, c-en. 34. 
when he said, his sons had made him stink in the land, 
that is, to be abominable unto the inhabitants thereof. 
Now how dangerous it is in sensible things to use 
metaphorical expressions unto the people, and what 
absurd conceits they will swallow in their literals; an 
impatient example we have in our profession; who 
having called an eaten ulcer by the name of a Wolf^ 
common apprehension conceives a reality therein ; and 
against our selves, ocular affirmations are pretended to 
confirm it. 

The nastiness of that Nation, and sluttish course of 
life hath much promoted the opinion, occasioned by 
their servile condition at first, and inferiour ways of 
parsimony ever since ; as is delivered by Mr. Sandys/ 
They are generally fat, saith he, and rank of the savours 
which attend upon sluttish corpulency. The Epithetes 
assigned them by ancient times, have also advanced the 
same ; for Ammiaim^s Marceliinus describe th them in 
such language; and Martial more ancient, in such a 
relative expression sets forth unsavoury Bassa. 

Quod jejunia Sabbat or iorum. 
Mallem, quam quod olex, olere Bassa. 

From whence notwithstanding we cannot infer an 
inward imperfection in the temper of that Nation ; it 
being but an effect in the breath from outward obser- 
vation, in their strict and tedious fasting; and was a 
common effect in the breaths of other Nations, became 
a Proverb among the Greeks, and the reason thereof 
begot a Problem in Aristotle. ?•>"""' 

Lastly, If all were true, and were this savour con- lejuniaoiere, 


CHAP, ceded, yet are the reasons alleadged for it no way satis- 
X factory. Hiwherius, and after him Alsarins Cikcius^ 
De steriiitate imputes this cffcct unto their abstinence from salt or 
E^i'st ^'"^^ ^^^^ meats ; which how to make good in the present 
dipt of the Jews, we know not ; nor shall we conceive 
it was observed of old, if we consider they seasoned 
every Sacrifice, and all oblations whatsoever ; whereof 
we cannot deny a great part was eaten by the Priests. 
And if the offering were of flesh, it was salted no less 
than thrice, that is, once in the common chamber of 
salt, at the foot-step of the Altar, and upon the top 
thereof, as is at large delivered by Maimonides. Nor 
if they refrained all salt, is the illation very urgent ; 
for many there are, not noted for ill odours, which eat 
no salt at all ; as all carnivorous Animals, most Chil- 
dren, many whole Nations, and probably our Fathers 
after the Creation ; there being indeed in every thing 
we eat, a natural and concealed salt, which is separated 
by digestions, as doth appear in our tears, sweat and 
urines, although we refrain all salt, or what doth seem 
to contain it. 

Another cause is urged by Campegius, and much 
received by Christians ; that this ill savour is a curse 
derived upon them by Christ, and stands, as a badge 
or brand of a generation that crucified their Sulvator. 
But this is a conceit without all warrant ; and an easie 
way to take off" dispute in what point of obscurity 
soever. A method of manv Writers, which much de- 
preciates the esteem and value of miracles; that is, 
therewith to salve not only real verities, but also non- 
existencies. Thus have elder times not only ascribed 
the immunity of Irelavd from any venemous beast, 
unto the staff or rod of Patrick ; but the long tails of 
Kent, unto the malediction of Austm. 


Thus therefore, although we concede that many CHAP. 
opinions are true which hold some conformity unto X 
this, yet in assenting hereto, many difficulties must 
arise : it being a dangerous point to annex a constant 
property unto any Nation, and much more this unto 
the Jeiv ; since this quality is not verifiable by observa- 
tion ; since the grounds are feeble that should establish 
it ; and lastly, since if all were true, yet are the reasons 
alleadged for it, of no sufficiency to maintain it. 


Of Pigmies. 

BY Pigmies we understand a dwarfish race of--| 
people, or lowest diminution of mankind, com- 
prehended in one cubit, or as some will have 
it, in two foot or three spans ; not taking them single, 
but nationally considering them, and as they make 
up an aggregated habitation. Whereof although 
affirmations be many, and testimonies more frequent 
then in any other point which wise men have cast into 
the list of fables, yet that there is, or ever was such a 
race or Nation, upon exact and confirmed testimonies, 
our strictest enquiry receives no satisfaction. 

I say, exact testimonies, first. In regard of the 
Authors, from whom we derive the account, for though 
we meet herewith in Herodotus, PMlostratus, Mela, 
Pliny, Solinus, and many more ; yet were they deriva- 
tive Relators, and the primitive Author was Homer', 
who, using often siniilies, as well to delight the ear, as 
to illustrate his matter, in the third of his Iliads, com- 
pareth the Trojans unto Cranes, when they descend 


CHAP, against the Piffmies ; which was more largely set out 

XI by Opp'ian, Juvenal, Maiituan, and many Poets since, 

and being only a pleasant figment in the fountain, 

became a solemn story in the stream, and current still 

among us. 

Again, Many professed enquirers have rejected it; 
Straho an exact and judicious Geographer, hath largely 
condemned it as a fabulous story, Jiilnis Scaliger a 
diligent enquirer, accounts thereof, but as a Poetical 
fiction ; Ulysses Aldrovandus a most exact Zoographer 
in an express discourse hereon, concludes the story 
fabulous, and a Poetical account of Homer; and the 
same was formerly conceived by Eustathiits, his excel- 
lent Commentator. Albertus Magmts a man ofttimes 
too credulous, herein was more then dubious; for he 
affirmeth, if any such dwarfs were ever extant, they 
were surely some kind of Apes : which is a conceit 
allowed by Cardan, and not esteemed improbable by 
many others. 

There are I confess two testimonies, which from 
their authority admit of consideration. The first of 
Hist. ani. Aristotle, whose words are these, eVrt Se o tqtto'^, etc. 
That is. Hie locus est quern iiicohmt Pygmoet, nan enim 
id fabula est, sed pusillum genus ut aiunt. Wherein 
indeed Aristotle plaies the Aristotle, that is, the wary 
and evading assertor ; For though with non est fahula, 
he seems at first to confirm it, yet at the last he claps in 
Sciunt aiunt, and shakes the belief he put before upon 
it. And therefore I observe Scaliger hath not translated 
the first ; perhaps supposing it surreptitious or un- 
worthy 90 great an assertor. And truly for those 
books of animals, or work of eight hundred talents, as 
Athenanis terms it, although ever to be admired, as 
containing most excellent truths ; yet are many things 


therein delivered upon relation, and some repugnant CHAP, 
unto the history of our senses ; as we are able to make XI 
out in some, and Scal'iger hath observed in many more, 
as he hath freely declared in his Comment upon that 

The second testimony is deduced from holy Scrip- Ezek. 27. n. 
ture; thus rendered in the vulgar translation, *S<ecZ et 
Pygmcei qui erant in turrihus tuis^ pharetras suas sus- 
penderunt in muris tuis per gyrum : from whence not- 
withstanding we cannot infer this assertion, for first 
the Translators accord not, and the Hebrew word 
Gammadim is very variously rendered. Though Aquila, 
Vetabhis and Lyra will have it Pygmcei, yet in the 
Septuagint, it is no more then Watchmen ; and so in 
the Arahick and high Dutch. In the Chaldey Cappa- 
docians, in Symmachis, Medes, and in the French, 
those of Gamad. Theodot'ian of old, and Tremellius 
of late, have retained the Textuarv word ; and so have 
the Italian, Low Dutch and English Translators, that 
is, the Men of Arvad were upon thy walls round about, 
and the Gammadims were in thy Towers. 

Nor do men only dissent in the Translation of the 
word, but in the Exposition of the sense and meaning 
thereof; for some by Gammadims understand a people 
of Syria, so called from the City Gamala\ some 
hereby understand the Cappadocians, many the Medes : see.^fr. 
and hereof Forerius hath a singular Exposition, con- J^'^ffjf^^' 
ceiving the Watchmen of Tyre might well be called script/on 
Pigmies, the Towers of that City being so high, that" 
unto Men below, they appeared in a cubital stature. 
Others expounded it quite contrary to common accep- 
tion, that is not Men of the least, but of the largest 
size ; so doth Cornelius construe Pygmcei, or viri cubi- 
iales, that is, not Men of a cubit high, but of the 




1 T^f story 
of Pigmies 
- By Pigmies 
Fairies and 
other spirits 
about the 
earth as by 
Nymphs and 
ders, spirits 
c/fire and 
water. Lib. 
De Pigmafis, 

larfTcst stature, whose height like that of Giants, is 
rather to be taken by the cubit then the foot; in 
which phrase we read the measure of Goiiah, whose 
height is said to be six cubits and a span. Of affinity 
hereto is also the Exposition of Jerom; not taking 
Pigmies for dwarfs, but stout and valiant Champions; 
not taking the sense of Tryy/ir/, which signifies the cubit 
measure, but that which expresseth Pugils ; that is, 
Men fit for combat and the exercise of the fist. Thus 
can there be no satisfying illation from this Text, the 
diversity or rather contrariety of Expositions and 
interpretations, distracting more then confirming the 
truth of the story. 

Again, I say, exact testimonies; in reference unto 
circumstantial relations so diversly or contrarily de- 
livered. Thus the Relation of Aristotle placeth them 
above Egypt towards the head of Nyle in Africa , 
Phllostratus affirms they are about Ganges in Asia, 
and Pliny in a third place, that is, Gerania in Scythia : 
some write they fight with Cranes, but Menecles in 
Athena;ris affirms they fight with Partridges, some say 
they ride on Partridges, and some on the backs of 

Lastly, I say, confirmed testimonies; for though 
Paulus Jovius delivers there are Piginies beyond 
Japan; Pigafeta, about the Moluccas; and Olaus 
MagJins placeth them in Greenland; yet wanting 
frequent confirmation in a matter so confirmable, their 
affirmation carrieth but slow perswasion ; ^ and wise 
men may think there is as much reality in the -Pigmies 
of Paracelms; that is, his non-Adamical men, or 
middle natures betwixt men and spirits. 

There being thus no sufficient confirmation of their 
verity, some doubt may arise concerning their possi- 


bility, wherein, since it is not defined in what dimcn- CHAP, 
sions the soul may exercise her faculties, we shall not XI 
conclude impossibility ; or that there might not be a 
race of Pigmies, as there is sometimes of Giants. So 
may we take in the opinion of Austin, and his Comment 
Ludovicti-s, but to believe they should be in the stature 
of a foot or span, requires the preaspection of such a 
one as Philetas the Poet in Athenoeus : who was fain to 
fasten lead unto his feet lest the wind should blow 
him away. Or that other in the same Author, 
who was so little 7it ad obolum accederet ; a story so 
strange, that we might herein excuse the PRINTER, 
did not the account of Julian accord unto it, as 
Causabone hath observed in his learned Animadver- 

Lastly, If any such Nation there were, yet is it 
ridiculous what Men have delivered of them ; that 
they fight with Cranes upon the backs of Ravis or 
Partridges : or what is delivered by Ctesias, that they 
are Negroes in the middest of India ; whereof the 
King of that Country entertaineth three thousand 
Archers for his guard. Which is a relation below the 
tale of Oheron ; nor could they better defend him, then 
the Emblem saith, they offended Hercules whilest he 
slept ; that is, to wound him no deeper, then to awake 




Of the great Climacterical year, that is, 
Sixty three. 

CERTAINLY the Eyes of the understanding, 
and those of the sense are differently deceived 
in their greatest objects; the sense appre- 
hending them in lesser magnitudes then their dim.en- 
sions require ; so it beholdeth the Sun, the Stars, and 
the Earth it self. But the understanding quite 
otherwise: for that ascribeth unto many things far 
larger horizons then their due circumscriptions require: 
and receiveth them with amplifications which their 
reality will not admit. Thus hath it fared with many 
Heroes and most worthy persons, who being sufficiently 
commendable from true and unquestionable merits, 
have received advancement from falshood and the 
fruitful stock of Fables. Thus hath it liappened unto 
the Stars, and Luminaries of heaven : who being suffi- 
ciently admirable in themselves, have been set out 
by effects, no way dependent on their efficiencies, and 
advanced by amplifications to the questioning of their 
true endowments. Thus is it not improbable it hath 
also fared with number, which though wonderful in it 
self, and sufficiently magnifiable from its demonstrable 
affections, hath yet received adjections from the multi- 
plying conceits of men, and stands laden with addi- 
tions, which its equity will not admit. 

And so perhaps hath it happened unto the number, 
7 and 9, which multiplied into themselves do make up 
Sixty three, commonly esteemed the great Climacterical 
of our lives. For the daies of men are usually cast up 



by Septenaries, and every seventh year conceived to CHAP, 
carry some altering character with it, either in the XII 
temper of body, mind, or both. But among all other, The gnat 
three are most remarkable, that is, 7 times 7 or fourtv ^^'""^'"''■ 

- . _ . •' cal, Sixty- 

nine, 9 times 9 or eighty one, and 7 times 9 or the year Huecnoswh 
of Sixty three ; which is conceived to carry with it the '^'^"^^'''"'' 
most considerable fatality ; and consisting of both the 
other numbers was apprehended to comprise the vertue 
of either : is therefore expected and entertained with 
fear, and esteemed a favour of fate to pass it over. 
Which notwithstanding many suspect to be but a 
Panick terrour, and men to fear they justly know not 
what : and to speak indifferently, I find no satisfac- 
tion : nor any sufficiency in the received grounds to 
establish a rational fear. 

Now herein to omit Astrological considerations 
(which are but rarely introduced) the popular founda- 
tion whereby it hath continued, is first, the extraordi- 
nary power and secret virtue conceived to attend these 
numbers : whereof we must confess there have not 
wanted not only especial commendations, but very 
singular conceptions. Among Philosophers, Pytha- 
goras seems to have played the leading part; which 
was long after continued by his disciples, and the 
Italick School. The Philosophy of Plato, and most 
of the Platonists abounds in numeral considerations: 
above all, Philo the learned Jezv, hath acted this part 
even to superstition ; bestowing divers pages in summing 
up every thing, which might advantage this number. 
Which notwithstanding, when a serious Reader shall 
perpend, he will hardly find any thing that may con- 
vince his judgment, or any further perswade, then the 
lenity of his belief, or prejudgment of reason inclineth. 

For first. Not only the number of 7 and 9 from 



CHAP, considerations abstruse, have been extolled by most, 
XII but all or most of the other digits have been as 
mystically applauded. For the number of One and 
Three have not been only admired by the Heathens, 
but from adorable grounds, the unity of God, and 
mystery of the Trinity admired by many Christians. 
The number of four stands much admired, not only in 
the quaternity of the Elements, which are the prin- 
ciples of bodies, but in the letters of the Name of 
God, which in the Greeks Arabian. Persian^ Hebrew, 
and Egyptian, consisteth of that number ; and was so 
venerable among the Pythagoreans, that they swore by 
the number four. That of six hath found many leaves 
in its favour ; not only for the dales of the Creation, 
but its natural consideration, as being a perfect 
number, and the first that is compleated by its parts ; 
that is, the sixt, the half, and the third, 1. 2. 3. 
Which drawn into a sum, make six. The number 
of Ten hath been as highly extolled, as containing 
even, odd, long, plain, quadrate and cubical numbers; 
and ^rw^o^/^ observed with admiration, that Barbarians 
as well as Greeks, did use numeration unto Ten, which 
being so general, was not to be judged casual, but to 
have a foundation in nature. So that not only 7 and 
9, but all the rest have had their Elegies, as may be 
observed at large in Rhodiginus, and in several Writers 
since : every one extolling number, according to his 
subject, and as it advantaged the present discourse in 

Again, They have been commended not only from 
pretended grounds in nature, but from artificial, casual 
or fabulous foundations : so have some endeavoured to 
advance their admiration, from the 9 Muses, from the 
7 Wonders of the World, from the 7 Gates of Thebes : 


in that 7 Cities contended for Homer, in that there CHAP, 
are 7 Stars in Ursa minora and 7 in Charles wayn, or XII 
Plaustrura of Ursa viajor. Wherein indeed although 
the ground be natural, yet either from constellations 
or their remarkable parts, there is the like occasion to 
commend any other number, the number 5 from the 
stars in Sagitta, 3 from the girdle of Orion, and 4 from 
Equkulus, Crusero, or the feet of the Centaur : yet are 
such as these clapt in by very good Authors, and some 
not omitted by Philo. 

Nor are they only extolled from Arbitrary and 
Poetical grounds, but from foundations and principles, 
false or dubious. That Women are menstruant, and 
Men pubescent at the year of twice seven is accounted 
a punctual truth ; which period nevertheless we dare 
not precisely determine, as having observed a variation 
and latitude in most, agreeable unto the heat of clime 
or temper; Men arising variously unto virility, accord- 
ing to the activity of causes that promote it. Sanguis 
menstruosus ad diem, ut plurimum, septimum durai, 
saith Philo. Which notwithstanding is repugnant 
unto experience, and the doctrine of Hippocrates, who 
in his book, de diceta, plainly affirmeth, it is thus but 
with few women, and only such as abound with pitui- 
tous and watery humours. 

It is further conceived to receive addition, in that 
there are 7 heads of Nyle, but we have made manifest 
elsewhere, that by the description of Geographers, they 
have been sometime more, and are at present fewer. 

In that there were 7 Wise men of Greece, which 
though generally received, yet having enquired into 
the verity thereof we cannot so readily determine it, 
for in the life of Tholes, who was accounted in that 
number, Diogenes Laertiiis plainly saith, Magna de 




CHAP, eorum numero d'lscordia est ; some holding but four, 
XII some ten, others twelve, and none agreeth in their 
names, though according in their number. 

In that there arc just 7 Planets or errant Stars in 
the lower orbs of Heaven, but it is now demonstrable 
unto sense, that there are many more ; as Galileo hath 
declared, that is, two more in the orb of Saturn, and 
no less then four more in the sphere of Jupiter. And 
the like may be said of the Pleiades or 7 Stars, which 
are also introduced to magnifie this number, for 
whereas scarce discerning six, we account them 7, by 
his relation, there are no less then fourty. 

That the Heavens are encompassed with 7 Circles, is 
also the allegation of Philo ; which are in his account, 
the Arctick, Antarctick, the Summer and Winter 
Tropicks, the ^Equator, Zodiack, and the Milky 
circle; whereas by Astronomers they are received in 
greater number. For though we leave out the 
Lacteous circle (which Aratus, Geminus, and Proclus, 
out of him hath numbred among the rest) yet are 
tliere more by four then Philo mentions ; that is, the 
Horizon, Meridian and both the Colures ; circles very 
considerable, and generally delivered, not only by 
Ptolomicy and the Astronomers since his time, but such 
as flourished long before, as Hipparchus and Eudoxiis. 
So that for ought I know, if it make for our purpose, 
or advance the theme in hand, with equal liberty, we 
may affirm there were 7 Sybils, or but 7 signs in the 
Zodiack circle of Heaven. 
Tp'.c >ta«ope? That verse in Virgil translated out of Horner^ O 
Aaraoiitac fgj-qng quatcrqiic beati; that is as men will have it, 
7 times happy, hath much advanced this number in 
critical apprehensions ; yet is not this construction so 
indubitably to be received, as not at all to be ques- 


tioned : for though Rliodiginus, Beroaldtis, and others CHAP, 
from the authority of Macrohius so interpret it, yet XII 
Servius his ancient commentator conceives no more 
thereby then a finite number for indefinite, and that 
no more is implied then often happy. Strabo the Lib. lo. 
ancientest of them all, conceives no more by this in 
Horner^ then a full and excessive expression ; whereas 
in common phrase and received language, he should 
have termed them thrice happy; herein exceeding 
that number, he called them four times happy, that is, 
more then thrice. And this he illustrates by the like 
expression of Homer, in the speech of Circe ; who to 
express the dread and terrour of the Ocean, sticks not 
unto the common form of speech in the strict account 
of its reciprocations, but largely speaking, saith, it 
ebbs and flows no less then thrice a day, ierque die 
revomit fiuctus iterumque resorhet. And so when it is 
said by Horace, faiices ter et amplkis, the exposition is 
sufficient, if we conceive no more then the letter fairly 
beareth, that is, four times, or indefinitely more then 

But the main considerations which most set of this 
number, are observations drawn from the motions of 
the ]Moon, supposed to be measured by sevens ; and 
the critical or decretory daies dependent on that 
number. As for the motion of the Moon, though we 
grant it to be measured by sevens, yet will not this 
advance the same before its fellow numbers ; for hereby 
the motion of other Stars are not measured, the fixed 
Stars by many thousand years, the Sun by 365 daies, the 
superiour Planets by more, the inferiour by somewhat 
less. And if we consider the revolution of the first 
Movable, and the daily motion from East to West, 
common unto all the Orbs, we shall find it measured 



IVhat a 
mtnth is. 

tn partu. 

CHAP, by another number, for being performed in four and 

XII twenty hours, it is made up of 4 times 6 : and this is 

the measure and standard of other parts of time, of 

months, of years, Olympiades, Lustres, Indictions of 

Cycles, Jubilies, etc. 

Again, Months are not only Lunary, and measured 
by the Moon, but also Solary, and determined by the 
motion of the Sun ; that is, the space wherein the Sun 
(loth pass 30 degrees of the Ecliptick. By this month 
Deoctomes Hifpocrates computed the time of the Infants gesta- 
tion in the womb ; for 9 times 30, that is, 270 daies, 
or compleat 9 months, make up forty weeks, the 
common compute of women. And this is to be under- 
stood, when he saith, 2 daies makes the fifteenth, and 
3 the tenth part of a month. This was the month of 
the ancient Hebrews before their departure out of 
Egypt : and hereby the compute will fall out right, 
and the account concur, when in one place it is said, 
the waters of the flood prevailed an hundred and fifty 
daies, and in another it is delivered, that thev pre- 
vailed from the seventeenth dav of the second month, 
unto the seventeenth day of the seventh. As for 
hebdomadal periods or weeks, although in regard of 
their Sabbaths, they were observed by the Hebrews^ 
yet it is not apparent the ancient Greeks or Romans 
used any : but had another division of their months 
into Ides, Nones and Calends. 

Moreover, Moneths howsoever taken, are not exactly 
divisible into septenaries or weeks, which fully contain 
seven daies : whereof four times do make compleatly 
twenty eight. For, beside the usual or Calendary 
month, there are but four considerable : the month of 
Peragration, of Apparition, of Consecution, and the 
medical or Dccretorial month; whereof some come 


short, others exceed this account. A month of Pera- CHAP, 
gration, is the time of the Moons revolution from any XII 
part of the Zodiack, unto the same again ; and this 
containeth but 27 daies, and about 8 hours : which 
Cometh short to compleat the septenary account. The 
month of Consecution, or as some will term it, of pro- 
gression, is the space between one conjunction of the 
Moon with the Sun, unto another : and this containeth 
29 daies and an half : for the Moon returning unto the 
same point wherein it was kindled by the Sun, and not 
finding it there again (for in the mean time, by its 
proper motion it hath passed through 2 signs) it 
followeth after, and attains the Sun in the space of 
2 daies and 4 hours more, which added unto the 
account of Peragration, makes 29 daies and an half: 
so that this month exceedeth the latitude of Septen- 
aries, and the fourth part comprehendeth more then 
7 daies. A month of Apparition, is the space wherein 
the Moon appeareth (deducting three daies wherein 
it commonly disappeareth ; and being in combustion 
with the Sun, is presumed of less activity,) and this 
containeth but 26 daies and 12 hours. The medical 
month, not much exceedeth this, consisting of 26 daies 
and 22 hours, and is made up out of all the other 
months. For if out of 29 and an half, the month of 
Consecution, we deduct 3 daies of disappearance, there 
will remain the month of Apparition 26 daies and 12 
hours : whereto if we add 27 daies and 8 hours, the 
month of Peragration, there will arise 53 daies and 
10 hours, which divided by 2, makes 26 daies and 22 
hours : called by Physitians the medical month : intro- 
duced by Galen against Archigenes, for the better 
compute of Decretory or Critical daies. 

As for the Critical daies (such I mean wherein upon 


CHAP, a decertation between the disease and nature, there 
XII ensueth a sensible alteration, either to life or death,) 
ly/iata the reasons thereof are rather deduced from x\strology, 
,iayis. then Arithmetick : for accounting from the beginning 
of the disease, and reckoning on unto the seventh day, 
the Moon will be in a Tetragonal or Quadrate aspect, 
that is, 4 signs removed from that wherein the disease 
began : in the fourteenth day it will be in an opposite 
aspect: and at the end of the third septenary. Tetra- 
gonal again : as will most graphically appear ir the 
figures of Astrologers, especially Iaicos Gauricus, De 
diebwi decretoriis. 

Again, (Beside that computing by the Medical 
month, the first hebdomade or septenary consists of 
6 dales, seventeen hours and an half, the second 
happeneth in 13 daies and eleven hours, and the third 
but in the twentieth natural day) what Galen first, and 
Ahen-Ezra since observed in his Tract of Critical daies, 
in regard of Eccentricity and the Epicycle or lesser 
orb wherein it moveth, the motion of the Moon is 
various and unequal; whereby the Critical account 
must also vary. For though its middle motion be 
equal, and of 13 degrees, yet in the other it moveth 
sometimes fifteen, sometimes less then twelve. For 
moving in the upper part of its orb, it performeth its 
motion more slowly then in the lower ; insomuch that 
being at the height, it arriveth at the Tetragonal and 
opposite signs sooner, and the Critical day will be in 
6 and 13 ; and being at the lowest, the critical account 
will be out of the latitude of T, nor happen before the 
eighth or ninth day. Which are considerations not to 
be neglected in the compute of decretory daies, and 
manifestly declare that other numbers must have a 
respect herein as well as 7 and fourteen. 


Lastly, Some things to this intent are deduced from CHAP, 
holy Scripture ; thus is the year of Jiih'iU introduced XII 
to magnifie this number, as being a year made out 
of 7 times 7 ; wherein notwithstanding there may be a 
misapprehension ; for this ariseth not from 7 times 7, 
that is, 49 ; but was observed the fiftieth year, as is 
expressed, And you shall hallow the fiftieth year, a 
Juhile shall that fiftieth year be unto you. Answer- Levit. 25. 
able whereto is the Exposition of the Jews themselves, 
as is delivered by Ben-Maimoii ; that is, the year of 
Juhile, Cometh not into the account of the years of 7, 
but the fourty ninth is the Release, and the fiftieth 
the year of Jubile. Thus is it also esteemed no small 
advancement unto this number, that the Genealogy 
of our Saviour is summed up by 14, that is, this 
number doubled ; according as is expressed. So all Mat. 1. 
the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen 
generations, and from David unto the carrying away 
into Babylon, are fourteen generations ; and from the 
carrying away into Babylon unto Christ, are fourteen 
generations. Which nevertheless must not be strictly 
understood as numeral relations require ; for from 
David unto Jeconiah are accounted by Matthew but 14 
generations; whereas according to the exact account 
in the History of Kings, there were at least 17 ; and 
3 in this account, that is, Ahazias, Joas and Amazias 
are left out. For so it is delivered by the Evangelist : 
And Joram begat Ozius : whereas in the regal Gene- 
alogy there are 3 successions between : for Ozia^ or 
Uzziah was the son of Amazias, Amazias of Joas, Joas 
of Azariah, and Azariah of Joram : so that in strict 
account, Joram wets the Abavus or Grand-father twice 
removed, and not the Father of Ozias. And these 
second omitted descents made a very considerable 


CHAP, measure of time, in the Royal chronology of Jiuhih : 
XII for though Azariah reigned but one year, yet Joas 
reigned fourty, and Amazias no less then nine and 
twenty. However therefore these were delivered by 
the Evangelist, and carry (no doubt) an incontroulable 
conformity unto the intention of his delivery : yet are 
they not appliable unto precise numerality,nor strictly 
to be drawn unto the riijid test of numbers. 

Lastly, Though many things have been delivered by 
Authors concerning number, and they transferred unto 
the advantage of their nature, yet are they oft-times 
otherwise to be understood, then as they are vulgarly 
received in active and causal considerations ; they 
being many times delivered Hieroglyphically, Meta- 
phorically, Illustratively, and not with reference unto 
action or causality. True it is, that God made all 
things in number, weight and measure, yet nothing by 
them or through the efficacy of either. Indeed our 
daies, actions and motions being measured by time 
(which is but motion measured) whatever is observable 
in any, falls under the account of some number ; which 
notwithstanding cannot be denominated the cause of 
those events. So do we injustly assign the power of 
Action even unto Time it self; nor do they speak pro- 
perly who say that Time consumeth all things ; for 
Time is not effective, nor are bodies destroyed by it, 
but from the action and passion of their Elements in 
it; whose account it only afford eth : and measuring 
out their motion, informs us in the periods and terms 
of their duration, rather then eflfecteth or physically 
produceth the same. 
mactericis. ' A sccoud Consideration which promoteth this opinion, 
Deoccuitis j^j.g confirmations drawn from Writers, who have made 

iiatura; . 

miracuiu. obscrvatious, or set down favourable reasons for this 


Climacterical year; so have Henricus Ranzov'ms, CHAP. 
Baptista Codronchus, and Levintis Lemnius much con- XII 
firmed the same ; but above all, that memorable Letter 
of Augustus sent unto his Nephew Caiu^, wherein he 
encourageth him to celebrate his nativity, for he had 
now escaped Sixty three, the great Climacterical and Bei. lib. 5. 
dangerous year unto man : which notwithstanding 
rightly perpended, it can be no singularity to question 
it, nor any new Paradox to deny it. 

For first, It is implicitely, and upon consequence 
denied by Aristotle in his Politicks, in that discourse 
against Plato, who measured the vicissitude and muta- 
tion of States, by a periodical fatality of number. 
Ptolomie that famous Mathematician plainly saith, he 
will not deliver his doctrines by parts and numbers 
which are ineffectual, and have not the nature of 
causes ; now by these numbers saith Rhodiginus and 
Mirandula, he implieth Climacterical years, that is, 
septenaries, and novenaries set down by the bare 
observation of numbers. Censorhius an Author of 
great authority, and sufficient antiquity, speaks yet 
more amply in his book De die Natali, wherein ex- 
presly treating of Climacterical daies, he thus delivereth 
himself. Some maintain that 7 times 7, that is, fourty 
nine, is most dangerous of any other, and this is the 
most general opinion ; others unto 7 times 7, add 9 
times 9, that is, the year of eighty one, both which 
consisting of square and quadrate numbers, were 
thought by Plato and others to be of great considera- 
tion; as for this year of Sixty three or 7 times 9, 
though some esteem it of most danger, yet do I con- 
ceive it less dangerous then the other ; for though it 
containeth both numbers above named, that is, 7 and 
9, yet neither of them square or quadrate ; and as it 


CHAP, is different from them both, so is it not potent in 
XII either. Nor is this year remarkable in the death 
of many famous men. I find indeed that Aristotle 
died this year, but he by the vigour of his mind, a 
long time sustained a natural infirmity of stomack ; 
so that it was a greater wonder he attained unto Sixty 
three, then that he lived no longer. The Psalm of 
Moses hath mentioned a year of danger differing from 
all these : and that is ten times 7 or seventy ; for so it is 
said, The daies of Man are threescore and ten. And 
the very same is affirmed by Soloiu as Herodotus relates 
in a speech of his unto Crcesus^ Ego annis septuaginta 
hmnanoc v'ltae modum dejinio : and surely that year must 
be of greatest danger, which is the Period of all the 
rest; and fewest safely pass thorow that, which is set 
as a bound for few or none to pass. And therefore 
the consent of elder times, setling their conceits upon 
Climacters, not only differing from this of ours, but 
one another ; though several Nations and Ages do 
fancy unto themselves different years of danger, yet 
every one expects the same event, and constant verity 
in each. 

Again, Though Varro divided the daies of man into 
five proportions, Hippocrates into 7, and Solon into 10 ; 
yet probably their divisions were to be received with 
latitude, and their considerations not strictly to be 
confined unto their last unities. So when Varro 
extendeth Puertia unto 15. Adolescentia unto 30. 
Jiivcntus unto 35. There is a latitude between the 
terms or Periods of compute, and the verity holds good 
in the accidents of any years between them. So when 
Hippocrates divideth our life into 7 degi-ees or stages, 
and maketh the end of the first 7. Of the second 14. 
Of the third 28. Of the fourth 35. Of the fift 47. 


Of the sixt 56. And of the seventh, the last year when CHAP, 
ever it happeneth ; herein we may observe, he maketh XII 
not his divisions precisely by 7 and 9, and omits the 
great Climacterical ; beside there is between every one 
at least the latitude of 7 years, in which space or 
interval, that is either in the third or fourth year, 
what ever falleth out is equally verified of the whole 
degree, as though it had happened in the seventh. 
Solon divided it into ten Septenaries, because in every 
one thereof, a man received some sensible mutation ; 
in the first is Dedention or falling of teeth ; in {he 
second Pubescence ; in the third the beard groweth ; 
in the fourth strength prevails; in the fift maturity 
for issue ; in the sixt moderation of appetite ; in the 
seventh prudence, etc. Now herein there is a tolerable 
latitude, and though the division proceed by 7, yet is 
not the total verity to be restrained unto the last 
year ; nor constantly to be expected the beard should 
be com pleat at 21. or wisdom acquired just in 49. 
and thus also though 7 times 9 contain one of those 
septenaries, and doth also happen in our declining 
years ; yet might the events thereof be imputed unto 
the whole septenary ; and be more reasonably enter- 
tained with some latitude, then strictly reduced unto 
the last number, or all the accidents from 56. imputed 
unto Sixty three. 

Thirdly, Although this opinion may seem confirmed 
by observation, and men may say it hath been so 
observed, yet we speak also upon experience, and do 
believe that men from observation will collect no 
satisfaction. That other years may be taken against 
it, especially if they have the advantage to precede it ; 
as sixty against sixty three, and sixty three against 
sixty six. For fewer attain to the latter then the 



De catena 

(HAP. former; and so surely in the first septenary do most 
XII die, and probably also in the very first vear; for all 
that ever lived were in the account of that vear ; 
beside the infirmities that attend it are so manv, and 
the body that receives them so tender and inconfirmed, 
we scarce count any alive that is not past it. 

Fabritius Paduaniu^ discoursing of the great Climac- 
terical, attempts a numeration of eminent men, who 
died in that year; but in so small a number, as not 
sufficient to make a considerable Induction. He men- 
tioneth but four, Diog-ene.s- CymciiS, Dyonyaius Hera- 
cleofiais, Xenocrates Platonicics, and Plato. As for 
Dio7ii/s'ni,f, as Censorinus witnesseth, he famished himself 
in the 82 year of his life ; Xenocrates by the testimony 
of Lae>-tius fell into a cauldron, and died the same 
year, and Diogenes the Cynick, by the same testimony 
lived almost unto ninety. The date of Plato's death 
is not exactly agreed on, but all dissent from this 
which he determineth : Neanthes in Laertius extendeth 
his daies unto 84. Suida^ unto 82. But Hemuppus 
defineth his death in 81. And this account seemeth 
most exact ; for if, as he delivereth, Plato was born in 
the 88 Olympiade, and died in the first vear of the 
108, the account will not surpass the year of 81, and so 
in his death he verified the opinion of his life, and 
of the life of man, whose period, as Censorinus re- 
cordeth, he placeth in the Quadrate of 9, or 9 times 9, 
that is, eighty one : and therefore as Seneca delivereth, 
the Magicians at Athens did sacrifice unto him, as 
declaring in his death somewhat above humanitv ; 
because he died in the day of his nativity, and without 
deduction justly accomplished the year of eighty one. 
Bodine I confess, delivers a larger list of men that died 
in this year, Moritnitur innumerahiles anno sexagesimo 



tertio, Jristoteles, Chrysippus, Bocat'ms, Bemardusy CHAP. 
Erasmus, Lutherus, Melancthon, Sylvius, Jleamider, XII 
Jacobus Sturmms, Nicolaus Causanus, Thomas Lmacer, 
eodem anno Cicero ccesus est. Wherein beside that it 
were not difficult to make a larger Catalogue of 
memorable persons that died in other years, we cannot 
but doubt the verity of his Induction. As for Sylvius 
and Aleocander, which of that name he meaneth I know 
not ; but for Chrysippus, by the testimony of Lacriiu^, 
he died in the 73 year, Bocatim in the 62, Linacer the 
64, and Erasmtcs exceedeth 70, as Paultis Jovius hath 
delivered in his Elogy of learned men. And as for 
Cicero, as Plutarch in his life affirmeth, he was slain in 
the year of 64 ; and therefore sure the question is hard 
set, and we have no easie reason to doubt, when great 
and entire Authors shall introduce injustifiable ex- 
amples, and authorize their assertions by what is not 

Fourthly, They which proceed upon strict numera- 
tions, and will by such regular and determined waies 
measure out the lives of men, and periodically define 
the alterations of their tempers ; conceive a regularity 
in mutations, with an equality in constitutions, and 
forget that variety, which Physitians therein discover. 
For seeing we affirm that women do naturally grow 
old before men, that the cholerick fall short in longaevity ChoUrick 
of the sanguine, that there is senium ajite senectum, a,nd ^"','^,„<,„/y 
many grow old before they arrive at age, we cannot ^horttriivtJ. 
affix unto them all one common point of danger, but 
should rather assign a respective fatality unto each. 
Which is concordant unto the doctrine of the numerists, 
and such as maintain this opinion : for they affirm 
that one number respecteth Men, another Women, as 
Bodin explaineth that of Seneca Septimus gitisque 


CHAP, anmut (ctati aignum imprimit, subjoins Hoc de maribus 
XII dictum oportuit^ hoc j^fi^um mtiieri licet, yerfectum 
jiumenim, id est, sextum f(vmincus scptenariinn mares 

Fiftly, Since we esteem this opinion to have some 
ground in nature, and that nine times seven revolutions 
of the Sun, imprints a dangerous Character on such as 
arrive unto it ; it will have some doubt behind, in 
what subjection hereunto were the lives of our fore- 
fathers presently after the flood, and more especially 
before it ; who attaining unto 8 or 900 years, had not 
their Climacters Computable by digits, or as we do 
account them ; for the great Climacterical was past 
unto them before they begat Children, or gave any 
Testimony of tlieir virility ; for we read not that any 
begat children before the age of sixty five. And this 
may also afford a hint to enquire, what are the 
Climacters of other animated creatures ; whereof the 
lives of some attain not so far as this of ours, and that 
of others extend a considerable space beyond it. 

Lastly, The imperfect accounts that Men have kept 
of time, and the difference thereof both in the same 
and divers common Wealths, will much distract the 
certainty of this assertion. For though there were a 
fatality in this year, yet divers were, and others might 
be out in their account, aberring several waies from 
the true and just compute, and calling that one year, 
which perhaps might be another. 

For first, They might be out in the commencement 
or beginning of their account ; for every man is many 
months elder then he computeth. For although we 
begin the same from our nativity, and conceive that 
no arbitrary, but natural term of compute, yet for the 
duration of life or existence, we are liable in the 


Womb unto the usual distinctions of time; and are CHAP, 
not to be exempted from the account of age and life, XII 
where we are subject to diseases, and often suffer 
death. And therefore Pythagoras^ Hippocrates, Diodes, 
Jvicenna and others, have set upon us numeral rela- 
tions and temporal considerations in the womb ; not 
only affirming the birth of the seventh month to be 
vital, that of the eighth mortal, but the progression 
thereto to be measured by rule, and to hold a propor- 
tion unto motion and formation. As what receiveth 
motion in the seventh, to be perfected in the Tripli- 
cities ; that is, the time of conformation unto motion 
is double, and that from motion unto the birth, treble; 
So what is formed the 35 day, is moved the seventy, 
and born the 210 day. And therefore if any invisible 
causality there be, that after so many years doth 
evidence it self as Sixty three, it will be questionable 
whether its activity only set out at our nativity, and 
begin not rather in the womb, wherein we place the 
like considerations. Which doth not only entangle 
this assertion, but hath already embroiled the en- 
deavours of Astrology in the erection of Schemes, and 
the judgment of death or diseases; for being not 
incontroulably determined, at what time to begin, 
whether at conception, animation or exclusion (it 
being indifferent unto the influence of Heaven to begin 
at either) they have invented another way, that is, to 
begin ab Hora gtusstionis, as Haly, Messahallach, Gani- 
vetus, and Guido Bonatus have delivered. 

Again, In regard of the measure of time by months 
and years, there will be no small difficulty ; and if we 
shall strictly consider it, many have been and still may 
be mistaken. For neither the motion of the Moon, 
whereby months are computed ; nor of the Sun, whereby 

VOL. II. ivr 


CHAP, years are accounted, consisteth of whole numbers, but 
XII admits of fractions, and broken parts, as we have 
already declared concerning the Moon. That of the 
Sun consisteth of 365 daiee, and almost 6 hours, that 
is, wanting eleven minutes; which 6 hours omitted, or 
not taken notice of, will in process of time largely 
deprave the compute ; and this is the occasion of the 
Bissextile or leap-year, which was not observed in all 
times, nor punctually in all Common-Wealths ; so that 
in Sixty three years there may be lost almost 18 dales, 
omitting the intercalation of one day every fourth year, 
allowed for this quadrant, or 6 hours supernumerary. 
And though the same were observed, yet to speak 
strictly a man may be somewhat out in the account of 
his age at Sixty three, for although every fourth year 
we insert one day, and so fetch up the quadrant, yet 
those eleven minutes whereby the year comes short of 
perfect 6 hours, will in the circuit of those years arise 
unto certain hours ; and in a larger progression of 
time unto certain daies. Whereof at present we find 
experience in the Calender we observe. For the Julian 
year of 365 daies being eleven minutes larger then the 
annual revolution of the Sun, there will arise an anti- 
cipation in the JEquinoxes; and as Jwictinus com- 
puteth, in every 136 year they will anticipate almost 
Comment, in one day. And therefore those ancient men and 
j^J^'*" Nestors of old times, which yearly observed their 
Sacrobosco. nativities, might be mistaken in the day; nor that to 
be construed without a grain of Salt, which is delivered 
by Moses; At the end of four hundred years, even the 
self same day, all the host of Israel went out of the 
land of Effypt. For in that space of time the .Equi- 
noxes had anticipated, and the eleven minutes had 
amounted far above a day. And this compute rightly 


considered will fall fouler on them who cast up the CHAP, 
lives of Kingdoms, and sum up their duration by XII 
particular numbers ; as Plato first began, and some have 
endeavoured since by perfect and spherical numbers, by 
the square and cube of 7 and 9 and 12, the great 
number of Plato. Wherein indeed Bodine hath Mat. Histor. 
attempted a particular enumeration ; but (beside the 
mistakes committible in the solary compute of years) 
the difference of Chronology disturbs the satisfaction 
and quiet of his computes ; some adding, others de- 
tracting, and few punctually according in any one 
year; whereby indeed such accounts should be made 
up; for the variation in an unite destroys the total 

Thirdly, The compute may be unjust not only in a 
strict acception, of few daies or hours, but in the 
latitude also of some years ; and this may happen from 
the different compute of years in divers Nations, and 
even such as did maintain the mo-st probable way of 
account : their year being not only different from one 
another, but the civil and common account disagreeing 
much from the natural year, whereon the consideration 
is founded. Thus from the testimony of Herodotus, 
Censorimis and others, the Greeks observed the Lunary ThcLunary 
year, that is, twelve revolutions of the Moon, 354 daies ;>'"»'■ ^^"''■ 
but the Egyptians, and many others adhered unto the 
Solary account, that is, 365 daies, that is, eleven daies TheSoiary 

., .J year wlutt. 

longer. Now hereby the account oi the one would 
very much exceed the other : A man in the one would 
account himself 63, when one in the other would think 
himself but 61 ; and so although their nativities were 
under the same hour, yet did they at different years 
believe the verity of that which both esteemed affixed 
and certain unto one. The like mistake there is in a 


CHAP, tradition of our daies; men conceiving a peculiar 
XII danfijcr in the beginning daies of May^ set out as a 
fatal period unto consumptions and Chronical diseases; 
wherein notwithstanding we compute by Calenders, 
not only different from our ancestors, but one another; 
the compute of the one anticipating that of the other; 
so that while we are in Aprils others begin May^ and 
the danger is past unto one, while it beginneth with 

Fourthly, Men were not only out in the number 

of some daies, the latitude of a few years, but might 

be wide by whole Olympiades and divers Decades 

of years. For as Certsorinics relateth, the ancient 

Arcadians observed a year of three months, the Car'unis 

The different of six, the Iheriaus of four ; and as Diodorus and Xeiio- 

TJeTsurel/ p'""'" dc jEqulvoch alleadgeth, the ancient Egyptians 

ayear. have uscd a year of three, two, and one moneth : so 

that the Climacterical was not only different unto 

those Nations, but unreasonably distant from ours ; for 

Sixty three will pass in their account, before they 

arrive so high as ten in ours. 

Nor if we survey the account of Rome it self, mav 
we doubt they were mistaken ; and if they feared 
Climacterical years, might err in their numeration. For 
the civil year whereof the people took notice, did some- 
times come short, and sometimes exceed the natural. 
For according to Varro^ Suetoninus and Censorinus^ 
their year consisted first of ten months; which com- 
prehended but 304« daies, that is, 61 less than ours 
containeth ; after by Numa or Tarqnhie from a super- 
stitious conceit of imparity were added 51 daies, which 
made 355, one day more then twelve revolutions of the 
Moon. And thus a long time it continued, the civil 
compute exceeding the natural ; the correction whereof, 


and the due ordering of the Leap year was referred CHAP. 
unto the Pontifices ; who either upon favour or malice, XII 
that some might continue their offices a longer or 
shorter time ; or from the magnitude of the year that 
men might be advantaged, or endamaged in their 
contracts, by arbitrary intercalations depraved the 
whole account. Of this abuse Cicero accused Verres, 
which at last proceeded so far, that when Julius CcEsar 
came unto that office, before the redress hereof he was 
fain to insert two intercalary months unto November and 
December, when he had already inserted 23 dales unto 
February ; so that the year consisted of 445 dales ; a 
quarter of a year longer then that we observe; and 
though at the last the year was reformed, yet in the 
mean time they might be out wherein they summed 
up Climacterical observations. 

Lastly, One way more there may be of mistake, and 
that not unusual among us, grounded upon a double 
compute of the year ; the one beginning from the 25 
of March, the other from the day of our birth, unto 
the same again which is the natural account. Now 
hereupon many men frequently miscast their dales; 
for in their age they deduce the account not from the 
day of their birth, but the year of our Lord, wherein 
they were born. So a man that was born in January 
1582, if he live to fall sick in the latter end of March 
1645, will sum up his age, and say I am now Sixty 
three, and in my Climacterical and dangerous year; 
for I was bom in the year 1582, and now it is 1645, 
whereas indeed he wanteth many months of that year, 
considering the true and natural account unto his 
birth ; and accounteth two months for a year : and 
though the length of time and accumulation of years 
do render the mistake insensible ; yet is it all one, as 


CHAP, if one born in Jamuiry IG-t'i, should be accounted a 
XII year old the 25 of March 1645. 

All which })erpcnded, it may be easily perceived 
with what insecurity of truth we adhere unto this 
opinion ; ascribing not only effects depending; on the 
natural period of time unto arbitrary calculations, and 
such as vary at pleasure ; but confirming our tenets by 
the uncertain account of others and our selves. There 
being no positive or indisputable ground where to 
begin our compute ; that if there were, men have been 
several waies mistaken ; the best in some latitude, 
others in greater, according to the different compute of 
divers states, the short and irreconcilable years of 
some, the exceeding error in the natural frame of 
others, and the lapses and false deductions of ordinary 
accountants in most. 

Which duly considered, together with a strict ac- 
count and critical examen of reason, will also distract 
the witty determinations of Astrology. That Saturn 
the enemy of life, comes almost every seventh year, 
unto the quadrate or malevolent place; that as the 
Moon about every seventh day arriveth unto a contrary 
sign, so Saturn, which remaineth about as many years, 
as the Moon doth daies in one sign, and holdeth the 
same consideration in years as the Moon in daies ; doth 
cause these periculous periods. Which together with 
other Planets, and profection of the Horoscope, unto 
the seventh house, or opposite signs every seventh 
year; oppresseth living natures, and causeth observable 
mutations, in the state of sublunary things. 
Deannucii- Further satisfaction may yet be had from the learned 
discourse of Salmasius lately published, if any desire 
to be informed how different the present observations 
are from those of the ancients ; how every one hath 



different Climactericals ; with many other observables, CHAP, 
impugning the present opinion. XII 

Of the Canicular or Dog daies. 

WHEREOF to speak distinctly : among the 
Southern constellations two there are which 
bear the name of the Dog ; the one in 16 
degrees of latitude, containing on the left thigh a Star 
of the first magnitude, usually called Procyon or Anti- 
canis, because say some it riseth before the other; 
which if truly understood, must be restrained unto lam Procyon 
those habitations, who have elevation of pole above '^""" '' 

' _ r_ Stella vesarii 

thirty two degrees. Mention thereof there is va. Horace, Leonis. 
who seems to mistake or confound the one with the 
other; and after him in Galen, who is willing, the 
remarkablest Star of the other should be called by this 
name ; because it is the first that ariseth in the con- 
stellation ; which notwithstanding, to speak strictly, 
it is not ; unless we except one of the third magnitude 
in the right paw in his own and our elevation, and two 
more on his head in and beyond the degree of Sixty. 
A second and more considerable one there is, and 
neighbour unto the other, in 40 degrees of latitude, 
containing 18 Stars, whereof that in his mouth of the 
first magnitude, the Greeks call ^eipt,o<i, the Latines ivhattkt 
canis major, and we emphatically the Dog-Star. '^'' '^^"' 

Now from the rising of this Star, not cosmically, 
that is, with the Sun, but Heliacally, that is, its 
emersion from the raies of the Sun, the Ancients com- 
puted their canicular daies; concerning which there 


CHAP, generally passeth an opinion, that during those daies, 
XIII all medication or use of phy^ick is to be declined; and 
the cure committed unto nature. And therefore as 
though there were any feriation in nature, or justitiums 
imaginable in professions, whose subject is natural, and 
under no intermissive, but constant way of mutation; 
this season is commonly termed the Physitians vaca- 
tion, and stands so received by most men. Which 
conceit however general, is not only erroneous, but 
unnatural, and subsisting upon foundations either false, 
uncertain, mistaken or misapplied, deserves not of man- 
kind that indubitable assent it findeth. 

For first, which seems to be the ground of this asser- 
tion, and not to be drawn into question, that is, the 
magnified quality of this Star conceived to cause, or 
intend the heat of this season whereby these daies 
become more observable then the rest : We find that 
wiser Antiquity was not of this opinion. For, seven- 
teen hundred years ago it was as a vulgar error rejected 
by Geminics, a learned Mathematician in his Elements 
of Astronomy; wherein he plainly affirmeth, that 
common opinion made that a cause, which was at first 
observed but as a sign. The rising and setting both 
of this Star and others being observed by the Ancients, 
to denote and testifie certain points of mutation rather 
then conceived to induce or effect the same. For our 
fore-fathers, saith he, observing the course of the 
Sun, and marking certain mutations to happen in his 
progress through particular parts of the Zodiack, they 
registred and set them down in their Parapegmes, or 
Astronomical Canons ; and being not able to design 
these times by daies, months or years (the compute 
thereof, and the beginning of the year being different, 
according unto different Nations) they thought best to 


settle a general account unto all; and to determine CHAP. 
these alterations by some known and invariable signs ; XIII 
and such did they conceive the rising and setting of 
the fixed Stars; not ascribing thereto any part of 
causality, but notice and signification. And thus 
much seems implied in that expression of Horner^ when 

speaking of the Dog Star, he concludeth KaKov Se 

re a-7]fxa rirvKTai, Malum autem signum est ; The 
same, as Petavius observeth, is implied in the word of 
Ptohmy, and the Ancients, Trepl i7rcar]/j,aaLa}v, that is, 
of the signification of Stars. The terra of Scripture also 
favours it, as that of Isaiah, Nolite timere a sig7iis 
ccbU ; and that in Genesis, Ut sint in signa et tempora : 
Let there be lights in the firmament, and let them be 
for signs and for seasons. 

The Primative and leading magnifiers of this Star, 
were the Egyptians, the great admirers of Dogs in 
Earth and Heaven. Wherein they worshipped Anuhis 
or Mercurius, the Scribe of Saturn, and Counseller of Dionysius 
Osyris, the great inventor of their religious rites, and "'^^'*'' 
Promoter of good unto Egypt. Who was therefore 
translated into this Star ; by the Egyptians called 
Sothis, and Siris by the Ethiopians; from whence 
that Sirius or the Dog-star had its name, is by some 

And this they looked upon, not with reference unto -^ 
heat, but coelestial influence upon the faculties of 
man, in order to religion and all sagacious invention ; 
and from hence derived the abundance and great fer- 
tility of Egypt, the overflow of Nilus happening about 
the ascent hereof. And therefore in hieroglyphical 
monuments, Anuhis is described with a Dogs-head, 
with a Crocodile between his legs, with a sphere in his 
hand, with two Stars, and a water Pot standing by 




How the 
dividid the 
seasons of 
the year. 

him ; implying thereby, the rising and setting of the 
Dog-star, and the inundation of the River Nilus. 

But if all were silent, Galen hath explained this 
point unto the life ; who expounding the rea^ion why 
Hippocrates declared the affections of the year by the 
rising and setting of Stars ; it was saith he, because 
he would proceed on signs and principles best known 
unto all Nations. And upon his words in the first of 
the Epidemicks, In Thaso Auiumno circa Equinoxium 
et sub virgilias pluviae erant multce^ he thus enlargeth. 
If (saith he) the same compute of times and months 
were observed by all Nations, Hippocrates had never 
made any mention either of Arcturus, Pleiades or 
the Dog-star ; but Avould have plainly said, in Mace- 
do7iia, in the month ])ion, thus or thus was the air 
disposed. But for as much as the month Dion is only 
known unto the Macedonians, but obscure unto the 
AtJienians and other Nations, he found more general 
distinctions of time, and instead of naming months, 
would usually say, at the Equinox, the rising of the 
Pleiades, or the Dog-star. And by this way did the 
Ancients divide the seasons of the year, the Autumn, 
Winter, Spring, and Summer. By the rising of the 
Pleiades, denoting the beginning of Summer, and by 
that of the Dog-star, the declination thereof. By this 
way Aristotle through all his books of Animals, distin- 
guishing their times of generation, latitancy, migra- 
tion, sanity and venation. And this were an allowable 
way of compute, and still to be retained, were the site 
of the Stars as inalterable, and their ascents as invari- 
able as primitive Astronomy conceived them. And 
therefore though Aristotle frequently mentioneth this 
Star, and particularly affirmeth that Fishes in the 
Bosphorus are best catched from the arise of the Dog- 


star, we must not conceive the same a meer effect CHAP, 
thereof. Nor though Scaliger from hence be willing XIII 
to infer the efficacy of this Star, are we induced hereto ; 
except because the same Philosopher affirmeth, that 
Tunny is fat about the rising of the Pleiades, and 
departs upon Arcturus, or that most insects are latent, 
from the setting of the 7 Stars ; except, I say, he give 
us also leave to infer that these particular effects and 
alterations proceed from those Stars ; which were 
indeed but designations of such quarters and portions 
of the year, wherein the same were observed. Now 
what Pliny affirmeth of the Orix, that it seemeth to 
adore this Star, and taketh notice thereof by voice 
and sternutation ; until we be better assured of its 
verity, we shall not salve the sympathy. 

Secondly, What slender opinion the Ancients held 
of the efficacy of this Star, is declarable from their 
compute. For as Geminus affirmeth, and Petavius 
his learned Commentator proveth, they began their 
account from its Heliacal emersion, and not its cos- 
mical ascent. The cosmical ascention of a Star we i^hatthe 
term that, when it ariseth together with the Sun, or *'^'*'"^'' • 
the same degree of the Ecliptick wherein the Sun abid- 
eth : and that the Heliacal, when a Star which before ivhat the 
for the vicinity of the Sun was not visible, being further ^'''^/*^ 
removed, beginning to appear. For the annual motion starts. 
of the Sun from West to East being far swifter then 
that of the fixed Stars, he must of necessity leave them 
on the East while he hasteneth forward, and obscureth 
others to the West : and so the Moon who performs 
its motion swifter then the Sun (as may be observed 
in their Conjunctions and Eclipses) gets Eastward out 
of his raies; and appears when the Sun is set. If 
therefore the Dog-star had this effisctual heat which is 


CHAP, ascribed unto it, it would afford best evidence thereof, 
XIII and tlie season would be most fervent, when it ariseth 
in the probablest place of its activity, that is, the 
cosmical ascent ; for therein it ariseth with the Sun, 
and is included in the same irradiation. But the time 
observed by the Ancients was long after this ascent, 
and in the Heliacal emersion ; when it becomes at 
greatest distance from the Sun, neither rising with it 
nor near it. And therefore had they conceived any 
more then a bare signality in this Star, or ascribed the 
heat of the season therunto, they would not have 
computed from its Heliacal ascent, which was of in- 
feriour efficacy ; nor imputed the vehemency of heat 
unto those points wherein it was more remiss, and 
where with less probability they might make out its 

Thirdly, Although we derive the authority of these 

dales from observations of the Ancients, yet are our 

computes very different, and such as confirm not each 

other. For whereas they observed it Heliacally, we 

seem to observe it Cosmically ; for before it ariseth 

Heliacally unto our latitude, the Summer is even at 

an end. Again, we compute not only from different 

ascents, but also from divers Stars ; they from the 

greater Dog-star, we from the lesser ; they from 

Orions we from Cephalus his Dog ; they from Seirius, 

^ we from Procyon ; for the beginning of the Dog-daies 

with us is set down the 19 of July, about which time 

the lesser Dog-star ariseth with the Sun ; whereas the 

Star of the greater Dog ascendeth not until after that 

month. And this mistake will yet be larger, if the 

Bainb. Cani- computc be made stricter, and as Dr. lia'inbrigge late 

cuians. professor of Astronomy in Oxford, hath set it down. 

vVho in the year 1G29 computed, that in the Horizon 


of Oaford the Dog-star arose not before the fifteenth CHAP, 
day of August ; when in our Almanack accounts, those XIII 
daies are almost ended. So that the common and 
received time not answering the true compute, it 
frustrates the observations of our selves. And being 
also different from the calculations of the Ancients, 
their observations confirm not ours, nor ours theirs, 
but rather confute each other. 

Nor will the computes of the Ancients be so Authen- 
tick unto those, who shall take notice, how commonly 
they applied the celestial descriptions of other climes 
unto their own ; wherein the learned Bainhrigius justly 
reprehendeth Maniliiis, who transferred the Egyptian 
descriptions unto the Roman account; confounding 
the observation of the G^-eek and Barbarick Spheres. 

Fourthly, (which is the Argument of Geminus) were 
there any such effectual heat in this Star, yet could it 
but weakly evidence the same in Summer; it being 
about 40 degrees distant from the Sun : and should 
rather manifest its warming power in the Winter, 
when it remains conjoyned with the Sun in its Hy- 
bernal conversion. For about the 29 of October, and 
in the 16 of Scorpius and so again in January, the 
Sun performs his revolution in the same parallel with 
the Dog-star. Again, If we should impute the heat 
of this season, unto the co-operation of any Stars with 
the Sun, it seems more favourable for our times, to 
ascribe the same unto the constellation of Leo. Where 
besides that the Sun is in his proper house, it is con- 
joyned with many Stars ; whereof two of the first 
magnitude ; and in the 8*** of August is corporally 
conjoyned with Basilicu^ ; a Star of eminent name in 
Astrology, and seated almost in the Ecliptick. 

Fifthly, If all were granted, that observation and 



CHAP, reason were also for it, and were it an undeniable truth, 
XIII that an effectual fervour proceeded from this Star; 
yet would not the same determine the opinion now in 
question ; it necessarily suffering such restrictions as 
take off general illations. For first in regard of dif- 
ferent latitudes, unto some the canicular daies are in 
the Winter; as unto such as have no latitude, but 
live in a right Sphere, that is, under the Equinoctial 
line ; for unto them it ariseth when the Sun is about 
the Tropick of Cancer; which season unto them is 
Winter, and the Sun remotest from them. Nor hath 
the same position in the Summer, that is, in the Equi- 
noctial points, any advantage from it; for in the one 
point the Sun is at the Meridian, before the Dog-star 
ariseth ; in the other the Star is at the Meridian, before 
the sun ascendeth. 
irkatuti- ^ Some latitudes have no canicular daies at all; as 
iudtshave namelv all those which have more then 73 degrees of 
at all. Northern Elevation ; as the territory of Nova Zernbla, 

part of Greenland and Tartary ; for unto that habita- 
tion the Dog-star is invisible, and appeareth not above 
the Horizon. 

Unto such latitudes wherein it ariseth, it carricth a 
various and very different respect; unto some it as- 
cendeth when Summer is over, whether we compute 
Heliacally or Cosmically; for though unto Alexandria 
it ariseth in Cancer; yet it ariseth not unto Biarmia 
Cosmically before it be in Virgo, and Heliacally about 
the Autumnal Equinox. Even unto the latitude of 52, 
the efficacy thereof is not much considerable, whether 
we consider its ascent. Meridian, altitude or abode 
above the Horizon. For it ariseth very late in the 
year, about the eighteenth of Leo., that is, the 31 of 
Jidy. Of Meridian Altitude it hath but 23 degrees, 



so that it plaies but obliquely upon us, and as the Sun CHAP, 
doth about the 23 of Jawmn/. And lastly, his abode XIll 
above the Horizon is not great ; for in the eighteenth 
of Leo^ tlie 31 of July^ although they arise together ; 
yet doth it set above 5 hours before the Sun, that is, 
before two of the clock, after which time we are more 
sensible of heat, then all the day before. 

Secondly, In regard of the variation of the longi- 
tude of the Stars, we are to consider (what the Ancients 
observed not) that the site of the fixed Stars is alter- 
able, and that since elder times they have suffered a 
large and considerable variation of their longitudes. 
The longitude of a Star, to speak plainly, is its distance what the 
from the first point of numeration toward the East ; ^'"'//^«''' "-^ 
which first point unto the Ancients was the vernal 
aequinox. Now by reason of their motion from West 
to East, they have very much varied from this point : 
The first Star of Aries in the time of Meton the 
Athenian was placed in the very intersection, which is 
now elongated and removed Eastward 28 degrees ; in- 
somuch that now the sign of Aries possesseth the 
place of Taurus, and Taurus that of Gemini. Which 
variation of longitude must very much distract the 
opinion of the Dog star ; not only in our dales, but in 
times before and after ; for since the World began it 
hath arisen in Taurus, and if the World last, may have 
its ascent in Virgo ; so that we must place the canicular 
dales, that is, the hottest time of the year in the Spring 
in the first age, and in the Autumn in Ages to come. 

Thirdly, The Stars have not only varied their longi- jvhat the 
tudes, whereby their ascents have altered ; but have «'''^'""''""' 

1 1 • 1 1 • • "•^'^ Star is. 

also changed their declinations, whereby their rising at 
all, that is, their appearing hath varied. The declina- 
tion of a Star we call its distance from the Equator, 


CHAP. Now though the Poles of the world and the Equator 
XIII be immovable, yet because the Stars in their proper 
motions from West to East, do move upon the poles 
of the Ecliptick, distant 23 degrees and an half from 
the Poles of the Equator, and describe circles parallel 
not unto the Equator, but the Ecliptick ; they must 
be therefore sometimes nearer, sometimes removed 
further from the Equator. All Stars that have their 
distance from the Ecliptick Northward not more then 
23 degrees and an half (which is the greatest distance 
of the Ecliptick from the Equator) may in progression 
of time have declination Southward, and move beyond 
the Equator: but if any Star hath just this distance 
of 23 and an half (as hath Capella on the back of 
Ericthonius) it may hereafter move under the Equi- 
noctial; and the same will happen respectively unto 
Stars which have declination Southward. And there- 
fore many Stars may be visible in our Hemisphere, 
which are not so at present ; and many which are at 
present, shall take leave of our Horizon, and appear 
unto Southern habitations. And therefore the time 
may come that the Dog star may not be visible in our 
Horizon, and the time hath been, when it hath not 
shewed it self unto our neighbour latitudes. So that 
canicular daies there have been none, nor shall be ; yet 
certainly in all times some season of the year more 
notablv hot then other. 

Lastly, We multiply causes in vain; and for the 
reason hereof, we need not have recourse unto any Star 
but the Sun, and continuity of its action. For the 
Sun ascending into the Northern signs, begetteth first 
a temperate heat in the air; which by his approach 
unto the solstice he intendeth ; and by continua- 
tion increaseth the same even uj)on declination. For 


running over the same degrees again, that is, in Leo, CHAP. 
which he hath done in Taurus, in July which he did in XIII 
May ; he augmenteth the heat in the latter which he ivhy tht 
began in the first ; and easily intendeth the same by ^"e-daUs 

. . ^ • 1 ^ •' be to hoi. 

continuation which was well promoted before. So it is 
observed, that they which dwell between the Tropicks 
and the Equator, have their second summer hotter and 
more maturative of fruits then the former. So we 
observe in the day (which is a short year) the greatest 
heat about two in the afternoon, when the Sun is past 
the Meridian (which is liis diurnal solstice) and the 
same is evident from the Thermometer or observations 
of the weather-glass. So are the colds of the night 
sharper in the Summer about two or three after mid- 
night, and the frosts in Winter stronger about those 
hours. So likewise in the year we observe the cold to 
augment, when the dales begin to increase, though the 
Sun be then ascensive, and returning from the Winter 
Tropick. And therefore if we rest not in this reason 
for the heat in the declining part of Summer, we must 
discover freezing Stars that may resolve the latter colds 
of Winter ; which whoever desires to invent, let him 
study the Stars of Aiidromeda, or the nearer constella- 
tion of Pegasus, which are about that time ascendent. 
It cannot therefore seem strange, or savour of singu- 
larity that we have examined this point ; since the 
same hath been already denied by some, since the 
authority and observations of the Ancients rightly 
understood, do not confirm it, since our present com- 
putes are different from those of the Ancients, whereon 
notwithstanding they depend ; since there is reason 
against it, and if all were granted, yet must it be 
maintained with manifold restraints, far otherwise 
then is received. And lastly, since from plain and 



CHAP, natural principles, the doubt may be fairly salved, 
XIII and not clapt up from petitionary foundations and 
principles unestablished. 

But that which chiefly promoted the consideration 
of these daies, and medically advanced the same, was 
the doctrin of Hippocrates ; a Physitian of such repute, 
that he received a testimony from a Christian, that 
Qui nee might have been given unto Christ. The first in his 
nec'r^L^"^' book, de Aere^ Aquis^ et locls. Sy denim orttis^ etc. 
That is, we are to observe the rising of Stars, especially 
the Dog-star, Arcturus, and the setting of the Pleiades 
or seven Stars. From whence notwithstanding we 
cannot infer the general efficacy of these Stars, or 
co-efficacy particular in medications. Probably ex- 
pressing no more hereby then if he should have plainly 
said, especial notice we are to take of the hottest time 
in Summer, of the beginning of Autumn and Winter; 
for by the rising and setting of those Stars were these 
times and seasons defined. And therefore subjoyns 
this reason, Quoniam his temporibus morbi Jiniuntur^ 
Diseases becausc at these times diseases have their ends; as 
"Tte^iLd Physitians well known, and he elsewhere affirmeth, that 
by what seasons determine diseases, beginning in their con- 
traries ; as the Spring the diseases of Autumn, and 
the Summer those of Winter. Now (what is very 
remarkable) whereas in the some place he adviseth to 
observe the times of notable mutations, as the Equi- 
noxes, and the Solstices, and to decline Medication 
ten daies before and after ; how precisely soever cani- 
cular cautions be considered, this is not observed by 
Physitians, nor taken notice of by the people. And 
indeed should we blindly obey the restraints both of 
Physitians and Astrologers, we should contract the 
liberty of our prescriptions, and confine the utility of 



Physick unto a very few daies. For observing the CHAP. 
Dog-daies, and as is expressed, some daies before, like- XIII 
wise ten daies before and after the Equinoctial and 
Solsticial points; by this observation alone are ex- 
empted an hundred daies, Whereunto if we add the 
two Egyptian daies in every month, the interlunary 
and plenilunary exemptions, the Eclipses of Sun and 
Moon, conjunctions and oppositions Planetical, the 
houses of Planets, and the site of the Luminaries under 
the signs (wherein some would induce a restraint of 
Purgation or Phlebotomy) tiiere would arise above an 
hundred more ; so that of the whole year the use of 
Physick would not be secure much above a quarter. 
Now as we do not strictly observe these daies, so need 
we not the other ; and although consideration be made 
hereof, yet must we prefer the nearer indications before 
those which are drawn from the time of the year ; or 
other caelestial relations. 

The second Testimony is taken out of the last piece 
of his Age, and after the experience (as some think) of 
no less then an hundred years, that is, his book of 
Aphorisms, or short and definitive determinations in 
Physick. The Aphorism alleadged is this. Sub Cane et 
ante Canem difficiles sunt purgationes. Sub Cane et 
Anticane, say some including both the Dog-stars ; but 
that cannot consist with the Greek : viro Kvva kuI 
TTpb /cvi/09, nor had that Criticism been ever omitted 
by Galen. Now how true this sentence was in the 
mouth of Hippocrates, and with what restraint it must 
be understood by us, will readily appear from the 
difference between us both, in circumstantial relations. 

And first, Concerning his time and Chronology : he iv^tn 
lived in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, about the ^„,^. 
82 Olympiade, 450 years before Christ ; and from our 


CHAP, times above two thousand. Now since that time (as 
XIII we have already declared) the Stars have varied their 
longitudes ; and having made large progressions from 
West to East, the time of the Dog-stars ascent must 
also very much alter. For it ariseth later now in the 
year, then it formerly did in the same latitude ; and far 
later unto us who have a greater elevation ; for in the 
daies of Hippocrates this Star ascended in Cancer, 
which now ariseth in Leo ; and will in progression of 
time arise in Virgo. And therefore in regard of the 
time wherein he lived, the Aphorism was more con- 
siderable in his daies then in ours, and in times far 
past then present, and in his Countrey then ours. 
r The place of his nativity was Coos., an Island in the 
Myrtoan Sea, not far from Rhodes^ described in Maps 
by the name of Lango, and called by the Turks who 
are Masters thereof, Staiwora ; according unto Ptolomy 
of Northern latitude 36 degrees. That he lived and 
writ in these parts, is not improbably collected from 
the Epistles that passed betwixt him and Artaxerxes \ 
as also between the Citizens of Abdcra^ and Coos., in 
the behalf of Democritus. Which place being seated 
from our latitude of 52, 16 degrees Southward, there 
will arise a different consideration ; and we may much 
deceive our selves if we conform the ascent of Stars in 
one place unto another, or conceive they arise the 
same day of the month in Coos and in England. For 
as Petavius computes in the first Jidian year, at 
Alexandria of latitude 31, the Star arose cosmically in 
the twelfth degree of Cancer, Heliacally the 26, by the 
compute of Geminus about this time at Rhodes of lati- 
tude 37, it ascended cosmically the 16 of Cancer, 
Heliacally the first of Leo ; and about that time at 
Rome of latitude 42, cosmically the 22 of Cancer, and 


Heliacally the first of Leo. For unto places of greater CHAP. 
latitude it ariseth ever later ; so that in some latitudes XIII 
the cosmical ascent happeneth not before the twentieth 
degree of Virgo, ten daies before the Autumnal Equi- 
nox, and if they compute Heliacally, after it, in Libra. 

Again, Should we allow all, and only compute unto 
the latitude of Coos ; yet would it not impose a total 
omission of Physick. For if in the hottest season of 
that clime, all Physick were to be declined, then surely 
in many other none were to be used at any time what- 
soever ; for unto many parts, not only in the Spring 
and Autumn, but also in the Winter, the Sun is 
nearer, then unto the clime of Coos in the Summer. ^ 

The third consideration concerneth purging medi- 
cines, which are at present far different from those 
implied in this Aphorism, and such as were commonly 
used by Hippocrates. For three degrees we make of TAree 
purgative medicines : The first thereof is very benign, 1^^^"/,-^^,. 
nor far removed from the nature of Aliment, into 
which, upon defect of working, it is oft-times converted; 
and in this form do we account Manna^ Cassia, Tamar- 
indes, and many more ; whereof we find no mention in 
Hippocrates. This second is also gentle having a 
familiarity with some humor, into which it is but 
converted if it fail of its operation : of this sort are 
Aloe, Rhaharh, Senna, etc. Whereof also few or none 
were known unto Hippocrates. The third is of a 
violent and venemous quality, which frustrate of its 
action, assumes as it were the nature of poison ; such 
as are Scammoneum, Colocynthis, Elaterium, Euphor- 
bium, Tithymallus, Laureola, Peplum, etc. Of this 
sort Hippocrates made use, even in Fevers, Pleurisies 
and Quinsies ; and that composition is very remarkable 
which is ascribed unto Diogenes in jEtius ; that is, of 


CHAP. Pepper, Sal Armoniac, Euphorbium, of each an ounce, 

XIII the Dosis whereof four scruples and an half; which 

Tetrab. lib. 1. whosoevcr should take, would find in his bowels more 

■ ""*' ^' then a canicular heat, though in the depth of Winter; 

many of the like nature may be observed in JEtins, or 

in the book De Dinamidiis, ascribed unto Galen, which 

is the same verbatim with the other. 

Now in regard of the second, and especially the first 
degree of Purgatives, the Aphorism is not of force ; 
but we may safely use them, they being benign and 
of innoxious qualities. And therefore Lucas Gaiiriciis, 
who hath endeavoured with many testimonies to 
advance this consideration, at length concedeth that 
lenitive Physick may be used, especially when the 
Moon is well affected in Cancer or in the watery signs. 
But in regard of the third degree the Aphorism is 
considerable : purgations may be dangerous ; and a 
memorable example there is in the medical Epistles 
of Cruciics, of a Roman Prince that died upon an ounce 
of Diaphaenicon, taken in this season. From the use 
whereof we refrain not only in hot seasons, but warily 
exhibit it at all times in hot diseases. Which when 
necessity requires, we can perform more safely then 
the Ancients, as having better waies of preparation 
and correction ; that is, not only by addition of other 
bodies, but separation of noxious parts from their own. 
But beside these differences heiweew Hippocrates and 
us, the Physitians of these times and those of Antiquity ; 
the condition of the disease, and the intention of the 
Physitian, hold a main consideration in what time and 
place soever. For Physick is either curative or pre- 
ventive; Preventive we call that which by purging 
noxious humors, and the causes of diseases, pre- 
venteth sickness in the healthy, or the recourse thereof 


in the valetudinary; this is of common use at the CHAP. 
spring and fall, and we commend not the same at this XIII 
season. Therapeutick or curative Physick, we term 
that, which restoreth the Patient unto Sanity, and 
taketh away diseases actually affecting. Now of dis- Diseases 
eases some are cronical and of long duration, as ^'■''^"''''^ 

O ' and Acute 

quartane Agues, Scurvy, etc. Wherein because they whattheybt. 
admit of delay we defer the cure to more advantagious 
seasons ; Others we term acute, that is, of short dura- 
tion and danger, as Fevers, Pleurisies, etc. In which, 
because delay is dangerous, and they arise unto their 
state before the Dog-daies determine, we apply present 
remedies according unto Indications ; respecting rather 
the acuteness of the disease, and precipitancy of occa- 
sion, then the rising or setting of Stars; the effects 
of the one being disputable, of the other assured and 

And although Astrology may here put in, and plead strong fmr- 
the secret influence of this Star; yet Galen in his f" J,^"J^j,^„ 
Comment, makes no such consideration; confirming'"'*"^''''' 
the truth of the Aphorism from the heat of the year ; and why. ' 
and the operation of Medicines exhibited. In regard 
that bodies being heated by the Summer, cannot so 
well endure the acrimony of purging Medicines; and 
because upon purgations contrary motions ensue, the 
heat of the air attracting the humours outward, and 
the action of the Medicine retracting the same inward. 
But these are readily salved in the distinctions before 
alleadged ; and particularly in the constitution of our 
climate and divers others, wherein the air makes no 
such exhaustion of spirits. And in the benignity of 
our Medicines ; whereof some in their own natures, 
others well prepared, agitate not the humors, or make 
sensible perturbation. 




A Problem. 

Upon the 
biting of a 
mad Dog 
thtre ensues 
an hydro- 
phobia or 
/tar of 

Nor do we hereby reject or condemn a sober and 
regulated Astrology ; we hold there is more truth 
therein then in Astrologers ; in some more then many 
allow, yet in none so much as some pretend. We deny 
not the influence of the Stars, but often suspect the 
due application thereof; for though we should affirm 
that all things were in all things ; that heaven were 
but earth celestified, and earth but heaven terrestrified, 
or that each part above had an influence upon its 
divided affinity below ; yet how to single out these 
relations, and duly to apply their actions is a work oft 
times to be effected by some revelation, and Cahnla 
from above, rather then any Philosophy, or speculation 
here below. What power soever they have upon our 
bodies, it is not requisite they should destroy our 
reasons, that is, to make us rely on the strength of 
Nature, when she is least able to relieve us; and when 
we conceive the heaven against us, to refuse the assist- 
ance of the earth created for us. This were to suffer 
from the mouth of the Dog above, what others do 
from the teeth of Dogs below ; that is, to be afraid 
of their proper remedy, and refuse to approach any 
water, though that hath often proved a cure unto their 
disease. There is in wise men a power beyond the 
Stars ; and Ptolomy encourageth us, that by foreknow- 
ledge, we may evade their actions ; for, being but 
universal causes, they are determined by particular 
agents ; which being inclined, not constrained, contain 
within themselves the casting act, and a power to 
command the conclusion. 

Lastly, If all be conceded, and were there in this 
Aphorism an unrestrained truth, yet were it not 
reasonable from a caution to inferr a non-usance or 
abolition, from a thing to be used with discretion, not 


to be used at all. Because the Apostle bids us beware CHAP, 
of Philosophy, heads of extremity will have none at XIII 
all ; an usual fallacy in vulgar and less distinctive 
brains, who having once overshot the mean, run 
violently on, and find no rest but in the extreams. 

Now hereon we have the longer insisted, because the 
error is material, and concerns oft-times the life of 
man ; an error to be taken notice of by State, and 
provided against by Princes, who are of the opinion of 
Solomon, that their riches consists in the multitude 
of their subjects. An error worse then some reputed 
Heresies ; and of greater danger to the body, then they 
unto the soul ; which whosoever is able to reclaim, 
he shall salve more in one summer then Themison a Physitian. 
destroyed in any Autumn ; he shall introduce a new son^^grJ'™" 
way of cure, preserving by Theory, as well as practice, Autumno 
and men not only from death, but from destroying /„i;,^„a/. 


Of many things questionable as they are 
commonly described in Pictures. 

Of the Picture of the Pelecan. 

CHAP. A ND first in every place we meet with the picture 
I / \ of the Pelecan, opening her breast with her 

± A. bill, and feeding her young ones with the 
blood distilling from her. Thus is it set forth not only 
in common Signs, but in the Crest and Schucheon 
of many Noble families ; hath been asserted by many 
holy Writers, and was an Hierogliphick of piety and 
pitty among the JEgyptians ; on which consideration, 
they spared them at their tables. 

Notwithstanding upon enquiry we find no mention 
hereof in Ancient Zodiographers, and such as have par- 
ticularly discoursed upon Animals, as Aristotle, jEliany 
Pliny, Solinus and many more ; who seldom forget pro- 
prieties of such a nature, and have been very punctual in 
less considerable Records. Some ground hereof I confess 
we may allow, nor need we deny a remarkable affection 
in Pelecans toward their young; fov /Julian discoursing 
of Storks, and their affection toward their brood, whom 
they instruct to fly, and unto whom they re-deliver up 



the provision of their Bellies, concludeth at last, that CHAP. 
Herons and Pelecans do the like. I 

As for the testimonies of Ancient Fathers, and 
Ecclesiastical Writers, we may more safely conceive 
therein some Emblematical than any real Story : so 
doth Eucherius confess it to be the Emblem of Christ. 
And we are unwilling literally to receive that account 
of Jerom^ that perceiving her young ones destroyed by 
Serpents, she openeth her side with her bill, by the 
blood whereof they revive and return unto life again. 
By which relation they might indeed illustrate the 
destruction of man by the old Serpent, and his restore- 
ment by the blood of Christ : and in this sense we shall 
not dispute the like relations of Austine, Isidore, 
Alberttis, and many more : and under an Emblematical 
intention, we accept it in coat-armour. 

As for the Hieroglyphick of the Egyptians^ they 
erected the same upon another consideration, which 
was parental affection ; manifested in the protection 
of her young ones, when her nest was set on fire. For 
as for letting out her blood, it was not the assertion of 
the Egyptians, but seems translated unto the Pelecan 
from the Vulture, as Pierius hath plainly delivered. 
Sed quod Pellcanum (ut etiam aliis plerisque persuasum 
est) rostro pectus dissecantevi p'mgunt, ita ut suo sanguine 
filios alat, ah JEgyptiorum liistoria valde alienum est, 
illi enim indturem tantum idfacere tradiderunt. 

And lastly, as concerning the picture, if naturally 
examined, and not Hierogliphically conceived, it con- 
taineth many improprieties, disagreeing almost in all 
things from the true and proper description. For, 
whereas it is commonly set forth green or yellow, in its 
proper colour, it is inclining to white ; excepting the 
extremities or tops of the wing feathers, which are 


CHAP, brown. It is described in the bigness of a Hen, 
I whereas it approacheth and sometimes exceedeth the 
Theti^ness magnitude of a Swan. It is commonly painted with a 
t/aPttcan. ^^^i^ |jj|j . vvhereas that of the Pelecan attaineth some- 
times the length of two spans. The bill is made acute 
or pointed at the end ; whereas it is flat and broad, 
tliough somewhat inverted at the extream. It is 
described like fissipedes, or birds which have their 
feet or claws divided ; whereas it is palmipedous, or 
fin-footed like Swans and Geese; according to the 
method of nature, in latirostrous or flat-bild birds ; 
which being generally swimmers, the organ is wisely 
contrived unto the action, and they are framed with 
fins or oars upon their feet ; and therefore they neither 
light, nor build on trees, if we except Cormorants, who 
make their nests like Herons. Lastly, there is one 
part omitted more remarkable than any other, that is, 
ofhtrCrop. the chowle or crop adhering unto the lower side of the 
bill, and so descending by the throat : a bag or sachel 
very observable, and of a capacity almost be3'ond 
credit; which notwithstanding, this animal could not 
want ; for therein it receiveth Oysters, Cochels, Scollops, 
and other testaceous animals ; which being not able 
to break, it retains them until they open, and vomiting 
them up, takes out the meat contained. This is that 
part preserved for a rarity and wherein (as Sanctius 
delivers) in one dissected, a Negro child was found. 

A possibility there may be of opening and bleeding 
their breast ; for this may be done by the uncous and 
pointed extremity of their bill : and some probability 
also that they sometimes do it, for their own relief, 
though not for their young ones ; that is by nibling 
and biting themselves on their itching part of their 
breast, upon fullness or acrimony of blood. And the 


same may be better made out ; if (as some relate) their CHAP, 
feathers on that part are sometimes observed to be red 1 
and tincted with blood. 

Of the Picture of Dolphins. 

THAT Dolphins are crooked, is not only affirmed 
by the hand of the Painter, but commonly 
conceived their natural and proper figure; 
which is not only the opinion of our times, but seems 
the belief of elder times before us. For, beside the 
expressions of Ovid and Pliny, their Pourtraicts in some 
ancient Coyns are framed in this figure, as will appear 
in some thereof in Gesner, others in Goltsius, and 
Lavinus Hulsius in his discription of Coyns, from 
Julius Ccesar unto Rhodtdphus the second. 

Notwithstanding, to speak strictly in their natural 
figure they are streight, nor have their spine convexed, 
or more considerably embowed, than Sharks, Porposes, 
Whales, and other Cetaceous animals, as Scaliger 
plainly affirmeth: Corpus hahet non magis curvum 
quam religui pisces. As ocular enquiry informeth ; and 
as unto such as have not had the opportunity to behold 
them, their proper pourtraicts will discover in Rondele- 
tius, Gesner^ and Aldi-ovandus. And as indeed is 
deducible from pictures themselves ; for though they 
be drawn repandous, or convexedly crooked in one 
piece, yet the Dolphin that cari'ieth Arion is con- 
cavously inverted, and hath its spine depressed in 
another. And answerably hereto may we behold 
them differently bowed in medalls, and the Dolphins of 


CHAP. Tanis and FuUils do make another flexure from that 
U of Cojumndus and Agrippa. 

And therefore what is delivered of their incurvity, 
must eitlier be taken Emphatically, that is, not really 
but in appearance ; which happeneth, when they leap 
above water, and suddenly shoot down again ; which is 
a fallacy in vision, whereby straiglit bodies in a sudden 
motion protruded obli([uely downward, appear unto 
the eye crooked ; and this is the construction of 
Bellonius. Or if it be taken really, it must not univer- 
sally and perpetually ; that is, not when they swim 
and remain in their proper figures, but only when they 
leap, or impetuously whirl their bodies any way ; and 
this is the opinion of Gesnerus. Or lastly. It may be 
taken neither really nor emphatically, but only 
Emblematically : for being the Hieroglyphick of 
celerity, and swifter than other animals, men best 
expressed their velocity by incurvity, and under some 
figure of a bow : and in this sense probably do Heralds 
also receive it, when from a Dolphin extended, they 
distinguish a Dolphin cmbowed. 

And thus also must that picture be taken of a 
Dolphin clasping an Anchor : that is, not really, as is 
by most conceived out of affection unto man, conveigh- 
ing the Anchor unto the ground : but emblematically, 
according as Pieriu~s hath expressed it, The swiftest 
animal conjoyned with that heavy body, implying that 
common movaX, Festina knte: and that celerity should 
always be contempered with cunctation. 



Of the Picture of a Grashopper. 

THERE is also among us a common description 
and picture of a Grashopper, as may be 
observed in the pictures of Emblematists, in 
the coats of several families, and as the word Cicada is 
usually translated in Dictionaries. Wherein to speak 
strictly, if by this word Grashopper, we understand 
that animal which is implied by rerrL^ with the G/reks^ 
and by Cicada with the Latines ; we may with safety 
affirm the picture is widely mistaken, and that for ought 
enquiry can inform, there is no such insect in England. 
Which how paradoxical soever, upon a strict enquiry, 
will prove undeniable truth. 

For first, That animal which the French term 
Sauterelle^ we a Grashopper, and which under this name 
is commonly described by us, is named "KKpi^ by the 
Greeks^ by the Latines Locnsta^ and by our selves in 
proper speech a Locust ; as in the diet of John Baptist, 
and in our Translation, the Locusts have no King, yet Prov. 30. 
go they forth all of them by bands. Again, Between the 
Cicada and that we call a Grashopper, the differences 
are very many, as may be observed in themselves, or 
their descriptions in Maithiolus, Aldrovandus and 
Muffetus. For first. They are differently cucullated or 
capuched upon the head and back, and in the Cicada 
the eyes are more prominent : the Locusts have 
Antennae or long horns before, with a long falcation or 
forcipated tail behind ; and being ordained for salta- 
tion, their hinder legs do far exceed the other. The 
Locust or our Grashopper hath teeth, the Cicada none 
at all ; nor any mouth according unto Aristotle : the 


CHAP. Cicada is most upon trees ; and lastly, the fritinnitus 

III or proper note thereof, is far more shril than that of 

the Locust ; and its life so short in Summer, that for 

provision it needs not have recourse unto the providence 

of the Pismire in Winter. 

And therefore where the Cicada must be understood, 
the pictures of Heralds and Emblematists are not 
exact, nor is it safe to adhere unto the interpretation 
of Dictionaries ; and we must with candour make out 
our own Translations : for in the Plague of jEgypt, 
Exodus 10. the word "AKpii; is translated a Locust, 
but in the same sense and subject. Wisdom 16. it is 
translated a Grashojjper ; For them the bitings of 
Grashoppers and flies killed : whereas we have declared 
before, the Cicada hath no teeth, but is conceived to 
live upon dew ; and the possibility of its subsistence is 
disputed by Licetus. Hereof I perceive Miiffetits hath 
taken notice, dissenting from Lovg'iiis and Lycostenes^ 
while they deliver, the Cicada's destroyed the fruits in 
Germany, where that insect is not found ; and there- 
fore concludeth. Tarn ipsos quam alios deccptos fiii.'^se 
aiitumo, dum locustas cicadas esse vulgari errore 

And hereby there may be some mistake in the due 
dispensation of Medicines desumed from this animal ; 
particularly of Diatettigon commended by JEtius in 
the affections of the kidnies. It must be likewise under- 
stood with some restriction what hath been affirmed 
by Isidore^ and yet delivered by many, that Cicades 
are bred out of Cuccow spittle or Woodsear ; that is, 
that spumous, frothy dew or exudation, or both, found 
upon Plants, especially about the joints of Lavender 
and Rosemary, observable with us about the latter 
end of May. For here the true Cicada is not bred, 


but certain it is, that out of this, some kind of Locust CHAP, 
doth proceed; for herein may be discovered a little III 
insect of a festucine or pale green, resembling in all 
parts a Locust, or what we call a Grashopper. 

Lastly, The word it self is improper, and the term of 
Grashopper not appliable unto the Cicada ; for therein 
the organs of motion are not contrived for saltation, 
nor are the hinder legs of such extension, as is observ- 
able in salient animals, and such as move by leaping. 
Whereto the Locust is very well conformed ; for there- 
in the legs behind are longer than all the body, and 
make at the second joynt acute angles, at a consider- 
able advancement above their backs. 

The mistake therefore with us might have its 
original from a defect in our language ; for having 
not the insect with us, we have not fallen upon its 
proper name, and so make use of a term common unto 
it and the Locust ; whereas other countries have proper 
expressions for it. So the Italian calls it Cicada, the 
Spaniard Cigarra, and the French Cigale ; all which 
appellations conform unto the original, and properly 
express this animal. Whereas our word is borrowed 
from the Saxon Gaersthopp, which our forefathers, who 
never beheld the Cicada, used for that insect which we 
yet call a Grashopper. 

Of the Picture of the Serpent tempting Eve. 

IN the Picture of Paradise, and delusion of our first 
Parents, the Serpent is often described with 
humane visage ; not unlike unto Cadmus or his 
wife, in the act of their Metamorphosis. "Which is 

VOL. II. o 


CHAP, not a meer pictorial contrivance or invention of the 
IV ricturer, but an ancient tradition and conceived 
reality, as it stands delivered by Bcda and Authors of 
some antiquity; that is, that Sathan appeared not 
unto Eve in the naked form of a Serpent, but with a 
\'irgins head, that thereby he might become more 
acceptable, and his temptation find the easier enter- 
tainment. Which nevertheless is a conceit not to be 
admitted, and the plain and received figure, is with 
better reason embraced. 

For first, as Pierius observeth from Barcephas, the 
assumption of humane shape had proved a disadvan- 
tage unto Sathan ; affording not only a suspicious 
amazement in Eve, before the fact, in beholding a 
third humanity beside her self and Adam ; but leaving 
some excuse unto the woman, which afterward the man 
took up with lesser reason ; that is, to have been 
deceived by another like her self. 

Again, There was no inconvenience in the shape 
assumed, or any considerable impediment that might 
disturb that performance in the common form of a 
Serpent. For whereas it is conceived the woman must 
needs be afraid thereof, and rather flie than approach 
it; it was not agreeable unto the condition of Paradise 
and state of innocency therein ; if in that place as most 
determine, no creature was hurtful or terrible unto 
man, and those destructive effects they now discover 
succeeded the curse, and came in with thorns and 
briars. And therefore EuguhimLS (who affirmeth this 
Serpent was a Basilisk) incurreth no absurdity, nor 
need we infer that Eve should be destroyed immedi- 
ately upon that Vision. For noxious animals could 
offend them no more in the Garden, than Noah in the 
Ark : as they peaceably received their names, so they 


friendly possessed their natures : and were their condi- CHAP, 
tions destructive unto each other, they were not so IV 
unto man, whose constitutions then were antidotes, 
and needed not fear poisons. And if (as most conceive) 
there were but two created of every kind, they could 
not at that time destroy either man or themselves ; for 
this had frustrated the command of multiplication, 
destroyed a species, and imperfected the Creation. 
And tlierefore also if Cain were the first man born, 
with him entred not only the act, but the first power 
of murther ; for before that time neither could the 
Serpent nor Adam destroy Eve, nor Adam and Eve 
each other ; for that had overthrown the intention of 
the world, and put its Creator to act the sixt day over 

Moreover, Whereas in regard of speech, and vocal 
conference with Eve, it may be thought he would 
rather assume an humane shape and organs, then the 
improper form of a serpent ; it implies no material 
impediment. Nor need we to wonder how he contrived 
a voice out of the mouth of a Serpent, who hath done 
the like out of the belly of a Pythonissa, and the trunk 
of an Oak ; as he did for many years at Dodona. 

Lastly, Whereas it might be conceived that an 
humane shape was fitter for this enterprise ; it being 
more than probable she would be amazed to hear &. ivhy' 
Serpent speak ; some conceive she might not yet be ^Jf^^'J^^ 
certain that only man was priviledged with speech ; str^enti 
and being in the novity of the Creation, and in- ' " ' • 
experience of all things, might not be affrighted to 
hear a Serpent speak. Beside she might be ignorant 
of their natures, who was not versed in their names, as 
being not present at the general survey of Animals, 
when Adam assigned unto every one a name con- 


CHAP, cordant unto its nature. Nor is this my opinion, but 

IV the determination of Lombard and Tostatus ; and 

also the reply of Cyril unto the objection of Julian^ 

who compared this story unto the fables of the Greeks. 


Of the Picture of Adam and Eve with Navels. 


NOTHER mistake there may be in the Picture 
of our first Parents, who after the manner of 
their posterity are both delineated with a 
Navel, And this is observable not only in ordinary 
and stained pieces, but in the Authentick draughts of 
Urbin, Angela and others. Which notwithstanding 
cannot be allowed, except we impute that unto the 
first cause, which we impose not on the second ; or 
what we deny unto nature, we impute unto Naturity 
it self; that is, that in the first and most accomplished 
piece, the Creator affected superfluities, or ordained 
parts without use or office. 
w/iaifAt For the use of the Navel is to continue the Infant 

Naveiis, ^^^0 the Mother, and by the vessels thereof to convey 

and/or what ' •> J 

v!t. its aliment and sustentation. The vessels whereof it 

consisteth, are the umbilical vein, which is a branch of 
the Porta, and implanted in the Liver of the Infant ; 
two Arteries likewise arising from the Iliacal branches, 
by which the Infant receiveth the purer portion of 
blood and spirits from the mother ; and lastly, the 
Urachos or ligamental passage derived from the bottom 
of the bladder, wherebv it dischargeth the waterish 
and urinary part of its aliment. Now upon the birth, 
when the Infant forsaketh the womb, although it 
dilacerate, and break the involving membranes, yet do 


these vessels hold, and by the mediation thereof the CHAP. 

Infant is connected unto the womb, not only before, V 

but a while also after the birth. These therefore the 

midwife cutteth off, contriving them into a knot close 

unto the body of the Infant ; from whence ensueth 

that tortuosity or complicated modosity we usually 

call the Navel ; occasioned by the colligation of vessels 

before mentioned. Now the Navel being a part, not r/<«/ Adam 

precedent, but subsequent unto generation, nativity or ^"f^va^,/,'^" 

parturition, it cannot be well imagined at the creation 

or extraordinary formation of Adam, who immediately 

issued from the Artifice of God ; nor also that of Eve ; 

who was not solemnly begotten, but suddenly framed, 

and anomalously proceeded from Adam. 

And if we be led into conclusions that Adam had 
also this part, because we behold the same in our selves, 
the inference is not reasonable ; for if we conceive the 
way of his formation, or of the first animals, did carry 
in all points a strict conformity unto succeeding pro- 
ductions, we might fall into imaginations that Adam 
was made without Teeth ; or that he ran through those 
notable alterations in the vessels of the heart, which 
the Infant sufFereth after birth : we need not dispute 
whether the egg or bird were first ; and might conceive 
that Dogs were created blind, because we observe they 
are littered so with us. Which to affirm, is to confound, 
at least to regulate creation unto generation, the first 
Acts of God, unto the second of Nature; which were 
determined in that general indulgence, Encrease and 
Multiply, produce or propagate each other ; that 
is, not answerably in all points, but in a prolonged 
method according to seminal progression. For the 
formation of things at first was different from their 
generation after ; and although it had nothing to pre- 


CHAP, cede it, was aptly contrived for that which should 
V succeed it. And therefore though Adam were framed 
without this part, as having no other womb than that 
of his proper principles, yet was not his posterity 
without the same : for the seminality of his fabrick 
contained the power thereof; and was endued with the 
science of those parts whose predestinations upon suc- 
cession it did accomplish. 

All the Navel therefore and conjunctive part we can 
suppose in Adam, was his dependency on his Maker, 
and the connexion he must needs have unto heaven, 
who was the Son of God. For holding no dependence 
on any preceding efficient but God ; in the act of his 
production there may be conceived some connexion, 
and Adam to have been in a momental Navel with his 
Maker. And although from his carnality and corporal 
existence, the conjunction seemeth no nearer than of 
causality and effect ; yet in his immortal and diviner 
part he seemed to hold a nearer coherence, and an um- 
bilicalitv even with God himself. And so indeed 
although the propriety of this part be found but in 
some animals, and many species there are which have 
no Navel at all ; yet is there one link and common 
connexion, one general ligament, and necessary obliga- 
tion of all what ever unto God. Whereby althougli 
they act themselves at distance, and seem to be at 
loose ; yet do they hold a continuity with their Maker. 
Which catenation or conserving union when ever his 
pleasure shall divide, let go, or separate, they shall 
fall from their existence, essence, and operations : in 
brief, they must retire unto their primitive nothing, 
and shrink into their Chaos again. 

They who hold the egg was before the Bird, prevent 
this doubt in manv other animals, which also extendcth 


unto them : For birds are nourished by umbilital CHAP. 
vessels, and the Navel is manifest sometimes a day or V 
two after exclusion. The same is probable in ovipar- 
ous exclusions, if the lesser part of eggs must serve for 
the formation, the greater part for nutriment. The 
same is made out in the eggs of Snakes ; and is not 
improbable in the generation of Porwiggles or Tad- 
poles, and may be also true in some vermiparous exclu- 
sions : although (as we have observed in the daily 
progress in some) the whole Maggot is little enough 
to make a Fly, without any part remaining. 


Of the Pictures of Eastern Nations, and the 
Jews at their Feasts, especially our 
Saviour at the Passover. 

CONCERNING the Pictures of the Jews, and 
Eastern Nations at their Feasts, concerning 
the gesture of our Saviour at the Passover, 
who is usually described sitting upon a stool or bench 
at a square table, in the middest of the twelve, many 
make great doubt ; and (though they concede a table- 
gesture) will hardly allow this usual way of Session. 

Wherein restraining no mans enquiry, it will appear 
that accubation, or lying down at meals was a gesture 
used by very many Nations. That the Persians used 
it, beside the testimony of humane Writers, is deducible 
from that passage in Esther. That when the King Esther 7. 
returned into the place of the banquet of wine, Haman 
was fallen upon the bed whereon Esther was. That the 
Parthians used it, is evident from Jthenccus, who 





Merc. De 
Arts Gym« 

delivereth out of Possidonius, tha.i their King lay down 
at meals, on an higher bed than others. That Cleo- 
patra thus entertained Anthony, the same Author 
manifesteth when he saith, she prepared twelve Tric- 
liniums. That it was in use among the Greeks, the 
word Triclinium implieth, and the same is also declar- 
able from many places in the Symposiacks of Phdarch. 
That it was not out of fashion in the days of Aristotle^ 
he declareth in his politicks; when among the Institu- 
tionary rules of youth, he adviseth they might not be 
permitted to hear lambicks and Tragedies before they 
were admitted unto discumbency or lying along with 
others at their meals. That the Romans used this 
gesture at repast, beside many more, is evident from 
Lipsiu^, Mercurialis, Salmasius and Ciaconius, who 
have expresly and distinctly treated hereof. 

Now of their accumbing places, the one was called 
Stibadion and Sigma, carrying the figure of an half 
Moon, and of an uncertain capacity, whereupon it 
received the name of Hexaclinon, Octoclinon, accord- 
ing unto that of Martial, 

Accipe Lunata scriptum testudine Sigma : 
Octo capit, venial quisquis amicus erit. 

Hereat in several ages the left and right horn were 
the principal places, and the most honorable person, 
if he were not master of the feast, possessed one of 
those rooms. The other was termed Triclinium, that 
is, Three beds about a table, as may be seen in the 
figures thereof, and particularly in the RhamniLsian 
Triclinium, set down by Mercurialis. The customary 
use hereof was probably deduced from the frequent 
use of bathing, after which they commonly retired to 
bed, and refected themselves with repast; and so that 
custom by degrees changed their cubiculary beds into 


discubitory, and introduced a fashion to go from the CHAP, 
bathes unto these. VI 

As for their gesture or position, the men lay down The ancient 
leaning on their left elbow, their back being advanced ^"""'' <"■ 

r Ml e \ position ef 

by some pillow or soft substance: the second lay so the body at 
with his back towards the first, that his head attained ^""^' 
about his bosome ; and the rest in the same order. 
For women, they sat sometimes distinctly with their 
sex, sometime promiscuously with men, according to 
affection or favour, as is delivered by Juvenal^ 

Gremio jacuit nova nupta mariti. 

And by Suetonkis of Caligula, that at his feasts he 
placed his sisters, with whom he had been incontinent, 
successively in order below him. 

Again, As their beds were three, so the guests did 
not usually exceed that number in every one ; accord- 
ing to the ancient Laws, and proverbial observations to 
begin with the Graces, and make up their feasts with 
the Muses. And therefore it was remarkable in the 
Emperour Lucius Verus^ that he lay down with twelve : 
which was, saith Julius Capitolinu^, prceter exempla 
mqjorum, not according to the custom of his Pre- 
decessors, except it were at publick and nuptial suppers. 
The regular number was also exceeded in this last 
supper, whereat there were no less than thirteen, and 
in no place fewer than ten, for, as JosepJius delivereth, 
it was not lawful to celebrate the Passover with fewer 
than that number. 

Lastly, For the disposing and ordering of the persons : 
The first and middle beds were for the guests, the third 
and lowest for the Master of the house and his family; 
he always lying in the first place of the last bed, that 
is, next the middle bed ; but if the wife or children 



CHAP, were absent, their rooms were supplied by the Umbrae, 

VI or hangers on, according to that of Juvenal Loais 

}Vh4> tkt est et plunbu3 Ufnbris. For the guests, tlie honour- 
^'7^'' "'''' ablest place in every bed was the first, exceptin<j the 
middle or second bed ; wherein the most honourable 
Guest of the feast was placed in the last place, because 
by that position he might be next the Master of the 
feast. For the Master lying in the first of the last bed, 
and the principal Guest in the last place of the second, 
they must needs be next each other; as this figure doth 
plainly declare, and whereby we may apprehend the 
feast of Perpenna made unto Sertoruts, described by 
Sahistius, whose words we shall thus read with Salma- 
siics : Igitur discubiiere^ Sertorius inferior in medio lecto^ 
supra Fahius ; Antonitcs in summo ; Infra Scriba Ser- 
torii Versius ; alter scriba Maecenas in Inio^ medius inter 
Tarquitium et Dominum Pcrpennam. 

snuqusijnj, vudng 

-ciLOff snuvj/q snipsjf tniuiuns snooj 

loL Scalig. 
Froblema i. 



gn)o»j snipsjY 

anuojj^s snnoD^i »nooj sniQD^ 'j 




V ^ 

S -TI 

5. "2 



2. s 

~ 3 

5 g 


•" z 

— K 



5 fe. 

3 5i 


a 1 

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i s 





At this feast there were but seven ; the middle CHAP, 
places of the highest and middle bed being vacant ; VI 
and hereat was Sertorkis the General and principal guest 
slain. And so may we make out what is delivered by 
Plutarch in his life, that lying on his back, and raising 
himself up, Perpenna cast himself upon his stomack ; 
which he might very well do, being Master of the 
feast, and lying next unto him. And thus also from 
this Tricliniary disposure, we may illustrate that 
obscure expression of Seneca ; That the Northwind was 
in the middle, the North-East on the higher side, and 
the North- West on the lower. For as appeareth in 
the circle of the winds, the North-East will answer the 
bed of Antonin^^ and the North-West that of Perpenna. 

That the custom of feasting upon beds was in use 
among the Hebrews, many deduce from Ezekiel. Thou Ezek. 23. 
sattest upon a stately bed, and a table prepared before 
it. The custom of Discalceation or putting ofip their 
shoes at meals, is conceived to confirm the same ; as 
by that means keeping their beds clean ; and therefore 
they had a peculiar charge to eat the Passover with 
their shooes on ; which Injunction were needless, if 
they used not to put them off. However it were in 
times of high antiquity, probable it is that in after 
ages they conformed unto the fashions of the Assyrians 
and Eastern Nations, and lastly of the Romans^ being 
reduced by Pompey unto a Provincial subjection. 

That this discumbency at meals was in use in the 
days of our Saviour, is conceived probable from several 
speeches of his expressed in that phrase, even unto 
common Auditors, as Luke 14. Cum invitatus fueris ad 
nuptial, non discumhas in primo loco, and besides many 
more, Matthew 23. When reprehending the Scribes 
and Pharisesy he saith, Aviant protocUsias, id est, primes 




, VI 

Luke 7. 

Mattb. 22. 

£xod. XI. 

recuhitiis In coenis^ et protocathedrias, sive, primas cathe- 
draSy ill Synagogis : wherein the terms are very dis- 
tinct, and by an Antithesis do plainly distinguish the 
posture of sitting, from this of lying on beds. The 
consent of the Jews with the Romans in other cere- 
monies and rites of feasting, makes probable their 
conformity in this. The Romans washed, were anointed, 
and wore a cenatory garment : and that the same was 
practised by the Jews, is deduceable from that expostu- 
lation of our Saviour with Simon, that he washed not 
his feet, nor anointed his head with oyl ; the common 
civilities at festival entertainments ; and that expres- 
sion of his concerning the cenatory or wedding garment; 
and as some conceive of the linnen garment of the 
young man or St. John; which might be the same he 
wore the night before at the last Supper. 

That they used this gesture at the Passover, is more 
than probable from the testimony of Jewish Writers, 
and particularly of Ben-nuiimon recorded by ScaUger 
De emendatione temporitm. After the second cup 
according to the Institution. The Son asketh, what 
meaneth this service? Then he that maketh the 
declaration, saith, How different is this night from all 
other nights ? for all other nights we wash but once 
but this night twice ; all other we eat leavened or 
unleavened bread, but this only leavened ; all other we 
eat flesh roasted, boyled or baked, by this only roasted, 
all other nights we eat together lying or sitting, but 
this only lying along. And this posture they used as 
a token of rest and security which they enjoyed, far 
different from that at the eating of the Passover in 

That this gesture was used when our Saviour eat the 
Passover, is not conceived improbable from the words 


whereby the Evangelists express the same, that is, CHAP. 
avaTTLTTTeiv, dvuKetadai, KaraKetadai, avaKKeidrjvat,, VI 
which terms do properly signifie this Gesture in Aris- 
totle, Athenccus, Euiipides, Sophocles, and all humane 
Authors ; and the like we meet with in the paraphras- 
tical expression of Nonnus. 

Lastly, If it be not fully conceded, that this gesture 
was used at the Passover, yet that it was observed at 
the last supper, seems almost incontrovertible : for at 
this feast or cenatory convention, learned men make 
more than one supper, or at least many parts thereof. 
The first was that Legal one of the Passover, or eating 
of the Paschal Lamb with bitter herbs, and ceremonies 
described by Moses. Of this it is said, then when the Matth. 26. 
even was come he sat down with the twelve. This is ■'° ° '^* 
supposed when it is said, that the supper being ended, 
our Saviour arose, took a towel and washed the disciples 
feet. The second was common and Domestical, con- 
sisting of ordinary and undefined provisions ; of this it 
may be said, that our Saviour took his garment, and 
sat down again, after he had washed the Disciples 
feet, and performed the preparative civilities of suppers; 
at this 'tis conceived the sop was given unto Judas, the 
Original word implying some broath or decoction, not 
used at the Passover. The third or latter part was 
Eucharistical, which began at the breaking and blessing I 
of the bread, according to that of Matthew, And as 
they were eating, Jesus took bread and blessed it. 

Now although at the Passover or first supper, many 
have doubted this Reclining posture, and some have 
affirmed that our Saviour stood ; yet that he lay down De vetemm 
at the other, the same men have acknowledged, as "" """ 
Chrysostom, Theophylact, Austin, and many more. And 
if the tradition will hold, the position is unquestion- 


CHAP, able ; for the very Triclinium is to he seen at Rome, 
VI brought thither by Vespasian, and graphically set forth 
by Casalhis. 

Thus may it properly be made out ; what is delivered, 
John 13. Erat recumbetts untcs ex DiscipuUs ejus in simi 
Jesu quern diligehat ; Now there was leaning on Jesus 
bosom one of his Disciples whom Jesus loved ; which 
gesture will not so well agree unto the position of 
sitting, but is natural, and cannot be avoided in the 
Laws of accubation. And the very same expression is 
to be found in Pliny, concerning the Empcrour Nerva 
and Veiento whom he favoured ; Ccenabat Nerva cum 
paucis, Veiento recumhehat proprius atque etiam in sinu ; 

A^«»/inEvan. and from this custom arose the word iTna-rrjOio^, that 
is, a near and bosom friend. And therefore Causabon 

Luke 7. justly rejecteth Theophylact ; who not considering the 
ancient manner of decumbency, imputed this gesture 
of the beloved Disciple unto Rusticity, or an act 
of incivility. And thus also have some conceived, it 
may be more plainly made out what is delivered of 
Mary Magdalen. That she stood at Christs feet 
behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with 
tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of her head. 
Which actions, if our Saviour sat, she could not perform 
standing, and had rather stood behind his back, than 
at his feet. And therefore it is not allowable, what is 
observable in many pieces, and even of Raphael Urbin ; 
wherein Mary Magdalen is pictured before our Saviour, 
washing his feet on her knees ; which will not consist 
with the strict description and letter of the Text. 

Now whereas this position may seem to be discount- 
enanced by our Translation, which usually renders it 
sitting, it cannot have that illation, for the French and 
Italian Translations expressing neither position of 


session or recubation, do only say that he placed him- CHAP. 
self at the table ; and when ours expresseth the same VI 
by sitting, it is in relation unto our custom, time, and 
appreliension. The like upon occasion is not unusual : 
so when it is said, Luke 4. nnv^a^ to ^il3\iov, and the 
Vulgar renders it, Cum pltcasset lihrum^ ours translateth 
it, he shut or closed the book ; which is an expression 
proper unto the paginal books of our times, but not so 
agreeable unto volumes or rolling books in use among 
the Jews, not only in elder times, but even unto this 
day. So when it is said, the Samaritan delivered unto what 
the host two pence for the provision of the Levite ; and ^/^"^J^^' "^ 
when our Saviour agreed with the Labourers for a '« '^e 
penny a day, in strict translation it should be seven 
pence half penny ; and is not to be conceived our 
common penny, the sixtieth part of an ounce. For 
the word in the Original is STjvdpiov, in hatine, Denarms, 
and with the Romans did value the eight part of an 
ounce, which after five shillings the ounce amounteth 
unto seven pence half penny of our money. 

Lastly, Whereas it might be conceived that they eat 
the Passover standing rather than sitting, or lying 
down, according to the Institution, Exod. 12. Thus Ceremonies 
shall you eat, with your loins girded, your shooes on "^f/g^'/fl'^ 
your feet, and your staff in your hand ; the Jews them- 
selves reply, this was not required of succeeding genera- 
tions, and was not observed, but in the Passover of 
^gypt. And so also many other injunctions were 
afterward omitted, as the taking up of the Paschal 
Lamb, from the tenth day, the eating of it in their 
houses dispersed ; the striking of the blood on the 
door posts, and the eating thereof in hast. Solemni- 
ties and Ceremonies primitively enjoyned, afterward 
omitted ; as was also this of station, for the occasion 



CHAP, ceasincr. and being in security, they applied themselves 
VI unto gestures in use among them. 

Now in what order of recumbancy Christ and the 
Disciples were disposed, is not so easily determined. 
Casnlius from the Lateran Triclinium will tell ns. that 
there being thirteen, five lay down in the first bed, five 
in the last, and three in the middle bed ; and that our 
Saviour possessed the upper place thereof. That John 
lay in the same bed seems plain, because he leaned on 
our Saviours bosom. That Peter made the third in 
that bed, conjecture is made, because he beckened unto 
John, as being next to him, to ask of Christ, who it 
was that should betray him. That Judas was not far 
ofl seems probable, not only because he dipped in the 
same dish, but because he was so near, that our Saviour 
could hand the sop unto him. 


Of the Picture of our Saviour with long hair. 

A NOTHER Picture there is of our Saviour de- 
/ \ scribed with long hair, according to the custom 
X V. of the Jews, and his description sent by 
Lentulus unto the Senate. ^Vherein indeed the hand 
of the Painter is not accusable, but the judgement 
of the common Spectator ; conceiving he observed this 
fashion of his hair ; because he was a Nazarite, and 
confounding a Nazar'ite by vow, with those by birth or 

The Nazarite by vow is declared, Nnmb. 6. And 
was to refrain three things, drinking of Wine, cutting 
the hair, and approaching unto the dead ; and such a 


one was Sampson. Now that our Saviour was a CHAP. 
Nazarite after this kind, we have no reason to deter- ^'H 
mine ; for he drank Wine, and was therefore called by 
the Pharisees^ a Wine-bibber; he approached also the 
dead, as when he raised from death Lazarus, and the 
daughter of Jairus. 

The other Nazarite was a Topical appellation, and 
appliable unto such as were born in Nazareth, a City 
of Galilee, and in the Tribe of Napthali. Neither if 
strictly taken was our Saviour in this sense a Nazarite ; 
for he was born in Bethlehem in the Tribe of Judah ; 
but miffht receive that name, because he abode in that 
City ; and was not only conceived therein, but there 
also passed the silent part of his life, after his return 
from jEgypt; as is delivered by Matthew, And he 
came and dwelt in a City called Nazareth, that it 
might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Prophet, 
He shall be called a Nazarene. Both which kinds of 
Nazarites, as they are distinguishable by Zain, and 
Tsade in the Hebrew, so in the Greek, by Alpha and 
Omega; for as Jamenius observeth, where the votary lans. Con: 
Nazarite is mentioned, it is written, Na^apaio^:, as g^^^ J^,;^ 
Levit. 6. and Lament. 4. Where it is spoken of our 
Saviour, we read it, Na^wpeto?, as in Matthew, LuTce 
and John; only Ma/rk who writ his Gospel at Romei 
did Latinize, and wrote it ^a^aprjv6<i. 







/am* and 

at as. 

Of the Picture of Abraham sacrificing Isaac. 

IN the Picture of the Immolation of Isaac, or 
Abraham sacrificing his son, Isaac is described as 
a little boy; which notwithstanding is not con- 
sentaneous unto the authority of Expositors, or the 
circumstance of the Text. For therein it is delivered 
that Isaac carried on his back the wood for the sacri- 
fice ; which being an holocaust or burnt offering to be 
consumed unto ashes, we cannot well conceive a burthen 
for a boy ; but such a one unto Isaac, as that which it 
typified was unto Christ, that is, the wood or cross 
whereon he suffered ; which was too heavy a load for 
his shoulders, and was fain to be relieved therein bv 
Simon of Cyrene. 

Again, He was so far from a boy, that he was a man 
grown, and at his full stature, if we believe Josephus, 
who placeth him in the last of Adolescency, and makes 
him twenty five years old. And whereas in the Vulgar 
Translation he is termed puer, it must not be strictly 
apprehended (for that age properly endeth in puberty, 
and extendeth but unto fourteen) but respectively 
unto Abraham, who was at that time above sixscore. 
And therefore also herein he was not unlike unto him, 
who was after led dumb unto the slaughter, and com- 
manded by others, who had legions at command ; that 
is, in meekness and humble submission. For had he 
resisted, it had not been in the power of his aged 
parent to have enforced ; and many at his years have 
performed such acts, as few besides at any. David 
was too strong for a Lion and a Bear ; Pompey had 


deserved the name of Great ; Alexander of the same CHAP. 
cognomination was Generalissimo of Greece ; and Anibal VIII 
but one year after, succeeded Asdruhall in that memor- 
able war against the Romans. 

Of the Picture of Moses with horns. 

IN many pieces, and some of ancient Bibles, Moses is 
described with horns. The same description we 
find in a silver Medal ; that is, upon one side 
Moses horned, and on the reverse the commandment 
against sculptile Images. Which is conceived to be a 
coynage of some Jevcs, in derision of Christians, who 
first began that Pourtract. 

The ground of this absurdity, was surely a mistake 
of the Hebrew Text, in the history of Moses when he 
descended from the Mount ; upon the affinity of Karen 
and Karan^ that is, an horn, and to shine, which is one 
quality of horn : The Vulgar Translation conforming 
unto the former. Ignorabat quod cormtta esset fades Exod.t^.^g, 
ejus. Qui videhant faciem Mosis esse cornutam. But ''' 
the Chaldee paraphrase, translated by Paulus Fagius, 
hath otherwise expressed it. Moses nesc'iebat qnod 
multtis esset splendor gloriiv vulttis ejus. Et viderunt 
filii Israel quod multa esset claritas glorioe faciei Moses. 
The expression of the Septuagint is as large, heZo^aarai, 
rj 6-\ln<t rov 'y(^p(t)/iaTo<i rod rnrpoacoTrov, Glorificatus est 
aspectus cutis, seu coloris faciei. 

And this passage of the Old Testament, is well 
explained by another of the New; wherein it isaCor.j 
delivered, that they could not stedfastly behold the 


CHAP, face of Moses, Ata rijv Bo^av rov irpoawTrov ; that is, 

IX for the glory of his countenance. And surely the 

exposition of one Text is best performed by another ; 

men vainly interposing their constructions, where the 

Scripture decideth the controversie. And therefore 

some have seemed too active in their expositions, who 

in the story of Rahah the harlot, have given notice 

that the word also signifieth an Hostess; for in the 

Epistle to the Hebreivs, she is plainly termed iropvij, 

which signifies not an Hostess, but a pecuniary and 

mat kind prostituting Harlot ; a term applied unto Lms by the 

o/Hariotshe Ciyceks, and distinguished from k'Taipa, or amkay as 

zvas, rtad . . - , ^^ e j i 

Camar. De may appear in the thirteenth ot Atnenceits. 

vita Eiie. ^j^j therefore more allowable is the Translation of 

TremeUius, Quod splcnd'ula facta esset cutis Jaciei ejiis; 
or as Kstius hath interpreted it, fades ejus erat radiosa, 
his face was radiant, and dispersing beams like many 
horns and cones about his head ; which is also con- 
sonant unto the original signification, and yet observed 
in the pieces of our Saviour, and the Virgin Mary, who 
are commonly drawn with scintillations, or radient 
Halo's about their head ; which after the French ex- 
pression are usually termed, the Glory. 

Now if besides this occasional mistake, any man shall 
contend a propriety in this picture, and that no injury 
is done unto Truth by this description, because an 
horn is the Hieroglyphick of authority, power and 
dignity, and in this Metaphor is often used in Scripture; 
the piece I confess in this acception is harmless and 
agreeable unto Moses : and under such emblematical 
constructions, we find that Alexander the Great, and 
AttUa King of Hunnes, in ancient Medals are described 
with horns. But if from the common mistake, or any 
solary consideration we persist in this description, we 


vilify the mystery of the irradiation, and authorize a CHAP. 
dangerous piece conformable unto that of Jupiter IX 
Hammon ; which was the Sun, and therefore described 
with horns ; as is delivered by Macrohius ; Hammonem 
quern Deum solem occidentem Lyhies existimant, arietinis 
cornibus fingunt, quibus id animal valet, s'lcut radiis 
sol. We herein also imitate the Picture of Pan, and 
Pagan emblem of Nature. And if (as Macrohius Moses and 
and very good Authors concede) Bacchtis, (who is also f^^^^J^^^^ 
described with horns) be the same Deity with the Sun ; *« the same 
and if (as Vossius well contendeth) Moses and Bacchus d^ origine 
were the same person ; their descriptions must be rela- '^^o'*'"*- 
tive, or the Tauricornous picture of the one, perhaps 
the same with the other. 

Of the Scutcheons of the Tribes of Israel. 

WE will not pass over the Scutcheons of the 
Tribes of Israel, as they are usually de- 
scribed in the Maps of Canaan and several ■ 
other pieces ; generally conceived to be the proper 
coats, and distinctive badges of their several Tribes. 
So Reuben is conceived to bear three Bars wave, Judah 
a Lyon Rampant, Dan a Serpent nowed, Simecni a 
sword inpale the point erected, etc. The ground Gen. 49. 
whereof is the last Benediction of Jacob, wherein he 
respectively draweth comparisons from things here 

Now herein although we allow a considerable measure 
of truth, yet whether as they are usually described, 
these were the proper cognizances, and coat-arms of 



CHAP, the Tribes ; whether in this manner applyed,and upon 
X the grounds presumed, material doubts remain. 

For first, They are not strictly made out, from the 
Prophetical blessing of Jacob -^ for Simeon and Levi 
have distinct coats, that is, a Sword, and the two 
Tables, yet are they by Jacob included in one Prophesie, 
Simeon and T^.vi are brethren, Instruments of cruelties 
are in their habitations. So Joseph beareth an Ox, 
wliereof notwithstanding there is no mention in this 
Prophesie ; for therein it is said Joseph is a fruitful 
bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; by which 
DeuL 33. repitition are intimated the two Tribes descending from 
him, Ephraim and Manasses ; whereof notwithstanding 
Ephraim only beareth an Ox : True it is, that many 
years after in the benediction of Moses^ it is said of 
Joseph, His glory is like the firstlings of his Bullock : and 
so we may concede, what Vosshis learnedly declareth, 
that the jEgijptiam represented Joseph, in the Symbole 
of an Ox ; for thereby was best implied the dream of 
Pharoah, which he interpreted, the benefit by Agricul- 
ture, and provident provision of com which he per- 
formed ; and therefore did Serap'is bear a bushel upon 
his head. 

Again, If we take these two benedictions together, the 
resemblances are not appropriate, and Moses therein 
conforms not unto Jacob; for that which in theProphesie 
of Jacob is appropriated unto one, is in the blessing of 
Moses made common unto others. So whereas Jiulah 
is compared unto a Lion by Jacob, Judah is a Lions 
whelp, the same is applied unto Dan by Moses, Dan is 
a Lions whelp, he shall leap from Bashan, and also 
unto Gad; he dwelleth as a Lion. 

Thirdly, If a lion were the proper coat of Judah, 
yet were it not probably a Lion Rampant, as it is 


commonly described, but rather couchant or dormant, CHAP, 
as some Heralds and Rabbins do determine ; according X 
to the letter of the Text, Recumbens dormisti ut Leo^ 
He couched as a Lion, and as a young Lion, who shall 
rouse him ? 

Lastly, when it is said, Every man of the Children Num. 2. 
of Israel shall pitch by his own standard with the 
Ensign of their fathers house; upon enquiry what 
these standards and ensigns were there is no small 
incertainty ; and men conform not unto the Prophesie 
of Jacob. Christian expositors are fain herein to rely 
upon the Rabbins, who notwithstanding are various in 
their traditions, and confirm not these common descrip- 
tions. For as for inferiour ensigns, either of particu- 
lar bands or houses, they determine nothing at all; 
and of the four principal or Legionary standards, that 
is, of Judah, Reuben, Ephraim, and Dan (under every th* ine aUo 
one whereof marched three Tribes) they explain them I'T^f^"" 
very variously. Jonathan who compiled the Thargum TUrcvm or 
conceives the colours of these banners to answer the p^aphraa 
precious stones in the breast-plate, and upon which c/Onkeius. 
the names of the Tribes were engraven. So the 
standard for the Camp of Judah was of three colours, 
according unto the stones. Chalcedony, Saphir and 
Sardonix ; and therein were expressed the names of 
the three Tribes, Judah, Isachar, and Zabulon, and in 
the middest thereof was written, Rise up Lord, and let Num. la 
thy enemies be scattered, and let them that hate thee 
flee before thee ; in it was also the pourtrait of a Lion. 
The standard of Reuben was also of three colours, 
Sardine, Topaz, and Amethyst ; therein were expressed 
the names of Reuben, Simeon, and Gad, in the middest Deui. 6. 
was written, Hear, O Israel, The Lord our God, the 
Lord is one: Therein was also the pourtraiture of a 


CHAP Hart. But Abcnezra and others, beside the colours of 
X the field, do set down other charges, in Reubens the 
form of a man or mandrake, in that of J^idah a Lion, 
in Ephrahns an Ox, in Dan's the figure of an Eagle. 

And thus indeed the four figures in the banners of 
the principal squadrons of Israel are answerable unto 
Eiek. I. the Cherubins in the vision of Ezckiel ; every one 
carrying the form of all these. As for the likeness of 
their faces, they four had the likeness of the face of 
a Man, and the face of a Lion on the right side, and 
they four had the face of an Ox on the left side, they 
The common four had also the face of an Eagle. And conformable 
of the" hereunto the pictures of the Evangelists (whose Gospels 
Evangelists ayg W^q Christian banners) are set forth with the addi- 
tion of a man or Angel, an Ox, a Lion, and a Eagle. 
And these symbolically represent the office of Angels, 
and Ministers of Gods Will; in whom is required 
understanding as in a man, courage and vivacity as in 
the Lion, service and ministerial officiousness, as in 
the Ox, expedition or celerity of execution, as in the 

From hence therefore we may observe that these 

descriptions, the most authentick of any, are neither 

agreeable unto one another, nor unto the Scutcheons 

in question. For though they agree in Ephraim and 

Judah, that is, the Ox and the Lion, yet do they differ 

in those of Da7^, and Reuben, as far as an Eagle is 

different from a Serpent, and the figure of a Man, 

Hart, or Mandrake, from three Bars wave. Wherein 

notwithstanding we rather declare the incertainty of 

Arms in this particular, than any way question their 

TheAnti. antiquity ; for hereof more ancient examples there are, 

\TJrine than the Scutcheons of the Tribes, if O.fiijris, Mizra'im 

Scutcheons, or JiipUcr the Just, were the Son of Cham ; for of his 


two Sons, as Diodorus delivereth, the one for his Device CHAP, 
gave a Dog, the other a Wolf. And, beside the shield X 
of Achilles, and many ancient Greeks : if we receive 
the conjecture of Vossius, that the Crow upon Corvinus 
his head, was but the figure of that Animal upon his 
helmet, it is an example of Antiquity among the 

But more widely must we walk, if we follow the 
doctrine of the Cabalists, who in each of the four 
banners inscribe a letter of the Tetragrammaton, or 
quadriliteral name of God : and mysterizing their 
ensigns, do make the particular ones of the twelve 
Tribes, accommodable unto the twelve signs in the 
Zodiack, and twelve moneths in the year : but the 
Tetrarchical or general banners, of Judah, Reuben, JUdus^ dc 
Ephraim, and Dan, unto the signs cf Aries, Cancer, ^^u^ra, ^" 
Libra and Capricornus : that is, the four cardinal Ub. 4. 
parts of the Zodiack, and seasons of the year. 

Of the Pictures of the Sibyls. 

THE Pictures of the Sibyls are very common, 
and for their Prophesies of Christ in high 
esteem with Christians ; described commonly 
with youthful faces, and in a defined number. Common 
pieces making twelve, and many precisely ten ; observ- 
ing therein the account of Varro, that is, Sibylla, 
Delphica, Erythrcea, Samia, Cumana, Cunieea, or Cim- 
meria, Hellespontiaca, Lybica, Phrygia, Tiburtina, 
Persica. In which enumeration I perceive learned 

^ > Pectus, 1650, 1658, 1669, 1672, 1686. 





Anus, quasi 
'AvoO?, sine 

men are not satisfied, and many conclude an irrecon- 
cilable incertainty ; some making more, others fewer, 
and not this certain number. For Suidas, though he 
affirm that in divers ages there were ten, yet the same 
denomination he affbrdeth unto more ; Boysardits in 
his Tract of Divination hath set forth the Icons of 
these Ten, yet addeth two others, Epirotica, and 
JEgyptia ; and some affirm that Prophesying women 
were generally named Sihyh. 

Others make them fewer : Martianns Capella two ; 
Pliny and SoUnus three ; ^lian four ; and Salmasius 
in effect but seven. For discoursing hereof in his 
Plinian Exercitations, he thus determineth ; Ridere 
licet hodiernos Pi<'tore5, qui tabulas propomint Cumanw, 
Cwmece^ et Erythrcece^ quasi trium diversarum Sibyl- 
lanim ; cum wia eademqur fuerit Cumana, Cumwa, 
et Erythnea, ex plurium et doctissiinorum Authorum 
serdentia. Boysardu.s gives us leave to opinion there 
was no more than one; for so doth he conclude, In 
tanta Scriptorum varietate liberum relinquimu^ Lectori 
credere, an una et eadem in diversis regionibus pere- 
griruita, cognomen sortita sit ab lis locis ubi oractda 
reddidisse comperitur, an plures extiterint : And there- 
fore not discovering a resolution of their number 
from pens of the best Writers, we have no reason to 
determine the same from the hand and pencil of 

As touching their age, that they are generally 
described as young women. History will not allow ; 
for the Sibyl whereof ]^rgil speaketh is termed by him 
longceva sacerdos, and Serviiuf in his Comment ampli- 
fieth the same. The other that sold the books unto 
Tarquin, and whose History is plainer than any, by 
Livie and Gellius is termed Anus ; that is, properly no 


woman of ordinary age, but full of years, and in the CHAP, 
dayes of dotage, according to the Etymology of Festm ; XI 
and consonant unto the History ; wherein it is said, 
that Tarquin thought she doted with old age. Which 
duly perpended, the Lkentia pidoiia is very large; 
with the same reason they may delineate old Nestor 
like Adonis^ Hecuha with Helens face, and Time with 
Ahsolons head. But this absurdity that eminent 
Artist Michael Angelo hath avoided, in the Pictures 
of the Cumean and Persian Sibyls, as they stand 
described from the printed sculptures of Adam 


Of the Picture describing the death of 

THE Picture concerning the death of Cleopatra 
with two Asps or venemous Serpents unto 
her arms, or breasts, or both, requires con- 
sideration : for therein (beside that this variety is not 
excusable) the thing it self is questionable ; nor is it 
indisputably certain what manner of death she died. 
Plutarch in the life of Antony plainly delivereth, that 
no man knew the manner of her death ; for some 
affirmed she perished by poison, which she alwayes 
carried in a little hollow comb, and wore it in her 
hair. Beside, there were never any Asps discovered 
in the place of her death, although two of her maids 
perished also with her; only it was said, two small 
and almost insensible pricks were found upon her arm ; 
which was all the ground that Ccesar had to presume 


CHAP, the manner of her deatli. Gakn who was contem- 
XII porary unto Plutarch^ delivereth two waves of her 
death : that she killed her self by the bite of an Asp, 
or bit an hole in her arm, and poured poison therein. 
Strabo that lived before them both hath also two 
opinions ; that she died by the bite of an Asp, or else 
a poisonous ointment. 

We might question the length of the Asps, which 
are sometimes described exceeding short ; whereas the 
Chersaea or land-Asp which most conceive she used, 
is above four cubits long. Their number is not 
unquestionable ; for whereas there are generally two 
described, AuguMns (as Pluiarch relateth) did carry 
in his triumph the Image of Cleopatra but with one 
Asp under her arm. As for the two pricks, or little 
spots in her arm, they infer not their plurality : for 
like the Viper, the Asp hath two teeth ; whereby it 
left this impression, or double puncture behind it. 

And lastly. We might question the place ; for some 
apply them unto her breast, which notwithstanding 
will not consist with the History ; and Petrus Vidorius 
hath well observed the same. But herein the mistake 
was easie ; it being the custom in capital malefactors 
to apply them unto the breast, as the Author De 
Theriaca ad Plsvnem, an eye witness hereof in Akx- 
andria^ where Cleopatra died, determineth : I beheld, 
saith he, in Alexandria., how suddenly these Serpents 
bereave a man of life ; for when any one is condemned 
to this kind of death, if they intend to use him favour- 
ably, that is, to dispatch him suddenly, they fasten an 
Asp unto his breast ; and bidding him walk about, he 
presently perisheth thereby. 



Of the Pictures of the Nine Worthies. 

THE Pictures of the nine Worthies are not 
unquestionable, and to critical spectators 
may seem to contain sundry improprieties. 
Some will enquire why Alexander the Great is described 
upon an Elephant : for, we do not find he used that 
animal in his armies, much less in his own person ; but 
his horse is famous in History, and its name alive to 
this day. Beside, he fought but one remarkable battel, 
wherein there were any Elephants, and that was with 
Ponis King of Indian in which notwithstanding, as 
Curtius, Arrianus, and Plutarch report, he was on 
Horseback himself. And if because he fought against 
Elephants, he is with propriety set upon their backs ; 
with no less or greater reason is the same description 
agreeable unto Judas Maccabeus^ as may be observed 
from the history of the Maccabees ; and also unto in spiendore 
Julkis Caesar^ whose triumph was honoured with AntTnua: 
captive Elephants, as may be observed in the order 
thereof, set forth by Jacobus Laurus. And if also we 
should admit this description upon an Elephant, yet 
were not the manner thereof unquestionable, that is, 
in his ruling the beast alone ; for beside the Champion 
upon their back, there was also a guide or ruler, which 
sat more forward to command or guide the beast. 
Thus did King Porus ride when he was overthrown by 
Alexander-^ and thus are also the towred Elephants 
described, Maccab. 2. 6. Upon the beasts there were 
strong towers of wood, which covered every one of 
them, and were girt fast unto them by devices : there 


CHAP, were also upon every one of them thirty two strong 
XIII men, beside the Indian that ruled them. 

Others will demand, not only why Alexander upon 
an Elephant, but Hector upon an Horse : whereas his 
manner of fighting, or presenting himself in battel, 
was in a Chariot, as did the other noble Trojans^ who 
as Pliny affirmeth were the first inventers thereof. 
The same way of fight is testified by Diodorus, and 
^ thus delivered by Sir Walter Rawleigh. Of the vulgar 
little reckoning was made, for they fought all on foot, 
slightly armed, and commonly followed the success of 
their Captains ; who rode not upon horses, but in 
Chariots drawn by two or three Horses. And this 
was also the ancient way of fight among the Britains^ 
as is delivered by Diodorus, CcesaVy and Tacitits ; and 
there want not some who have taken advantage hereof, 
and made it one argument of their original from 

Lastly, By any man versed in Antiquity, the 

question can hardly be avoided, why the Horses of 

these Worthies, especially of Ccesar, are described 

with the furniture of great saddles, and stirrops ; for t* 

saddles largely taken, though some defence there may 

be, yet that they had not the use of stirrops, seemeth 

Deinven- of lesser doubt ; as Pancirollns hath observed, as 

none rerum, Polydore Vhg'il^ and Petnis Victojius have confirmed, s 

Lectiones. expresly discoursing hereon ; as is observable from 

st^rJllVnot Pl^'^y^ ^"t^ cannot escape our eyes in the ancient 

ancient. mouuments, medals and Triumphant arches of the 

Romans. Nor is there any ancient classical word in 

Latine to express them. For Staphia, Stapes or * 

Stapeda is not to be found in Authors of this 

Antiquity. And divers words which may be urged 

of this signification, are either later, or signified not 



thus much in the time of Caesar. And therefore CHAP, 
as Lipsius observeth, lest a thing of common use XIII 
should want a common word, Franciscics Phiklphus 
named them Stapedis, and Bodinus Stibicus Pedaneos. 
And whereas the name might promise some Antiquity, 
because among the three small bones in the Auditory 
Organ, by Physitians termed Incus^ Malleus and stapes, 
one thereof from some resemblance doth bear this 
name; these bones were not observed, much less named 
by Hippocrates, Galen, or any ancient Physitian. But 
as Laurentius observeth, concerning the invention of 
the stapes or stirrop bone, there is some contention 
between Columbus and Ingrassias\ the one of Sicilia, 
the other of Cremona, and both within the compass of 
this Century. 

The same is also deduceable from very approved 
Authors : Polyhius speaking of the way v/hich Anibal 
marched into Italy, useth the word ^e^T}pdrLcraL, that 
is, saith Petinis Victorm<}, it was stored with devices for 
men to get upon their horses, which ascents were 
termed Bemata, and in the life of Caius Gracchus, 
Plutarch expresseth as much. For endevouring to 
ingratiate himself with the people, besides the placing 
of stones at every miles end, he made at nearer dis- 
tances certain elevated places, and Scalary ascents, that 
by the help thereof they might with better ease ascend 
or mount their Horses. Now if we demand how 
Cavaliers then destitute of stirrops did usually mount 
their Horses; as Lipsius informeth the unable and 
softer sort of men had their dva^o\ei<;, or Stratores, 
which helped them up on horse back, as in the practice 
of Crassus in Plutarch, and Caraealla in Spartianus, 
and the later example of Valentinianus, who because 
his horse rised before that he could not be setled on 



CHAP, his back, cut off the right hand of his Strator. But 
XIII how the active and hardy persons mounted, Vegetms 
De re Miiit. resolves US, that they used to vault or leap up, and 
therefore they had wooden horses in their houses and 
abroad : that thereby young men might enable them- 
selves in this action : wherein by instruction and 
practice they grew so perfect, that they could vault 
up on the right or left, and that with their sword in 
hand, according to that of Virgil 

Poscit equos atque arma simul, saltuque superhiis 
Emicat. And again : 

Infrcmant alii curru* et corpora sultu 
Injiciunt in equos. 

So Julius Polliuc adviseth to teach horses to incline, 
diniit, and bow down their bodies, that their riders 
uiav with better ease ascend them. And thus may it 
more causally be made out, what Hippocrates affirmeth 
of the Scythians, that using continual riding, they 
were generally molested with the Sciatica or hip-gout. 
Or what Siietoniiis delivereth of Germanicus, that he 
had slender legs, but encreased them by riding after 
meals ; that is, the humours descending upon their 
pendulosity, they having no support or suppedaneous 

Now if any shall say that these are petty errors and 
minor lapses, not considerably injurious unto truth, 
yet is it neither reasonable nor fair to contemn 
inferiour falsities ; but rather as between falshood and 
truth there is no medium, so should they be main- 
tained in their distances : nor the contagion of the 
one, approach the sincerity of the other. 



Of the Picture of Jephthah sacryficing 
his daughter. 

THE hand of the Painter confidently setteth 
forth the Picture of Jephthah in the posture 
of Abraham, sacrificing his only daughter : 
Thus is it commonly received, and hath had the 
attest of many worthy Writers. Notwithstanding 
upon enquiry we find the matter doubtful, and many 
upon probable grounds to have been of another 
opinion : conceiving in this oblation not a natural That 
but a civil kind of death, and a separation only \xniol^P}'^fl.„ 

,^j 1 did not kill 

the Lord. For that he pursued not his vow unto a hisdaughter. 
literal oblation, there want not arguments both from ^""^^ "■^'" 
the Text and reason. 

For first, It is evident that she deplored her Virgin- 
ity, and not her death ; Let me go up and down the 
mountains, and bewail my Virginity, I and my fellows. 

Secondly, When it is said, that Jephthah did unto 
her according unto his vow, it is immediately sub- 
joyned, Et non cognovit viruvi, and she knew no man ; 
which as immediate in words, was probably most near 
in sense unto the vow. 

Thirdly, It is said in the Text, that the daughters 
of Israel went yearly to talk with the daughter of 
Jephthah four dayes in the year ; which had she been 
sacrificed, they could not have done : For whereas the 
word is sometime translated to lament, vet doth it 
also signifie to talk or have conference with one, and 
by Tremellius, who was well able to Judge of the 
Original, it is in this sense translated: Ibant filii 



CHAP. Israf lit arum, ad confahitlandum cum film Jcphthaci, 
XIV quatuor diehus quotamiis : And so it is also set down 
in the marginal notes of our Translation. And from 
this annual concourse of the daughters of Israel, it is 
not improbable in future Ages, the daughter of Jcph- 
thah came to be worshipped as a Deity ; and had by 
the Sajnaritan.s an annual festivity observed unto her 
honour, as Epiphanius hath left recorded in the 
Heresie of the Mekhidecians. 

It is also repugnant unto reason ; for the offering of 
mankind was against the Law of God, who so abhorred 
humane sacrifice, that he omitted not the oblation of 
unclean beasts, and confined his Altars but unto few 
kinds of Animals, the Ox, the Goat, the Sheep, the 
Pigeon and its kinds : In the cleansing of the Leper, 
there is I confess, mention made of the Sparrow ; but 
great dispute may be made whether it be properly 
rendered. And therefore the Scripture with indignation 
oft-times makes mention of humane sacrifice among the 
Gentiles ; whose oblations scarce made scruple of any 
Animal, sacrificing not only Man, but Horses, Lions, 
.I5gles ; and though they come not into holocausts, 
yet do we read the Syriaivi did make oblations of 
fishes unto the goddess Derceto. It being therefore 
a sacrifice so abominable unto God, although he had 
pursued it, it is not probable the Priests and Wisdom 
oi Israel would have permitted it; and that not only 
in regard of the subject or sacrifice it self, but also the 
sacrificator, which the Picture makes to be Jephtliah ; 
who was neither Priest, nor capable of that Office : 
for he was a Gileadite, and as the Text affirmeth, tiie 
son also of an harlot. And how hardly the Priest- 
hood would endure encroachment upon their function, 
a notable example there is in the story of Ozias. 


Secondly, The offering up of his daughter was not CHAP, 
only unlawful, and entrenched upon his Religion, but XIV' 
had been a course that had much condemned his dis- 
cretion ; that is, to have punished himself in the 
strictest observance of his vow, when as the Law of 
God had allowed an evasion ; that is, by way of com- 
mutation or redemption, according as is determined, 
Levit. 27. Whereby if she were between the age of 
five and twenty, she was to be estimated but at ten 
shekels, and if between twenty and sixty, not above 
thirty. A sum that could never discourage an 
indulgent Parent ; it being but the value of servant 
slain; the inconsiderable Salary of Judas; and will 
make no greater noise than three pound fifteen 
shillings with us. And therefore their conceit is 
not to be exploded, who say that from the story of 
Jephthah sacrificing his own daughter, might spring 
the fable of Agamemnon, delivering unto sacrifice his 
daughter Iphigenia, who was also contemporary unto 
Jephthah : wherein to answer the ground that hinted 
it, Iphigenia was not sacrificed her self, but redeemed 
with an Hart, which Diana accepted for her. 

Lastly, Although his vow run generally for the 
words, Whatsoever shall come forth, etc. Yet might 
it be restrained in the sense, for whatsoever was sacri- 
ficable, and justly subject to lawful immolation: and 
so would not have sacrificed either Horse or Dog, if 
they had come out upon him. Nor was he obliged by 
oath unto a strict observation of that which promis- 
sorily was unlawful ; or could he be qualified by vow 
to commit a fact which naturally was abominable. 
Which doctrine had Herod xmderstood, it might have 
saved John Baptists head ; when he promised by oath 
to give unto Herodtas whatsoever she would ask ; that 


CHAP, is, if it were in the compass of things, which he could 

XIV lawfully grant. For his oath* made not that lawful 

which was illegal before: and if it were unjust to 

muTther John, the supervenient Oath did not extenuate 

tiie fact, or oblige the Juror unto it. 

Now the ground at least which much promoted the 
opinion, might be the dubious words of the text, 
which contain the sense of his vow; most men adher- 
ing unto their common and obvious acception. What- 
soever shall come forth of the doors of my house shall 
surely be the Lords, and I will offer it up for a burnt 
offering. Now whereas it is said, Erit Jcliovcc, et 
ojferam illud holocaicstum, the word signifying both 
ei and aut, it may be taken disjunctively ; aut ojferam^ 
that is, it shall either be the Loiiis by separation, or 
else, an holocaust by common oblation ; even as our 
marginal translation advcrtiseth ; and as TremcUius 
rendreth it, Erit inqiuim Jehovcc^ aid qff'eram illud 
holocauMuyn : and for the vulgar translation, it useth 
often et, where aiit must be presumed, as Exod. 21. Si 
(ju'is pefciLsserit patrem et inatrem, that is, not both, but 
either. There being therefore two waies to dispose of 
her, either to separate her unto the Lord, or offer her 
as a sacrifice, it is of no necessity the later should be 
necessary ; and surely less derogatory unto the sacred 
text and history of the people of God, must be the 



Of the Picture of John the Baptist. 

THE Picture of John the Baptist, in a Camels 
skin is very questionable, and many I perceive 
have condemned it. The ground or occasion 
of this description are the words of the holy Scripture, 
especially of Matthew and Mark, for LuJce and John 
are silent herein ; by them it is delivered, his garment 
was of Camels hair, and had a leather girdle about his 
loins. Now here it seems the Camels hair is taken by 
Painters for the skin or pelt with the hair upon it. 
But this Exposition will not so well consist with the 
strict acceptation of the words; for Mark 1. It is 
said, he was, ivSeSvfjuevo'i Tpi'^a<; Ka/xr/Xou, and Matthew 
3. el')(e TO evSv/jua utto Tpt')(^Siv KUfirfkov, that is, as the 
vulgar translation, that of Beza, that of Sixtus Qidntus, 
and Clement the eight hath rendred it, vestimentum 
habebat e pilis cameltnis ; which is as ours translateth 
it, a garment of Camels hair ; that is, made of some 
texture of that hair, a course garment; a cilicious 
or sackcloth habit; sutable to the austerity of his 
life ; the severity of his Doctrine, Repentance ; and 
the place thereof, the wilderness, his food and diet, 
locusts and wild hony. Agreeable unto the example 
of Elias, who is said to be vir pilosuSy that is, as Tre- » Kings 3. 18. 
mellius interprets, Veste villosa ^ cinctus, answerable unto 
the habit of the ancient Prophets, according to that 
of Zachary. In that day the Prophets shall be Zach. 13. 
ashamed, neither shall they wear a rough garment 
to deceive; and sutable to the Cilicious and hairy 
* villoso, 1646, 1650, 1658, 1669, 1672. 


CHAP. Vests of the strictest Orders of Fryers, who derive the 
XV institution of their Monastick life from the example of 
John and El^as. 

As for the wearing of skins, where that is properly 
intended, the expression of the Scripture is plain ; so it 
is said, Heb. 11. They wandered about iv alyeLoi<; 
Sepfuta-iv, that is, in Goats skins ; and so it is said of 
our first Parents, Gen. 3. That God made them 
')(^iToiva<i Sepfiarlvovf;, Vestes jjelliceas, or coats of skins ; 
which though a natural habit unto all, before the in- 
vention of Texture, was something more unto Adam^ 
who had newly learned to die ; for unto him a garment 
from the dead, was but a dictate of death, and an 
habit of mortality . 

Now if any man will say this habit of John was 
neither of Camels skin, nor any course Texture of its 
hair, but rather some finer Weave of Camelot, Gro- 
grain or the like, in as much as these stufi's are sup- 
posed to be made of the hair of that Animal, or 
because that /Elian affirmeth, that Camels jjair of 
Persia^ is as fine as Milesian wool, wherewith the 
great ones of that place were cloathed ; they have 
discovered an habit, not only unsutable unto his 
leathern cincture, and the courseness of his life ; but 
not consistent with the words of our Saviour, when 
reasoning with the people concerning John, he saith. 
What went you out into the wilderness to see.'' a man 
clothed in soft raiment ? Behold, they that wear soft 
raiment, are in Kings houses. 


Of the Picture of St. Christopher, 

THE Picture of St. Christopher^ that is, a 
man of a Giantlike stature, bearing upon his 
shoulders our Saviour Christ, and with a staff 
in his hand, wading thorow the water, is known unto 
Children, common over all Ewape, not only as a sign 
unto houses, but is described in many Churches, and 
stands Cohsmis like in the entrance of Nostre Dame in 

Now from hence, common eyes conceive an history 
sutable unto this description, that he carried our 
Saviour in his Minority over some river or water : 
which notwithstanding we cannot at all make out. 
For we read not thus much in any good Author, nor 
of any remarkable Christopher, before the reign of 
Deciiis : who lived 250 years after Christ. This man 
indeed according unto History suffered as a Martyr in 
the second year of that Emperour, and in the Raman 
Calendar takes up the 21 of Juli/. 

The ground that begat or promoted this opinion, 
was, first the fabulous adjections of succeeding ages 
unto the veritable acts of this Martyr, who in the 
most probable accounts was remarkable for his staff, 
and a man of a goodly stature. 

The second might be a mistake or misapprehension 
of the Picture, most men conceiving that an History 
which was contrived at first but as an Emblem or 
Symbolical fancy : as from the Annotations of Baron- 
ius upon the Roman Martyrologie, Lipellous in the 




CHAP, life of St. Christopher hath observed in these words; 
XVI Acta S. Chrktopheri a rnidtis depravata inveniuntur: 
Lip. De vitis quod qu'idcm iion aliunde originem sianpsisse cerium eit, 
qiiam quod syjnholicas figtiras imperiti ad veritatem suc- 
cessu temper is transtulerint : itaque cuncta ilia de Sancto 
Christophero piiigi consueta, symbola potius, quam his- 
toric alicujus existimandum est esse expressam imaginem ; 
that is, The Acts of St. Christopher are depraved 
by many : which surely began from no other ground, 
then, that in process of time, unskilful men translated 
symbolical figures unto real verities : and therefore what 
is usually described in the Picture of St. Christopher., 
is rather to be received as an Emblem, or Symbolical 
description, then any real History. Now what Em- 
blem this was, or what its signification, conjectures 
are many ; Pierius hath set down one, that is, of the 
Disciple of Christ ; for he that will carry Christ upon 
his shoulders, must rely upon the staff of his direc- 
tion, whereon if he firmeth himself, he may be able to 
overcome the billows of resistance, and in the vertue 
of this staff, like that of Jacob, pass over the waters 
of Jordan. Or otherwise thus ; He that will submit 
shoulders unto Christ, shall by the concurrence of his 
power encrease into the strength of a Giant ; and being 
supported by the staff of his holy Spirit, shall not be 
overwhelmed by the waves of the world, but wade 
through all resistance. 

Add also the mystical reasons of this pourtract 

alleadged by Vida and Xerisanus : and the recorded 

story of Christopher, that before his Martyrdom he 

Anton. Cas- requested of God, that where ever his body were, the 

IntSuftltes places should be freed from pestilence and mischiefs, 

Medioia- from infection. And therefore his picture or pour- 

tract, was usually placed in publick wayes, and at the 


entrance of Towns and Churches, according to the CHAP, 
received Distich XVI 

Christophorum videos, pottea tutus eris. 


Of the Picture of St. George. 

THE Picture of St. George killing the Dragon, 
and, as most ancient draughts do run, with the 
daughter of a King standing by, is famous 
amongst Christians. And upon this description depen- 
deth a solemn story, how by this atchievement he 
redeemed a Kings daughter : which is more especially 
believed by the English, whose Protector he is : and in 
which form and history, according to his description in 
the English Colledge at Rome, he is set forth in the 
Icons or Cuts of Martyrs by Cevalerius : and all this 
according to the Historia Lombardica, or golden legend 
of Jacobus lie Voragine. Now of what authority soever 
this piece be amongst us, it is I perceive received 
with different beliefs : for some believe the person and 
the story; some the person, but not the story; and 
others deny both. 

That such a person there was, we shall not contend : 
for besides others. Dr. Heilin hath clearly asserted it 
in his History of St. George. The indistinction of 
many in the community of name, or the misapplica- 
tion of the acts of one unto another, hath made some 
doubt thereof. For of this name we meet with more 
then one in History, and no less then two conceived of 
Cappadocia. The one an Arrian, who was slain by the 
Alexandrians in the time of Julian ; the other a valiant 


CHAP. Souldier and Christian Martyr, beheaded in the reign 
XVII of D'locksian. This is the George conceived in this 
Picture, who hath his day in the Roman Calender, on 
whom so many fables are delivered, whose story is set 
forth by Metaphrastes, and his miracles by Turoneiisis. 
As for the story depending hereon, some conceive as 
lightly thereof, as of that of Persius and Andromeda ; 
conjecturing the one to be the father of the other ; and 
some too highly assert it. Others with better modera- 
tion, do either entertain the same as a fabulous ad- 
dition unto the true and authentick story of St. 
George \ or else conceive the literal acception to be 
a misconstruction of the symbolical expression ; ap- 
prehending a veritable History, in an Emblem or 
piece of Christian Poesie. And this Emblematical 
construction hath been received by men not forward 
to extenuate the acts of Saints : as from Baronhis, 
Lipellous the Carthusian hath delivered in the life of 
St. George; Pictiiram illam St. Georgii qiid effingitur 
eques armatus, qui hastcv cnsplde hostem interficit,juxta 
quam et'mm virgo pos'da manus supplkes teridens ejus 
explorat auxilium, Symholi potius quam historian 
aliayus censenda expressa imago. Consuevit quidem 
ut eque.Hris militioe miles equestri imagine referri : that 
is. The Picture of St. George^ wherein he is described 
like a Curassier or horseman corapleatly armed, etc. Is 
rather a symbolical image, then any proper figure. 

Now in the Picture of this Saint and Souldier, might 
be implied the Christian Souldier and true Champion 
of Christ. A horseman armed Cap a pe^ intimating 
the Pannplia or compleat armour of a Christian ; com- 
bating with the Dragon, that is, with the Devil; in 
defence of the Kings daughter, that is, the Church of 
God. And therefore although the history be not 


made out, it doth not disparage the Knights and CHAP. 
Noble order of St. George : whose cognisance is honour- XVII 
able in the Emblem of the Souldier of Christ, and is a 
worthy memorial to conform unto its mystery. Nor, 
were there no such person at all, had they more reason 
to be ashamed, then the Noble oi'der of Burgundy, and 
Knights of the Golden Fleece ; whose badge is a 
confessed fable. 

Of the Picture of Jerom. 

THE Picture of Jerom usually described at his 
study, with a Clock hanging by, is not to be 
omitted ; for though the meaning be allowable, 
and probable it is that industrious Father did not let 
slip his time without account; yet must not perhaps 
that Clock be set down to have been his measure 
thereof. For Clocks or Automatous organs, whereby clocks no 
we now distinouish of time, have found no mention ii^^/'y""^""' 
any ancient Writers but are of late invention, as Pan- 
cirollus observeth. And Polydore Virgil discoursing of 
new inventions whereof the authors are not known, 
makes instance in Clocks and Guns. Now Jerom is no 
late Writer, but one of the ancient Fathers, and lived 
in the fourth Century, in the reign of Theodosius the 

It is not to be denied that before the daies of Jerovi 
there were Horologies, and several accounts of time ; 
for they measured the hours not only by drops of 
water in glasses called Clepsydrae, but also by sand in 
glasses called Clepsammia. There were also from great 
antiquity, Scioterical or Sun Dials, by the shadow of 




A peculiar 
and particu- 
lar construe 
tioH hereof 
out o/R. 
Chomer, is 
set dozvn, 
Curios de 
cbap. 9. 

of circular 

a stile or gnomon denoting the hours of the day : an 
invention ascribed unto Aiuiccimiiies by Pliny. Hereof 
a memorable one there was in Campus MartkiSy from 
an obelisk erected, and golden figures placed horozon- 
tally about it; which was brought out of Egypt by 
Aii^'ustiis^ and described by Jacobus Laurus. And 
another of great antiquity we meet with in the story 
of Ezechias ; for so it is delivered in King: 2. 20. That 
the Lord brought the shadow backward ten degrees by 
which it had gone down in the dial of Ahaz. That is, say 
some, ten degrees, not lines ; for the hours were denoted 
by certain divisions or steps in the Dial, which others 
distinguished by lines, according to that of Permis 

Stertimus indoiuitum quod despumare Fulernum 
Sufficiat, quintd dum linea tangitur umbra. 

That is, the line next the Meridian, or within an hour 
of noon. 

Of later years there succeeded new inventions, and 
horologies composed by Trochilick or the artifice of 
wheels ; whereof some are kept in motion by weight, 
others perform without it. Now as one age instructs 
another, and time that brings all things to ruin, perfects 
also every thing ; so are these indeed of more general 
and ready use then any that went before them. By the 
Water-glasses the account was not regular : for from 
attenuation and condensation, whereby that Element is 
altered, the hours were shorter in hot weather then in 
cold, and in Summer then in Winter. As for Scio- 
terical Dials, whether of the Sun or Moon, they are only 
of use in the actual radiation of those Luminaries, and 
are of little advantage unto those inhabitants, which 
for many months enjoy not the Lustre of the Sun. 

It is I confess no easie wonder how the horometry 
of Antiquity discovered not this Artifice, how Architas 


that contrived the moving Dove, or rather the Hclico- CHAP, 
Sophie of Archimedes, fell not upon this way. Surely XVIII 
as in many things, so in this particular, the present 
age hath far surpassed Antiquity; whose ingenuity 
hath been so bold not only to proceed below the 
account of minutes, but to attempt perpetual 
motions, and engines whose revolutions (could their 
substance answer the design) might out-last the ex- 
emplary mobility, and out measure time it self. P'or 
such a one is that mentioned by Joh?i Dee^ whose words 
are these in his learned Preface unto EucUde : By 
Wheels strange works and incredible are done : A 
wondrous example was seen in my time in a certain 
Instrument, which by the Inventer and Artificer was 
sold for twenty talents of gold ; and then by chance 
had received some injury, and one Janellus of Cremoim 
did mend the same, and presented it unto the Emperor 
Charles the fift. Jeronimus Cardaims can be my wit- 
ness, that therein was one Wheel that moved at such 
a rate, that in seven thousand years^his own period 
should be finished ; a thing almost incredible, but how 
far I keep within my bounds, many men yet alive can 


Of the Pictures of Mermaids^ Unicorns, 
and some others. 

FEW eyes have escaped the Picture of Mermaids ; 
that is, according to Horace his Monster, with 
womans head above, and fishy extremity below ; 
and these are conceived to answer the shape of the 
ancient Syrens that attempted upon Ulysses. Which 




Dagon the 
Idol, of 
what form. 
I Sam. 5. 

notwithstanding were of another description, containing 
no fishy composure, but made up of Man and Bird ; the 
humane mediety variously placed not only above, but 
below ; according unto .Elian , Suidas, Serviu.s^ Boc- 
catius, and Aldrovandus, who hath referred their de- 
scription unto the story of fabulous Birds; according 
to the description of Ovid^ and the account thereof 
in Hygimts, that they were the daughters of Mel- 
pomene, and metamorphosed into the shape of man 
and bird by Ceres. 

And therefore these pieces so common among us, do 
rather derive their original, or are indeed the very 
description of Dagon ; which was made with human 
figure above, and fishy shape below ; whose stump, or 
as Tremellius and our margin renders it, whose fishy 
jmrt only remained, when the hands and upper part 
fell before the Ark. Of the shape of Artergates, or 
Derceto with the P}ianUlans\ in whose fishy and femi- 
nine mixture, as some conceive, were implied the Moon 
and the Sea, or the Deity of the waters ; and there- 
fore, in their sacrifices, they made oblations of fishes. 
From whence were probably occasioned the Pictures 
of Nereides and Tritons among the Grecians, and such 
as we read in Mac robins, to have been placed on the 
top of the Temple of Saturn. 

We are unwilling to question the Royal Supporters 
of England, that is, the a})proved descriptions of the 
Lion and the Unicorn. Although, if in the Lion, the 
positi(m of the pizel be proper, and that the natural 
situation ; it will be hard to make out their retro- 
copulation, or their coupling and pissing backward, 
according to the determination of Aristotle ; All that 
urine backward do copulate nuyijSoi/ clnnatim, or 
aversly, as Lions, Hares, Linxes. 


As for the Unicorn, if it have the head of a Deer, CHAP, 
and the tail of a Boar, as Vartomannus describeth it, XIX 
how agreeable it is to this picture every eye may dis- 
cern. If it be made bisulcous or cloven footed, it 
agreeth unto the description of Vartommanus, but 
scarce of any other; and Aristotle supposeth that 
such as divide the hoof, do also double the horn; 
they being both of the same nature, and admitting 
division together. And lastly if the horn have this 
situation and be so forwardly affixed, as is described, it 
will not be easily conceived, how it can feed from the 
ground ; and therefore we observe, that Nature in 
other cornigerous animals, hath placed the horns 
higher and reclining, as in Bucks ; in some inverted 
upwards, as in the Rhinoceros, the Indian Ass, and 
Unicornous Beetles ; and thus have some affirmed it is 
seated in this animal. 

We cannot but observe that in the Picture of Jonah 
and others. Whales are described with two prominent 
spouts on their heads ; whereas indeed they have but 
one in the forehead, and terminating over the wind- 
pipe. Nor can we overlook the Picture of Elephants 
with Castles on their backs, made in the form of land 
Castles, or stationary fortifications, and answerable 
unto the Arms of Castile, or Sir John Old Castle; 
whereas the towers they bore were made of wood, and 
girt unto their bodies ; as is delivered in the books of 
Maccabees, and as they were appointed in the Army of 

We will not dispute the Pictures of Retiary Spiders, 
and their position in the web, which is commonly 
made lateral, and regarding the Horizon ; although, if 
observed, we shall commonly find it downward, and 
their heads respecting the Center. We will not con- 



CHAP, trovert the Picture of the seven Stars : although if 
XIX thereby be meant the Pleiades, or subconstellation 

Where the upon the back of Taurus, with what congruity they are 

d7siiuaud described, either in site or magnitude, in a clear night 
an ordinary eye may discover, from July unto April. 
We will not question the tongues of Adders and 
Vipers, described like an Anchor ; nor the Picture of 
the Flower de Luce : though how far they agree unto 
their natural draughts, let every spectator determine. 
Whether the Cherubims about the Ark be rightly 

2Chron.3. 13. described in the common Picture, that is, only in 
humane heads, with two wings ; or rather in the shape 
of Angels or young men, or somewhat at least with 
feet, as the Scripture seems to imply. Whether the 
Cross seen in the air by Constantine, were of that 
figure wherein we represent it ; or rather made out of 
X and P, the two first letters of ^pi<TT6<i. Whether 
the Cross of Christ did answer the common figure; 
whether so far advanced above his head ; whether the 
feet were so disposed, that is, one upon another, or 
separately nailed, as some with reason describe it : we 
shall not at all contend. Much less whether the house 
of Diogenes were a Tub framed of wood , and after the 
manner of ours, or rather made of earth, as learned 
men conceive, and so more clearly make out that ex- 
pression of Juvenal. We should be too critical to 
question the letter Y, or bicornous element of Pytha- 
gorcus, that is, the making of the horns equal : or the 
left less then the right, and so destroying the Symbo- 
lical intent of the figure ; confounding the narrow line 
of Vertue, with the larger road of Vice ; answerable 
unto the narrow door of Heaven, and the ample gates 
of Hell, expressed by our Saviour, and not forgotten 

F.vpv7rvA.iv. by Horner^ in that Epithete of Pluto's house. 


magni non 
Cynici, etc 


Many more there are whereof our pen shall take no CHAP, 
notice, nor shall we urge their enquiry ; we shall not XIX 
enlarge with what incongruity, and how dissenting 
from the pieces of Antiquity, the Pictures of their 
gods and goddesses are described, and how hereby their 
symbolical sense is lost ; although herein it were not Phomut. 
hard to be informed from Phornutus, Fidgentkis, and ^^^^'' 
Alhriciis. Whether Hercules be more properly de- Fuig. mytho. 
scribed strangling than tearing the Lion, as Victorius Ai^k:. 
hath disputed ; nor how the characters and figures of P'^^f""^"" 

o- 1 T-41 1 ^ c T • imaginibus. 

the Signs and Flanets be now perverted, as Salmasius 
hath learnedly declared. We will dispence with Bears 
with long tails, such as are described in the figures of 
heaven ; We shall tolerate flying Horses, black Swans, 
Hydra"'s, Centaur's, Harpies and Satyrs ; for these are 
monstrosities, rarities, or else Poetical fancies, whose 
shadowed moralities requite their substantial falsities. 
Wherein indeed we must not deny a liberty; nor is 
the hand of the Painter more restrainable than the 
Poet. But where the real works of Nature, or verit- 
able acts of storie are to be described, digressions are 
aberrations ; and Art being but the imitator or 
secondary representor, it must not vary from the 
verity of the example ; or describe things otherwise 
than they truly are or have been. For hereby intro- 
ducing false Idea's of things it perverts and deforms 
the face and symmetry of truth. 





Of the Hieroglyph! cal Pictures of the 

CERTAINLY of all men that suffered from the 
confusion of Babel, the Egyptians found the 
best evasion ; for, though words were con- 
founded, they invented a language of things, and 
spake unto each other by common notions in Nature. 
Whereby they discoursed in silence, and were intui- 
tively understood from the theory of their Expresses. 
For they assumed the shapes of animals common unto 
all eyes; and by their conjunctions and compositions 
were able to communicate their conceptions, unto any 
that co-apprehended the Syntaxis of their Natures. 
This many conceive to have been the primitive way of 
writing, and of greater antiquity than letters ; and 
this indeed might Adam well have spoken, who under- 
standing the nature of things, had the advantage of 
natural expressions. Which the Egyptians but taking 
upon trust, upon their own or common opinion ; from 
conceded mistakes they authentically promoted errors ; 
describing in their Hieroglyphicks creatures of their 
own invention ; or from known and conceded animals, 
erecting significations not inferrible from their natures. 
And first, Although there were more things in 
Nature than words which did express them ; yet even 
in these mute and silent discourses, to express com- 
plexed significations, they took a liberty to compound 
and piece together creatures of allowable forms into 
mixtures inexistent. Thus began the descriptions of 
Griphins, Basilicks, PhtEnix, and many more; which 


Emblematists arid Heralds have entertained with sig- CHAP, 
nifications answering tlieir institutions; Hieroglyphi- XX 
cally adding Martegres, Wivernes, Lion fishes, with 
divers others. Pieces of good and allowable invention 
unto the prudent Spectator, but are lookt on by 
vulgar eyes as literal truths, or absurd impossibilities ; 
whereas indeed, they are commendable inventions, and 
of laudable significations. 

Again, Beside these pieces fictitiously set down, and 
having no Copy in Nature; they had many unques- 
tionable drawn, of inconsequent signification, nor 
naturally verifying their intention. We shall instance 
but in few, as they stand recorded by Orus. The 
male sex they expressed by a Vulture, because of Vul- 
tures all are females, and impregnated by the wind ; 
which authentically transmitted hath passed many 
pens, and became the assertion of jElimi, Ambrose, 
Basil, Isidore, Tzetzes, Philes, and others. Wherein 
notwithstanding what injury is offered unto the Crea- 
tion in this confinement of sex, and what disturbance 
unto Philosophy in the concession of windy conceptions, 
we shall not here declare. By two dragms they 
thought it sufficient to signifie an heart ; because the 
heart at one year weigheth two dragms, that is, a 
quarter of an ounce, and unto fifty years annually 
encreaseth the weight of one dragm, after which in the 
same proportion it yearly decreaseth ; so that the life 
of a man doth not naturally extend above an hundred. 
And this was not only a popular conceit, but consen- 
taneous unto their Physical principles, as Heumius in hu 
hath accounted it. Phiiosophia 


A Woman that hath but one Child, they express by 
a Lioness; for that conceiveth but once. Fecundity 
they set forth by a Goat, because but seven daies old. 


CHAP, it beginnelh to use coition. The abortion of a Woman 
XX they describe by an Horse kicking a Wolf; because a 
Mare will cast her foal if she tread in the track of that 
animal. Deformity they signifie by a Bear ; and an 
unstable Man by an Hyaena, because that animal 
yearly exchangeth it? sex. A Woman delivered of a 
female Child, they imply by a Bull looking over his 
left shoulder; because if in coition a Bull part from a 
Cow on that side, the Calf will prove a female. 

All which, with many more, how far they consent 
with truth, we shall not disparage our Reader to dis- 
pute ; and though some way allowable unto wiser con- 
ceits, who could distinctly receive their significations : 
yet carrying the majesty of Hieroglyphicks, and so 
transmitted by Authors : they crept into a belief with 
many, and favourable doubt with most. And thus, I 
fear, it hath fared with the Hieroglyphical Symboles 
of Scripture : which excellently intended in the species 
of things sacrificed, in the prohibited meats, in the 
dreams of Pharnah, Joseph, and many other passages : 
are oft-times wrackt beyond their symbolizations, and 
inlargM into constructions disparaging their true 

Of the Picture of Hainan hanged. 

IN common draughts, Haman is hanged by the 
Neck upon an high Gibbet, after the usual and 
now practised way of suspension, but whether 
this description truly answereth the Original, Learned 
pens consent not, and good grounds there are to doubt. 
For it is not easily made out that this was an ancient 


way of Execution, in the publick punishment of Male- CHAP, 
factors among the Persians; but we often read of XXI 
Crucifixion in their Stories. So we find that Oroetes^ a 
Persian Governour crucified Polycrates the Samian 
Tyrant. And hereof we have an example in the life 
of Artaxerxes King of Persia ; (whom some will have 
to be Ahasuerm in this Story) that Iiis Mother Pary- 
satls flead and crucified her Eiinuch. The same also 
seems implied in the letters patent of King Cyrus, in Ezra 6. 
Omnis gvi hanc mtifaverit Jussionem, tollatur lignum de 
domo ejus, et erigatur et configatur in eo. 

The same kind of punishment was in use among 
the Romans, Syrians, Egyptians, Carthaginians and 
Grecians. For though we find in Homer, that Ulysses ' 
in a fury hanged the strumpets of those who courted 
Penelope, yet is it not so easie to discover, that this 
was the publick practice or open course of justice 
among the GreeJis. 

And even that the Hebrews used this present way of 
hanging, by illaqueation or pendulous suffocation in 
publick justice and executions; the expressions and 
examples in scripture conclude not beyond good 

That the King of Hai was hanged, or destroyed by 
the common way of suspension, is not conceded by the 
learned Masius in his comment upon that text; who 
conceiveth thereby rather some kind of crucifixion ; at 
least some patibulary affixion after he was slain ; and so 
represented unto the people untill toward the evening. 

Though we read in our translation, that Pharaoh 
hanged the chief Baker, yet learned expositors under- 
stand hereby some kind of crucifixion, according to 
the mode of Egypt, whereby he exemplarily hanged 

^ Orostes, 1672, 1686, etc. 


CHAP, out till tlie fowls of the air fed on his head or face, 
XXI the first part of their prey being the eyes. And per- 
haps according to the signal draught hereof in a very 
old manuscript of Genesis, now kept in the Emperors 
V Library at Vienna ; and accordingly set down by the 
learned Petrus Zarnberius, in the second Tome of the 
description of that Library. 

When the Gihconites hanged the bodies of those of 
the house of Saul, thereby was intended some kind of 
crucifying, according unto good expositors, and the 
vulgar translation : criicifixcriint eos in vionte coram 
domino \ many both in Scripture and humane writers 
might be said to be crucified, though they did not 
perish immediately by crucifixion : But however other- 
wise destroyed, their bodies might be afterward ap- 
pended or fastned unto some elevated engine, as 
exemplary objects unto the eyes of the people : So 
sometimes we read of the crucifixion of only some part, 
as of the Heads of Julianus and AUnnus, though their 
bodies were cast away. 

Deut. ji. That legal Text which seems to countenance the 

common way of hanging, if a man hath committed a sin 
worthy of Death, and they hang him on a Tree; is not so 
received by Christian and Jewish expositors. And as 

Ainsworth. a good Annotator of ours delivereth, out of Maimon- 
ides: The Hebrews understand not this of putting him 
to death by hanging, but of hanging of a Man after he 
was stoned to death ; and the manner is thus described. 
After he is stoned to death, they fasten a piece of 
timber in the Earth, and out of it there commeth a 
piece of wood, and then they tye both his hands one 
to another, and hang him unto the setting of the Sun. 
Beside, the original word Hakany determineth not 
the doubt. For that by Lexicographers or Dictionarie 


interpreters, is rendred suspension and crucifixion ; CHAP. 
there being no Hebrew word peculiarly and fully ex- XXI 
pressing the proper word of crucifixion, a^ it was used 
by the Romans ; nor easie to prove it the custom of 
the Jewish Nation to nail them by distinct parts unto 
a Cross, after the manner of our Saviour crucified : 
wherein it was a special favour indulged unto Joseph 
to take down the Body. 

Lipsius^ lets fall a good caution to take off doubts 
about suspension delivered by ancient Authors, and 
also the ambiguous sence o^Kpefidaai among the Greeks. 
Tale apvd Latinos ipsum siispendere, qtiod in crucem 
referendum moneo Juventutem, as that also may be 
understood of Seneca. Latrocinium fecit aliquis, quid 
ago meruit ? ut stispendat^ir. And this way of cruci- 
fying he conceiveth to have been in general use among 
the Romans, until the latter dales of Constantino, who 
in reverence unto our Saviour abrogated that oppro- 
brious and infamous way of crucifixion. Whereupon 
succeeded the common and now practised way of 

But long before this abrogation of the Cross, the 
Jewish Nation had known the true sense of crucifixion ; 
whereof no Nation had a sharper apprehension, while 
Adrian crucified five hundred of them every day, until 
Wood was wanting for that service. So that they 
which had nothing but crucifie in their mouths, were 
therewith paid home in their own bodies : Early 
suffering the reward of their imprecations, and properly 
in the same kind. 

^ Zipiias, 1672. 



Compendiously of many questionable Customs, 
Opinions, Pictures, Practices, and Popular 


1. "Y^F an Hare cross the high way, there are few 
above threescore years that are not perplexed 
thereat : which notwithstanding is but an 
Augiirial terror, according to that received expression, 
Iiumspicatum dat iter ohlatiui Ixpus. And the ground 
of the conceit was probably no greater than this, that 
a fearful animal passing by us, portended unto us 
some thing to be feared : as upon the like considera- 
tion, the meeting of a Fox presaged some future 
imposture ; which was a superstitious observation pro- 
hibited unto the Jews, as is expressed in the Idolatry 
of Mahnonldes, and is referred unto the sin of an 
observer of Fortunes, or one that abuseth events unto 
The ground good or bad signs; forbidden by the Law of Moses \ 
o/manyvam which notwithstanding sometimes succeeding, accord- 

observations. . J^ , . . 

Deut. i8. ing to fears or desires, have left impressions and 
timerous expectations in credulous minds for ever. 

2. Tiiat Owls and Ravens are ominous appearers, 
and pre-signifying unlucky events, as Christians yet 
conceit, was also an Augurial conception. Because 
many Ravens were seen when Alexander entred Bahjlon, 
they were thought to pre-oniinate his death ; and be- 
cause an Owl appeared before the battle, it presaged 
the ruin of Crassus. Which though decrepite super- 
stitions, and such as had their nativity in times 
beyond all history, are fresh in the observation of 
many heads, and by the credulous and feminine party 


still in some Majesty among us. And therefore the CHAP. 
Emblem of Superstition was well set out hy Ripa, in the XXII 
picture of an Owl, an Hare, and an Old Woman. ThiEmbUti 
And it no way confirmeth the Augurial consideration, uln.'^'*^' 
that an Owl is a forbidden food in the Law of Moses ; iconoiogia 
or that Jerusalem was threatned by the Raven and the Ripa. 
Owl, in that expression of Esay 34. That it should 
be a court for Owls, that the Cormorant and the 
Bittern should possess it, and the Owl and the Raven 
dwell in it. For thereby was only implied their 
ensuing desolation, as is expounded in the words suc- 
ceeding ; He shall draw upon it the line of confusion, 
and the stones of emptiness. 

3. The falling of Salt is an authentick presagement 
of ill luck, nor can every temper contemn it ; from 
whence notwithstanding nothing can be naturally 
feared : nor was the same a general prognostick of 
future evil among the Ancients, but a particular 
omination concerning the breach of friendship. For 
Salt as incorruptible, was the Symbole of friendship, 
and before the other service was offered unto their 
guests ; which if it casually fell, was accounted ominous, 
and their amitv of no duration. But whether Salt 
were not only a Symbole of friendship with man, but 
also a figure of amity and reconciliation with God, and 
was therefore observed in sacrifices, is an higher 

4. To break the egg shell after the meat is out, we are 
taught in our childhood, and practise it all our lives ; 
which nevertheless is but a superstitious relict, accord- 
ing to the judgment of Pliny, Hue pertinet ovorwn, ut 
exorbuerit quisq; calices protinus frangi, aut eosdem 
coclearibus perforari ; and the intent hereof was to pre- 
vent witchcraft ; for lest witches should draw or prick 


CHAP, their names therein, and veneficiously mischief their 
XXII persons, they broke the shell, as Dalecampim hath 

5. The true Lovers knot is very much magnified, 
and still retained in presents of Love among us; 
which though in all points it doth not make out, 
had perhaps its original from the Nodus Herculanus, 
or that which was called Hercules his knot, resembling 
the snaky complication in the caduceus or rod of 
Hermes ; and in which form the Zone or woollen girdle 
of the Bride was fastned, as Tururbus observeth in his 

6. When our cheek burneth or ear tingleth, we 
usually say that some body is talking of us, which is 
an ancient conceit, and ranked among superstitious 
opinions by Plhiy. Ahsentes tinnitu auriinn prcEseniirc 
sermones de se recephim est, according to that distick 
noted by Dalecampius. 

Garrula quid totis rcsonas mihi noctibus auris? 
Kescio quern dicis nunc memituftse met. 

Which is a conceit hardly to be made out without the 

concession of a signifying Genius, or universal Mcrcury\ 

conducting sounds unto their distant subjects, and 

teaching us to hear by touch. 

The original "7. When we desire to confine our words, we com- 

"feri^i'nder '"^"b' ^^7 ^^^J ^^'^ spokcn Under the Rose; which 
the Rose be expressioH is Commendable, if the Rose from any 
natural property may be the Symbole of silence, as 
Nazianzene seems to imply in these translated verses : 

Utq; latet Rosa Vema sfuo putamine clausa, 
Sicosvinclaferat, validisq; arctetur habenis, 
Indicatq; suis prolijca silentia labris: 

And is also tolerable, if by desiring a secrecv to 

it, etc. 


words spoke under the Rose, we only mean in society CHAP, 
and compotation, from the ancient custom in Sympo- XXII 
siack meetings, to wear chaplets of Roses about their 
heads: and so we condemn not the German custom, 
which over the Table describeth a Rose in the cieling. 
But more considerable it is, if the original were such 
as LemniuSy and others have recoided ; that the Rose 
was the flower of Venus^ which Cupid consecrated unto 
Harpocrates the God of silence, and was therefore an 
Emblem thereof, to conceal the pranks of Venery ; as 
is declared in this Tetrastick ; 

Est Rosaflos veneris, cujus quo facta laferent, 

Harpocrati matris, dona dicavit Amor ; 
Inde Rosam mensis hospes suspend! t 

ConvivtB ut sub ed dicta tacenda sciunt. 

8. That smoak doth follow the fairest, is an usual 
saying with us, and in many parts of Europe ; whereof 
although there seem no natural ground, yet it is the 
continuation of a very ancient opinion, as Petrus Vic- 
torius and Causabon have observed from a passage in 
Athenceus : wherein a Parasite thus describeth himself: 

To every Table first I come. 

Whence Porridge I am catd by some: 

A Capaneus at Stares I am, 

To enter any Room a Rain ; 

Like whips and thongs to all I ply, 

Like smoake unto the Fair I fly. 

9. To sit crors leg'd, or with our fingers pectinated 
or shut together, is accounted bad, and friends will 
perswade us from it. The same conceit religiously 
possessed the Ancients, as is observable from Pliny. 
Poplites altemis genibus imponere nefas olim ; and also 
from Athenceus, that it was an old veneficious practice, 



CHAP, and Jww is made in this posture to hinder the delivery 
XXII of Alcmcna. And therefore, as Pierius observeth, in 
the Medal of Julia Pia, the right hand of Veiim was 
made extended with the inscription of Venus, Genetrix; 
for the complication or pectination of the fingers was 
an Hieroglyphick of impediment, as in that place he 

10. The set and statary times of pairing of nails, 
and cutting of hair, is thought by many a point of 
consideration; which is ])erhaps but the continuation 
of an ancient superstition. For piaculous it was unto 
the Romans to pare their nails upon the Nundinfc, ob- 
served every ninth day ; and was also feared by others in 
certain daies of the week ; according to that oi Ausonius, 
Ungues Mercurio, Barham Jove, Cypride Crines ; and 

2 chron. 33. was One part of the wickedness that filled up the measure 
oi Manasses, when 'tis delivered that he observed times. 

11. A common fashion it is to nourish hair upon 
the mouls of the face ; which is the perpetuation of a 
very ancient custom ; and though innocently practised 
among us, may have a superstitious original, according 
to that of Pliny, Na;vos in facie tondere religlosum 
hahent nunc multi. From the like might proceed the 
fears of poling Elvelocks or complicated hairs of the 
head, and also of locks longer than the other hair ; 
they being votary at first, and dedicated upon occa- 
sion ; preserved with great care, and accordingly 
esteemed by others, as appears by that of Apukhis, 
Adjuro per dulcem cap'dli tui nodulnm. 

12. A custom there is in most parts of Europe to 

adorn Aqueducts, spouts and Cisterns with Lions 

heads: which though no illaudable ornament, is of an 

Egyptian genealogy,^ who practised the same under a 

^ geneologie, 1658, 1669, geneology, 1672. 


symbolical illation. For because the Sun being in Leo, CHAP, 
the flood of Nilus was at the full, and water became XXII 
conveyed into every part, they made the spouts of 
their Aqueducts through the head of a Lion. And 
upon some coelestial respects it is not improbable the 
great Mogul or Indian King doth bear for his Arms a 
Lion and the Sun. 

18. Many conceive there is somewhat amiss, and symbolical 
that as we usually say, they are unblest until they put "^"f^?*/^ 
on their girdle. Wherein (although most know no\sirdie. 
what they say) there are involved unknown considera- 
tions. For by a girdle or cincture are symbolically 
implied Truth, Resolution, and Readiness unto action, 
which are parts and vertues required in the service of 
God. According whereto we find that the Israelites 
did eat the Paschal Lamb with their loins girded ; 
and the Almighty challenging Job, bids him gird up 
his loins like a man. So runneth the expression of 
Peter, Gird up the loins of your minds, be sober and 
hope to the end : so the high Priest was girt with the 
girdle of fine linnen : so is it part of the holy habit to 
have our lines girt about with truth ; and so is it also 
said concerning our Saviour, Righteousness shall be 
the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of isa. h. 
his reins. 

Moreover by the girdle, the heart and parts which 
God requires are divided from the inferior and con- 
cupiscential organs ; implying thereby a memento unto 
purification and cleanness of heart, which is commonly 
defiled from the concupiscence and affection of those 
parts ; and therefore unto this day the Jeivs do bless 
themselves when they put on their zone or cincture. 
And thus may we make out the doctrin of Pythagoras^ 
to offer sacrifice with our feet naked, that is, that our 


CHAP, inferiour parts and farthest removed from reason might 

XXII be free, and of no impediment unto us. Thus Achilles, 

though dipped in Styx, yet having his heel untouched 

by that water; although he were fortified elsewhere, 

he was slain in that part, as only vulnerable in the 

inferiour and brutal part of Man, This is that part 

of Ez^e and her posterity the devil still doth bruise, 

that is, that part of the soul which adhereth unto earth, 

and walks in the paths thereof. And in this secundarr 

and symbolical sense it may be also understood, when 

the Priests in the Law washed their feet before the 

sacrifice ; when our Saviour washed the feet of his 

Disciples, and said unto Peter, If I wash not thy feet 

thou hast no part in me. And thus is it symbolically 

explainable, and iniplyeth purification and cleanness, 

when in the burnt offerings the Priest is commanded 

to wash the inwards and legs thereof in water ; and in 

the peace and sin-ofFerings, to burn the two kidneys, 

the fat which is about the flanks, and as we translate 

it, the Caul above the Liver. But whether the Jexvs 

when they blessed themselves, had any eye unto the 

jer. 13. words of Jeremy, wherein God makes them his Girdle ; 

or had therein any reference unto the Girdle, which 

the Prophet was commanded to hide in the hole of the 

rock of Euphrates, and which was the type of their 

captivity, we leave unto higher conjecture. 

Certain 14. The Picturc of the Creator, or God the Father 

Hereticks -^^ ^}^^ sliaDC of an old Man, is a dangerous piece, and 

humane in this Fecuudlty of sects may revive the Anthropo- 

(^j^'a/ur niorphites. Which although maintained from the ex- 

•which thfy pression of Daniel, I beheld where the Ancient of daves 

conceived he .... , ,. ^i-i 1 i-tii "1 

createdman did Sit, whose haiT of his head was like the pure wool ; 
tn his like- yg^ j^g^^, j^ ]jg j^igQ derivative from the Hieroglyphical 

description of the /Egyptians ; who to express their 


Eneph, or Creator ot the world, described an old man CHAP, 
in a blew mantle, with an egg in his mouth; which XXII 
was the Emblem of the world. Surely those heathens, 
that notwithstanding the exemplary advantage in 
heaven, would endure no pictures of Sun or Moon, as 
being visible unto all the world, and needing no repre- 
sentation ; do evidently accuse the practice of those 
pencils, that will describe invisibles. And he that 
challenged the boldest hand unto the picture of an 
Echo, must laugh at this attempt, not only in the 
description of invisibility, but circumscription of Ubi- 
quity, and fetching under lines incomprehensible 

The Pictures of the Egyptians were more tolerable, 
and in their sacred letters more veniably expressed the 
apprehension of Divinity. For though they implied 
the same by an eye upon a Scepter, by an ^Egles head, 
a Crocodile, and the like : yet did these manual de- 
scriptions pretend no corporal representations; nor 
could the people misconceive the same unto real corre- 
spondencies. So though the Cherub carried some 
apprehension of Divinity, yet was it not conceived to 
be the shape thereof: and so perhaps because it is 
metaphorically predicated of God, that he is a consum- 
ing fire, he may be harmlessly described by a flaming 
representation ; Yet if, as some will have it, all 
mediocrity of folly is foolish, and because an unrequit- 
able evil may ensue, an indifferent convenience must be 
omitted; we shall not urge such representments ; we 
could spare the holy Lamb for the picture of our 
Saviour, and the Dove or fiery Tongues to represent 
the holy Ghost. 

15. The Sun and Moon are usually described with 
humane faces ; whether herein there be not a Pagan 


CHAP, imitation, and those visages at first implied Apollo and 

XXII Diana, we may make some doubt; and we find the 

statua of the Sun was framed with raies about the 

head, wliich were the indiciduous and unshaven locks 

Or quarrel- of Jpollo. Wc should be too Iconomical to question 

somwitk ^^jjg pictures of the winds, as common Iv drawn in 

Pictures. I ' • _ 

Dion. Ep. 7. humane heads, and with their cheeks distended ; which 
etPet.H^r notwithstanding we find condemned by Mimdius, as 
notinvit. 3- answering poetical fancies, and the gentile description 
of yl'Johis, Boreas, and the feigned Deities of winds, 

16. We shall not, I hope, disparage the Resurrection 
of our Redeemer, if we say the Sun doth not dance on 
Easter dav. And though we would willingly assent 
unto any sympathetica! exultation, yet cannot conceive 
therein any more than a Tropical expression. Whether 
any such motion there were in that day wherein Christ 
arised, Scripture hath not revealed, which hath been 
punctual in other records concerning solary miracles : 
and the Areopagite that was amazed at the Eclipse, 
took no notice of this. And if metaphorical expres- 
sions so so far, we mav be bold to affirm, not onlv that 
one Sun danced, but two arose that day : That light 
appeared at his nativity, and darkness at his death, 
and yet a light at both ; for even that darkness was a 
liglit unto the Gentiles, illuminated by that obscurity. 
That 'twas the first time the Sun set above the Horizon; 
that although there were darkness above the earth, 
there was light beneath it, nor dare we say that hell 
was dark if he were in it. 

17. Great conceits are raised of the involution or 
membranous covering, commonly called the Silly-how, 
that sometimes is found about the heads of children 
upon their birth ; and is therefore preserved with great 
care, not only as medical in diseases, but effectual in 


success, concerning the Infant and others ; which is CHAP. 
surely no more than a continued superstition. For XXII 
hereof we read in the life of Antoninus delivered by 
Spartianus, that children are born sometimes with this 
natural cap; which Midwives were wont to sell unto 
credulous Lawyers, who had an opinion it advantaged 
their promotion. 

But to speak strictly, the effect is natural, and thus 
may be conceived : Animal conceptions have largely 
taken three teguments, or membranous films which 
cover them in the womb, that is, the Corion, Amnios, 
and Allantois ; the Corion is the outward membrance 
wherein are implanted the Veins, Arteries and umbilical 
vessels, whereby its nourishment is conveyed : the 
Allantois a thin coat seated under the Corion, wherein 
are received the watery separations conveyed by the 
Urachus, that the acrimony thereof should not offend 
the skin. The Amnios is a general investment, con- De formato 
taining the sudorus or thin serosity perspirable through °^'"* 
the skin. Now about the time when the Infant 
breaketh these coverings, it sometimes carrieth with it 
about the head a part of the Amnios or nearest coat ; 
which saith Spiegel'uis^ either proceedeth from the 
toughness of the membrance or weakness of the Infant 
that cannot get clear thereof. And therefore herein 
significations are natural and concluding upon the 
Infant, but not to be extended unto magical signalities, 
or any other person, 

18. That 'tis good to be drunk once a moneth, is a 
common flattery of sensuality, supporting it self upon 
Physick, and the healthful effects of inebriation. This 
indeed seems plainly affirmed by Avicenna, a Physitian 
of great authority, and whose religion prohibiting 
Wine, could less extenuate ebriety. But Averroes a 

VOL. II. s 



CHAP, man of his own faith was of another belief; restrain- 
XXn ing his ebriety unto hilarity, and in effect making no 
more thereof than Seneca commendeth, and was allow- 
able in Cato ; that is, a sober incalescence and regulated 
jEstuation from wine ; or what may be conceived 
between Joseph and his brethren, when the text ex- 
presseth they were merry, or drank largely, and whereby 
indeed the commodities set down by Aviccmia, that is, 
alleviation of spirits, resolution of superfluities, provo- 
cation of sweat and urine may also ensue. But as for 
dementation, sopition of reason, and the diviner particle 
from drink ; though American religion approve, and 
Pagan piety of old hath practised it, even at their 
sacrifices ; Christian morality and the doctrine of 
Christ will not allow. And surely that religion which 
excuseth the fact of Noah, in the aged surprizal of six 
hundred years, and unexpected inebriation from the 
unknown effects of wine, will neither acquit ebriosity 
nor ebriety, in their known and intended perversions. 

And indeed, although sometimes effects succeed 
which may relieve the body, yet if they carry mischief 
or peril unto the soul, we are therein restrainable by 
Divinity, which circumscribeth Physick, and circum- 
stantially determines the use thereof. From natural 
considerations, Physick commendeth the use of venery; 
and happily, incest, adultery, or stupration may prove 
as Physically advantagious, as conj ugal copulation ; 
which notwithstanding must not be drawn into practise. 
And truly effects, consequents, or events which we 
commend, arise oft-times from wayes which we all 
condemn. Thus from the fact of Lot, we derive the 
generation of Ruth, and blessed Nativity of our 
Saviour; which notwithstanding did not extenuate 
the incestuous ebriety of the generator. And if, as is 


commonly urged, we think to extenuate ebriety from CHAP, 
the benefit of vomit oft succeeding, Egyptian sobriety XXII 
will condemn us, which purged both wayes twice a 
moneth, without this perturbation : and we foolishly 
contemn the liberal hand of God, and ample field of 
medicines which sobriety produce that action. 

19. A conceit there is, that the Devil commonly H'-kytke 
appeareth with a cloven hoof; wherein although '^t c^mmLiy 
seem excessively ridiculous, there may be somewhat ^«"^^'' 
of truth; and the ground thereof at first m\g\\t a ci<rjen 
be his frequent appearing in the shape of a Goat,-^""'- 
which answers that description. This was the opinion 
of ancient Christians concerning the apparition of 
Panites, Fauns and Satyres ; and in this form we read 
of one that appeared unto Antony in the wilderness. 
The same is also confirmed from expositions of holy 
Scripture ; for whereas it is said. Thou shalt not offer 
unto Devils, the Original word is Seghnirim, that is, 
rough and hairy Goats, because in that shape the 
Devil most often appeared ; as is expounded by the Levit. 17. 
Rabbins, as Tremellius hath also explained ; and as the 
word Ascimah, the god of Ernath is by some conceived. 
Nor did he only assume this shape in elder times, but 
commonly in later dayes, especially in the place of his 
worship, if there be any truth in the confession of 
Witches, and as in many stories it stands confirmed by 
Bodinus. And therefore a Goat is not improperly 
made the Hieroglyphick of the devil, as Pimu* hath /«/%»> Da- 
expressed it. So might it be the Emblem of sin, as it 
was in the sin-offering ; and so likewise of wicked and 
sinful men, according to the expression of Scripture in 
the method of the last distribution ; when our Savioiir 
shall separate the Sheep from the Goats, that is, the 
Sons of the Lamb from the children of the devil. 





Of some others. 

1. ^ ■ "*HAT temperamental dignotions, and con- 
I jecture of prevalent humours, may be col- 
-*- lected from spots in our nails, we are not 
averse to concede. But yet not ready to admit sundry 
divinations, vulgarly raised upon them. Nor do we 
Devarietaie observc it Verified in others, what Cardan discovered as 
rerum. ^ property in himself: to have found therein some signs 
of most events that ever happened unto him. Or that 
there is much considerable in that doctrine of Cheiro- 
mancy, that spots in the top of the nails do signifie 
things past ; in the middle, things present ; and at the 
bottom, events to come. That white specks presage 
our felicity, blew ones our misfortunes. That those in 
the nail of the thumb have significations of honour, 
those in the forefinger, of riches, and so respectively in 
other fingers, (according to Planetical relations, from 
Deinspec- whcncc thcy fcceive their names) as Tricasf^nf hath 

tionemanus. |.g^J.gj^ jjp^ g^j^J PlCCwlltS Well rejccteth. 

We shall not proceed to querie, what truth there is 
in Palmistry, or divination from those lines in our 
hands, of high denomination. Although if any thing 
be therein, it seems not confinable unto man ; but other 
creatures are also considerable ; as is the fore-foot 
of the Moll, and especially of the Monkey; wherein 
we have observed the table line, that of life, and of 
the liver. 

2. That Children committed unto the school of 
Nature, without institution would naturally speak the 


primitive language of the world, was the opinion of CHAP. 
ancient heathens, and continued since by Christians : XXIII 
who will have it our Hehreiv tongue, as being the 
lansuage of Adam. That this were true, were much 
to be desired, not only for the easie attainment of 
that useful tongue, but to determine the true and 
primitive Hebrew. For whether the present Hebrew, 
be the unconfounded language of Babel, and that which 
remaining in Heher was continued by Abraham and his 
posterity, or rather the language of Phoeyilcia and 
Canaan, wherein he lived, some learned men I perceive 
do vet remain unsatisfied. Although I confess proba- 
bility stands fairest for the former : nor are they 
without all reason, who think that at the confusion 
of tongues, there was no constitution of a new speech 
in every family : but a variation and permutation 
of the old; out of one common language raising 
several Dialects : the primitive tongue remaining still 
intire. Which they who retained, might make a shift //->wAbra- 
to understand most of the rest. By vertue whereof in ^^^/^'^If^l^ 
those primitive times and greener confusions, Abraham the language 
of the family of Heber was able to converse with the ^y^^/J^^ 
Chaldeans, to understand Mesopotamians, Cananites, 
Philistins, and Egyptians: whose several Dialects he 
could reduce unto the Original and primitive tongue, 
and so be able to understand them. 

3 Thouffh useless unto us, and rather of molesta- 
tion, we commonly refrain from killing Swallows, and 
esteem it unlucky to destroy them: whether herein 
there be not a Pagan relique, we have some reason to 
doubt. For we read in jElian, that these birds were ne same is 
sacred unto the Penates or houshold gods of the ^^/g^j^ ^^^ 
ancients, and therefore were preserved. The same Athen^us. 
they also honoured as the nuncio's of the spring ; and 


(^HAP. we find in Athemriift that the Khodians had a solemn 

XXIII song to welcome in the Swallow, 
jv/cy cand/es 4. That Candlcs and Lights burn dim and blew at 
inayhurn ^j^^ apparition of spirits, may be true, if the ambient 

blttv, be/ore ' ' ^ . / . . 

theaf'pari. ajF bc full of sulpliui'ious spirits, as it happeneth oit- 
%Mt'' times in mines; where damps and acide exhalations 
are able to extinguish them. And may be also verified, 
when spirits do make themselves visible by bodies of 
such effluviums. But of lower consideration is the 
common foretelling of strangers, from the fungous 
parcels about the weeks of Candles : which only 
signifieth a moist and pluvious ayr about them, 
hindering the avolation of the light and favillous 
particles : whereupon they are forced to settle upon 
the Snast. 

5. Though Coral doth properly preserve and fasten 
the Teeth in men, yet is it used in Children to make 
an easier passage for them : and for that intent is 

Lib. 32. worn about their necks. But whether this custom 
were not superstitiously founded, as presumed an 
amulet or defensative against fascination, is not beyond 
all doubt. For the same is delivered by Fliny. Aru- 
spices reliffiosum Coralli gcstarnen amoUendis pericuUft 
arbitrantur ; et surculi infantioe alligati, tutelam habere 

6. A strange kind of exploration and peculiar way 
of Rhabdomancy is that which is used in mineral dis- 
coveries ; that is, with a forked hazel, commonly called 
Moses his Rod, which freely held forth, will stir and 
play if any mine be under it. And though many there 
are who have attempted to make it good, yet until 
better information, we are of opinion with Jgricola, 
that in it self it is a fruitless exploration, strongly 

De re metal- . . ,, . jt-\'' 

Uca, lib. a. scenting of Pagan derivation, and the virguia JJivina, 


proverbially magnified of old. The ground whereof CHAP. 
were the Magical rods in Poets that of Pallas in XXIII 
Homer., that of Mercury that charmed Argus, and that 
of Circe which transformed the followers of Ulysses. 
Too boldly usurping the name of Moses rod, from 
which notwithstanding, and that of Aaron, were pro- 
bably occasioned the fables of all the rest. For that 
of Moses must needs be famous unto the Egyptians ; 
and that oi Aaron unto many other Nations, as being 
preserved in the Ark, until the destruction of the 
Temple built by Solomon. 

7. A practise there is among us to determine doubtful 
matters, by the opening of a book, and letting fall a 
staff; which notwithstanding are ancient fragments 
of Paga/n divinations. The first an imitation of Soj-tes 
Homericce, or Virgiliance, drawing determinations from 
verses casually occurring. The same was practised by 
Severus, who entertained ominous hopes of the Empire, 
from that verse in Virgil, Tu regere imperio populos, 
Romane, memento ; and Cordianus who reigned but few 
dayes was discouraged by another, that is, Ostendunt 
terris hunc tantum fata, nee ultra esse sinunt. Nor 
was this only performed in heathen Authors, but upon 
the sacred text of Scripture, as Gregorius Turonensis 
hath left some account, and as the practise of the 
Emperour Heraclius, before his Expedition into Asia 
minor, is delivered by Cedrenus. 

As for the. Divination or decision from the staff; it Hosea^. 
is an Augurial relique, and the practise thereof is 
accused by God himself; My people ask counsel of 
their stocks, and their staff declareth unto them. Of 
this kind of Rhabdomancy was that practised by 
Nahiichadonozor in that Caldean miscellany, delivered 
by EzeMel ; the king of Babylon stood at the parting Ezeic. 24. 




CHAP, of the wav, at the head of two waves to use divination, 
XXITI he made his arrows bright, he consulted with Images, 
he looked in the Liver ; at the right hand were the 
divinations of Jerusalem. That is, as Estius expounded 
it, the left way leading unto Rabbah, the chief City 
of the Ammonites, and the right unto Jerusalem, he 
consulted Idols and entrails, he threw up a bundle 
of arrows to see which way they would light ; and 
falling: on the right hand he marched towards Jerusalern. 
A like way of Belomancy or Divination by arrows 
^"^hath been in request with Scythians, Alanes, Geinnans, 
with the Africans and Turks of Ali^ier. But of 
2Kin2.13.15. another nature was that which was practised by Elisha, 
when by an arrow shot from an Eastern window, he 
pre-signified the destruction of Syria ; or when accord- 
ing unto the three stroaks of Joash, with an arrow 
upon the ground, he foretold the number of his 
victories. For thereby the spirit of God particular 'd 
the same ; and determined the stroaks of the King 
unto three, which the hopes of the Prophet expected 
in twice that number. 
Dion. Cassii. 8. Wecanuot omit to observe the tenacity of ancient 
lib. 37. customs, in the nominal observation of the several 

daye.s of the week, according to Gentile and Pagan 
appellations : for the Original is very high, and as old 
as the ancient ^Egyptians, who named the same accord- 
ing to the seven Planets, the admired stars of heaven, 
and reputed Deities among them. Unto every one 
assigning a several day ; not according to their ccelestial 
order, or as they are disposed in heaven ; but after a 
diatesseron or musical fourth. For beginning Satur- 
day with Saturn, the supremest Planet, they accounted 
by Jupiter and Mars unto Sol, making Sunday. From 
Sol in like manner by Venus and Mercury unto Luna, 



making Munday ; and so through all the rest. And CHAP. 
the same order they confirmed by numbering the hours XXIII 
of the day unto twenty four, according to the natural 
order of the Planets. For beginning to account from 
Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and so about unto twenty four, 
the next day will fall unto Sol ; whence accounting 
twenty four, the next will happen unto Luna, making 
Munday. And so with the rest, according to the 
account and order observed still among us. 

The Jews themselves in their Astrological considera- 
tions, concerning Nativities, and Planetary hours, 
observe the same order, upon as witty foundations. 
Because by an equal interval, they make seven triangles, 
the bases whereof are the seven sides of a septilateral 
figure, described within a circle. That is, If a figure 
of seven sides be described in a circle, and at the angles 
thereof the names of the Planets be placed in their 
natural order on it : if we begin with Saturn, and 
successively draw lines from angle to angle, until seven 
equicrural triangles be described, whose bases are the 
seven sides of the septilateral figure ; the triangles will cujus icon 
be made by this order. The first being made by i^ffarfr'' 
Saturn, Sol and Luna, that is, Saturday, Sunday, and chap. n. 
Munday ; and so the rest in the order still retained. Paduln"um. 

But thus much is observable, that however in coeles- 
tial considerations they embraced the received order 
of the Planets, yet did they not retain either characters, 
or names in common use amongst us ; but declining 
humane denominations, they assigned them names from 
some remarkable qualities ; as is very observable in 
their red and splendent Planets, that is, of Mars and 
Venus. But the change of their names disparaged not Maadim. 
the consideration of their natures ; nor did they thereby ^"e^ii. 
reject all memory of these remarkable Stars; which 


CHAP. God himself admitted in his Tabernacle, if conjecture 
XXIII will hold concerning the Golden Candlestick, whose 
shaft resembled the Sun, and six branches the Planets 
about it. 

9. We are unwilling to enlarge concerning manv 
other; only referring unto sober examination, what 
natural effects can reasonably be expected, M-hen to 
prevent the Ephialtes or night-Mare we hang up an 
hollow stone in our stables ; when for amulets asainst 
Agues we use the chips of Gallows and places of 
execution. When for Warts we rub our hands before 
the Moon, or commit any maculated part unto the 
touch of the dead. What truth there is in those 
common female Doctrines, that the first Rib of Roast 
Beef powdered is a peculiar remedy against Fluxes. 
That to urine upon earth newly cast up by a Moll, 
bringeth down the menses in AVomen. That if a Child 
dieth, and the neck becommeth not stiff, but for many 
bowers remaineth Lythe and Flaccid, some other in 
the same house will dye not long after. That if a 
woman with child looketh upon a dead body, her child 
will be of a pale complexion, our learned Philosophers 
and critical Philosophers might illustrate, whose ex- 
acter performances our adventures do but solicite ; 
mean while, I hope, they will plausibly receive our 
attempts, or candidly correct our raisconjectures. 

Disce, sed ira cadut naso, ritgosaque nanna, 
Dum veteres avius tibi de pn/mone revelto. 


Of sundry common opinions Cosmo- 
graphical and Historical 

The first Discourse comprehended in several Chapters. 


Concerning the beginning of the World, that 
the time thereof is not precisely to be 
known, as men generally suppose : Of 
mens enquiries in what season or point of 
the Zodiack it began. That as thev are 
generally made they are in vain, and as 
particularly applied uncertain. Of the 
division of the seasons and four quarters 
of the year, according to Astronomers 
and Physitians. That the common com- 
pute of the Ancients, and which is yet 
retained by most, is unreasonable and 
erroneous. Of some Divinations and 
ridiculous diductions from one part of 
the year to another. And of the Provi- 
dence and Wisdom of God in the site 
and motion of the Sun. 



CHAP. X-^ONCEHNING the World and its temporal 

1 i circumscriptions, who ever shall strictly ex- 

Thcageof V^^ amine both extreams, will easily perceive 

«<^/«,va/«/v tliere is not only obscurity m its end, but its beo-in- 

^abu'"'"' '""S' that as its period is inscrutable, so is its nativity 

indeterminable : That as it is presumption to enquire 

after the one, so is there no rest or satisfactory decision 

in the other. And hereunto we shall more readily 

assent, if we examine the informations, and take a view 

of the several difficulties in this point ; which we shall 

more easily do, if we consider the different conceits 

of men, and duly perpend the imperfections of their 


And first, The histories of the Gentiles afford us 
slender satisfaction, nor can they relate any story, or 
affix a probable point to its beginning. For some 
thereof (and those of the wisest amongst them) are 
so far from determining its beginning, that tliey 
opinion and maintain it never had any at all ; as the 
doctrin of Epicurus implieth, and more positively 
Aristotle in his books De Coelo declareth. Endeavour- 
ing to confirm it with arguments of reason, and those 
appearingly demonstrative; wherein his labours are 
rational, and uncontroulable upon the grounds assumed, 
that is, of Physical generation, and a Primary or first 
matter, beyond which no other hand was apprehended. 
But herein we remain sufficiently satisfied from Muses, 
and the Doctrin delivered of the Creation ; that is, 
a production of all things out of nothing, a formation 
not only of matter, but of form, and a materiation 
even of matter it self. 

Others are so far from defining the Original of the 
World or of mankind, that they have held opinions 
not only repugnant unto Chronology, but Philosophy ; 


that is, that they had their beginning in the soil where CHAP. 
they inhabited; assuming or receiving appellations I 
conformable unto such conceits. So did the Athenians, why the 
term themselves avTox^ove^ or Ahorigines, and in testi- a-zv/,"*"^ 

: wear a 

mony thereof did wear a golden Insect on their heads : golden insect 

1 • 1 • 1 T 1 J Upon tluir 

the same name is also given unto the Inlanders, or h^ad. 
Midland inhabitants of this Island by Casar. But 
this is a conceit answerable unto the generation of 
the Giants ; not admittablein Philosophy, much less in 
Divinity, which distinctly informeth we are all the 
seed of Adam, that the whole world perished unto 
eight persons before the flood, and was after peopled by 
the Colonies of the sons of Noah. There was therefore 
never any Autochthon, or man arising from the earth 
hnt Adam; for the Woman being formed out of the 
rib, was once removed from earth, and framed from 
that Element under incarnation. And so although her 
production were not by copulation, yet was it in a 
manner seminal : For if in every part from whence 
the seed doth flow, there be contained the Idea of the 
whole ; there was a seminality and contracted Adam 
in the rib, which by the information of a soul, was 
individuated into Eve. And therefore this conceit 
applied unto the Original of man, and the beginning 
of the world, is more justly appropriable unto its end. 
For then indeed men shall rise out of the earth : the 
graves shall shoot up their concealed seeds, and in that '^ 
great Autumn, men shall spring up, and awake from 
their Chaos again. 

Others have been so blind in deducing the Original 
of things, or delivering their own beginnings, that 
when it hath fallen into controversie, they have not 
recurred unto Chronologic or the Records of time : but 
betaken themselves unto probabilities, and the con- 

■tr ^_-_ 





That men 
speak not by 
but by in- 
and imita ■ 

jecturalitics of Philosophy. Thus when the two ancient 
Nations, Egyptians and Scythians, contended for anti- 
quity, the Egyptians pleaded their antiquity from the 
fertility of their soil, inferring that men there first 
inhabited, where they were with most facility sus- 
tained ; and such a land did they conceive was 

The Scythians, although a cold and heavier Nation 
urged more acutely, deducing their arguments from 
the two active Elements and Principles of all things, 
Fire and Water. For if of all thinfjs there was first 
an union, and that Fire over-ruled the rest : surely 
that part of earth which was coldest, would first get 
free, and afford a place of habitation. But if all the 
earth were first involved in Water, those parts would 
surely first appear, which were most high, and of most 
elevated situation, and such was theirs. These reasons 
carried indeed the antiquity from the Egyptians, but 
confirmed it not in the Scythians : for as Herodotus 
rclateth from Pargitaus, their first King unto Darius, 
they accounted but two thousand years. 

As for the Egyptians they invented another way of 
trial; for as the same Author relateth, Psiimviitichiis 
their King attempted this decision by a new and 
unknown experiment, bringing up two Infants with 
Goats, and where they never heard the voice of man ; 
concluding that to be the ancientest Nation, whose 
language they should first deliver. But herein he 
forgot that speech was by instruction not instinct, by 
imitation, not by nature, that men do speak in some 
kind but like Parrets, and as they are instructed, that 
is, in simple terms and words, expressing the open 
notions of things; which the second act of Reason 
comj)oundeth into })ropositions, and the last into 


Syllogisms and Forms of ratiocination. And howso- CHAP, 
ever the account of Manethon the Egyptian Priest run I 
verj high, and it be evident that Mizra'im peopled 
that Country (whose name with the Hebrews it beareth 
unto this day) and there be many things of great 
antiquity related in Holy Scripture, yet was their 
exact account not very ancient; for Ptolomy their 
Country-man beginning his Astronomical compute no 
higher than Nahonasser, who is conceived by some the 
same with Sahnanasser, As for the argument deduced"' 
from the Fertility of the soil, duly enquired, it rather 
overthroweth than promoteth their antiquity ; if that 
Country Avhose Fertility they so advance, was in . 
ancient times no firm or open land, but some vast lake 
or part of the Sea, and became a gained ground by the 
mud and limous matter brought down by the River 
Nilus, which setled by degrees into a firm land. Ac- 
cording as is expressed by Sfrabo, and more at large 
by Herodotus, both from the Egyptian tradition and 
probable inducements from reason, called therefore 
fluvii donum, an accession of earth, or tract of land . 
acquired by the River. /\ 

Lastly, Some indeed there are, who have kept 
Records of time, and a considerable duration, yet do 
the exactest thereof afford no satisfaction concerning 
the beginning of the world, or any way point out the 
time of its creation. The most authentick Records 
and best approved antiquity are those of the Chaldeans; 
yet in the time oi Alexander the Great, they attained 
not so high as the flood. For as SimpUcius relateth, 
Aristotle required of Calisthenes, who accompanied that 
Worthy in his Expedition, that at his arrive at Baby- 
lo7i, he would enquire of the antiquity of their Records ; 
and those upon compute he found to amount unto 

Ml H !■ JIM 


CHAP. 1903 years ; which account notwithstanding ariseth 
I no higher than 95 years after the flood. The ArcaxJiaiis 
I confess, were esteemed of great antiquity, and it was 
usually said they were before the Moon, according unto 
that of Seneca^ Sydus post veieres A7-cade>i editum ; and 
that of Ovid, Lund gens jjiior ilia fidt. But this as 
Censorimis observeth, must not be taken grosly, as 
though they were existent before that Luminary ; but 
were so esteemed, because they observed a set course 
of year, before the Gjreks conformed their year unto 
the course and motion of the Moon. 

Thus the Heathens affording no satisfaction herein, 
they are most likely to manifest this truth, who have 
been acquainted with Holy Scripture, and the sacred 
Chronology delivered by Moses, who distinctly sets 
down this account, computing by certain intervails, by 
memorable yE)-as, Epoches, or terms of time. As from 
the Creation unto the flood, from thence unto Abraham, 
from Abraham unto the departure from Egypt, etc. 
Now in this number have only been Samaritans, Jexvs 
Different ac- and Christians. For the Jews they agree not in their 
's^riptutr 'iccounts, as Bodine in his method of History hath 
concerning obscrved out of Baal Seder, Rabbi Nassom, Geisom, 
thewJid. <ind others; in whose compute the age of the World 
is not yet 5400 years. The same is more evidently 
observable from the two most learned Je-tcs, Philo and 
Josephiis; who very much diffier in the accounts of 
time, and variously sum up these Intervails assented 
unto by all. Thus Philo from the departure out of 
Egypt unto the building of the Temple, accounts but 
920 years, but Joscphns sets down 1062. Philo from 
the building of the Temple to its destruction 440. 
Josephus 470. Philo from the Creation to the Destruc- 
tion of the Temple 3373, but Josephus 3513. Philo 


from the Deluge to the Destruction of the Temple CHAP. 
1718, but Josephus 1913. In which Computes there I 
are manifest disparities, and such as much divide the 
concordance and harmony of times. 

For the Samaritans ; their account is different from 
these or any others; for they account from the 
Creation to the Deluge, but 1302 years ; which cometh 
to pass upon the diiferent account of the ages of the 
Patriarks set down when they begat children. For 
whereas the Hebrew, Greek and Latin texts account 
Jared 162 when he begat Enoch, they account but 62, 
and so in others. Now the Samaritans were no incom- 
petent Judges of times and the Chronology thereof; 
for they embraced the five books of Moses, and as it 
seemeth, preserved the Text with far more integrity 
then the Jews; who as Tertullian, Chrysostom, and 
others observe, did several wayes corrupt the same, 
especially in passages concerning the prophesies of 
Christ ; So that as Jerom professeth, in his transla- 
tion he was fain sometime to relieve himself by the 
Samaritan Pentateuch; as amongst others in that 
Text, Deuteronomy 27. Maledictus omnis qui non per- 
manserit in omnibus guce scripta sunt in libro Legis. 
From hence Saint Paul inferreth there is no justifica- 
tion by the Law, and urgeth the Text according to the 
Septuagint. Now the Jews to afford a latitude untoG:«/.3- 
themselves, in their copies expunged the word ^2 or 
Syncategorematical term omnis: wherein lieth the 
strength of the Law, and of the Apostles argument ; 
but the Samaritan Bible retained it right, and answer- 
able unto what the Apostle had urged. 

As for Christians from whom we should expect the 
exactest and most concurring account, there is also in 
them a manifest disagreement, and such as is not 



CHAP, easily reconciled. For first, the Latins accord not in 
I their account : to omit the calculation of the Ancients, 
of Austin, Bede, and others, the Chronology of the 
Moderns doth manifestly dissent. Josephxis Scaliger, 
'' whom Helvicus seems to follow, accounts the Creation 
in 765 of the Julian period ; and from thence unto the 
Nativity of our Saviour alloweth 3947 years; but 
Dionysius Petavius a learned Chronologer dissenteth 
from this compute almost 40 years ; placing the 
Creation in the 730 of the Julian period, and from 
thence unto the Incarnation accounteth 3983 years. 

For the Greeks; their accounts are more anomalous: 
for if we recur unto ancient computes, we shall find 
that Clemens Alexandrinus^ an ancient Father and 
Prceceptor unto Origen, accounted from the Creation 
unto our Saviour, 5664 years ; for in the first of his 
Stromaticks, he collecteth the time from Adam unto 
the death of Commodus to be 5858 years ; now the 
death of Commodus he placeth in the year after Christ 
194, which number deducted from the former, there 
remaineth 5664. Theophilus Bishop of Antioch ac- 
counteth unto the Nativity of Christ 5515, deduceable 
from the like way of compute, for in his first book ad 
Autolj/chum, he accounteth from Adam unto Aurelius 
Verus 5695 years; now that Emperour died in the year 
of our Lord 180, which deducted from the former sum, 
there remaineth 5515. Julius Africanus^ an ancient 
Chronologer, accounteth somewhat less, that is, 5500. 
KusehiuSy Orosius and others dissent not much from 
this, but all exceed five thousand. 

The latter compute of the Greeks, as Petavius 
observeth, hath been reduced unto two or three 
accounts. The first accounts unto our Saviour 5501, 
and this hath been observed by Nicephorus, TheO' 


phanes, and Maximus. The other accounts 5509 ; and CHAP. 
this of all at present is generally received by the I 
Church of Constantinople, observed also by the Mosco- By what 
vite, as 1 have seen in the date of the Emperors ^,<,^/^ ^a^^ 
letters; wherein this year of ours 1645 is from the^'"^^^^ 

•' ^ yeart. 

year of the world 7154, which doth exactly agree unto 
this last account 5509, for if unto that sum be added 
1645, the product will be 7154, by this Chronology 
are many Greek Authors to be understood ; and thus 
is Martinus Crusius to be made out, when in his 
Turcogrecian history he delivers, the City of Constanti- 
nople was taken by the Turks in the year r^^a ; that 
is, 6961. Now according unto these Chronologists, the 
Prophecy of Elias the Rabbin, so much in request with 
the Jews, and in some credit also with Christians, that 
the world should last but six thousand years; unto 
these I say, it hath been long and out of memory dis- 
proved, for the Sabbatical and 7000 year wherein the 
world should end (as did the Creation on the seventh 
day) unto them is long ago expired ; they are proceed- 
ing in the eight thousand year, and numbers exceed- 
ing those days which men have made the types and 
shadows of these. But certainly what Marcus Leo the 
Jew conceiveth of the end of the heavens, exceedeth 
the account of all that ever shall be ; for though he 
conceiveth the Elemental frame shall end in the 
Seventh or Sabbatical Millenary, yet cannot he opinion 
the heavens and more durable part of the Creation 
shall perish before seven times seven, or 49, that is, 
the Quadrant of the other seven, and perfect Jubilee 
of thousands. 

Thus may we observe the difference and wide dissent 
of mens opinions, and thereby the great incertainty in 
this establishment. The Hebrews not only dissenting 




The cauu 0/ 

to different 
abottt the 
age 0/ the 

even in the 
Text o/tkt 

from the Samaritans, the Latins from the Greeks, but 
every one from another. Insomuch that all can be in 
the right it is impossible ; that any one is so, not with 
assurance determinable. And therefore as Petavius 
confesseth, to effect the same exactly without inspira- 
tion it is impossible, and beyond the Arithmetick of 
any but God himself. And therefore also what satis- 
faction may be obtained from those violent disputes, 
and eager enquirers in what day of the month the 
world began either of March or October ; likewise in 
what face or position of the Moon, whether at the 
prime or full, or soon after, let our second and serious 
considerations determine. 

Now the reason and ground of this dissent, is the 
unhappy difference between the Greek and Hebrew 
Editions of the Bible, for unto these two Languages 
have all translations conformed ; the holy Scripture 
being first delivered in Hebrew, and first translated 
into Greek. For the Hebrew ; it seems the primitive 
and surest text to rely on, and to preserve the same 
entire and uncorrupt there hath been used the highest 
caution humanity could invent. For as R. Ben. Maimon 
hath declared, if in the copying thereof one letter were 
written twice, or if one letter but touched another, 
that copy was not admitted into their Synagogues, 
but only allowable to be read in Schools and private 
families. Neither were they careful only in the exact 
number of their Sections of the Law, but had also the 
curiosity to number every word, and affixed the account 
unto their several books. Notwithstanding all which, 
divers corruptions ensued, and several depravations 
slipt in, arising from many and manifest grounds, as 
hath been exactly noted by Morinits in his preface 
unto the Septuagint. 


As for the Septuagint, it is the first and most CHAP. 
ancient Translation; and of greater antiquity than 1 
the Chaldee version ; occasioned by the request of 
Ptolomeus Philadelphus^ King of Egypt ^ for the orna- 
ment of his memorable Library ; unto whom the high 
Priest addressed six Jews out of every Tribe, which 
amounteth unto 72 ; and by these was eifected that 
Translation we usually term the Septuagint, or Trans- 
lation of seventy. Which name, however it obtain ThtCndu 
from the number of their persons, yet in respect of one ^j^^^^„^ 
common Spirit, it was the Translation but as it were translation, 
of one man; if as the story relateth, although they 
were set apart and severed from each other, yet were 
their Translations found to agree in every point, 
according as is related by Philo and Josephus\ 
although we find not the same in Aristceas^ who hath Aristeas ad 
expresly treated thereof. But of the Greek compute torem"*?* 
there have passed some learned dissertations not many interpretibus. 
years ago, wherein the learned Isacius Vosdus makes 
the nativity of the world to anticipate the common 
account one thousand four hundred and forty years. 

This Translation in ancient times was of great 
authority, by this many of the Heathens received 
some notions of the Creation and the mighty works 
of God ; This in express terms is often followed by the 
Evangelists, by the Apostles, and by our Saviour him- 
self in the quotations of the Old Testament. This for 
many years was used by the Jews themselves, that is, 
such as did Hellenize and dispersedly dwelt out of 
Palestine with the Greeks ; and this also the succeed- 
ing Christians and ancient Fathers observed ; although 
there succeeded other Greek versions, that is, of Aquila^ 
Theodosius and Symmachus ; for the Latin translation 
of Jerom, called now the Vulgar, was about 800 years 




PrzfaL in 

De Hebraei 
et Grzci 
textus sin- 

after the Septuagint ; although there was also a Latin 
translation before, called the Italick version. Which 
was after lost upon the general reception of the trans- 
lation of Saint Jerom. Which notwithstanding (ag 
he himself acknowledgeth) had been needless, if the 
Septuagint copys had remained pure, and as they were 
first translated. But, (beside that different copys were 
used, that Alexandria and Egypt followed the copy of 
Hesychitis, Antioch and Constantinople that of Lucian 
the Martyr, and others that of Origen) the Septuagint 
was much depraved, not only from the errors of Scribes, 
and the emergent corruptions of time, but malicious 
contrivance of the Jews; as Justin Martyr hath declared, 
in his learned dialogue with Tryphon^ and Morinus hath 
learnedly shewn from many confirmations. 

Whatsoever Interpretations there have been since, 
have been especially efl^ected with reference unto these, 
that is, the Greek and Hebrew text, the Translators 
sometimes following the one, sometimes adhering unto 
the other, according as they found them consonant 
unto truth, or most correspondent unto the rules of 
faith. Now however it cometh to pass, these two are 
very different in the enumeration of Genealogies, and 
particular accounts of time ; for in the second inter- 
vail, that is, between the Flood and Abraham^ there is 
by the Septuagint introduced one Cainan to be the 
son of Arphaxad and father of Salah ; whereas in 
the Hebrew there is no mention of such a person, but 
Arphaxad is set down to be the father of Salah. But 
in the first intervail, that is, from the Creation unto the 
Flood, their disagreement is more considerable ; for 
therein the Greek exceedeth the Hebrew, and common 
account almost 600 years. And 'tis indeed a thing not 
very strange, to be at the difference of a third part, in 


so large and collective an account, if we consider how CHAP, 
differently they are set forth in minor and less mistak- 1 
able numbers. So in the Prophesie of Jonahy both in 
the Hebrew and Latin text, it is said. Yet forty dayes 
and Ninevy shall be overthrown : But the Septuagint 
saith plainly, and that in letters at length, rp€l<i rifiipwi 
that is, yet three dayes and Nmevy shall be destroyed. 
Which is a difference not newly crept in, but an 
observation very ancient, discussed by Aicstin and 
Theodoret, and was conceived an error committed by 
the Scribe. Men therefore have raised different com- 
putes of time, according as they have followed their 
different texts ; and so have left the history of times 
far more perplexed than Chronology hath reduced. 

Again, However the texts were plain, and might in 
their numerations agree, yet were there no small diffi- 
culty to set down a determinable Chronology, or 
establish from whence any fixed point of time. For 
the doubts concerning the time of the Judges are 
inexplicable; that of the Reigns and succession of 
Kings is as perplexed ; it being uncertain whether the 
years both of their lives and reigns ought to be taken 
as compleat, or in their beginning and but currant 
accounts. Nor is it unreasonable to make some doubt 
whether in the first ages and long lives of our fathers, 
Moses doth not sometime account by full and round 
numbers, whereas strictly taken they might be some 
few years above or under ; as in the age of Noah^ it is 
delivered to be just five hundred when he begat Sem ; 
whereas perhaps he might be somewhat above or below 
that round and compleat number. For the same way 
of speech is usual in divers other expressions : Thus do 
we say the Septuagint, and using the full and articulate 
number, do write the Translation of Seventy ; whereas 


CHAP, we have shewn before, the precise number was Seventy 
I two. So is it said that Christ was three days in the 
grave ; according to that of Mathew, as Jonas was 
three days and three nights in the Whales belly, so 
shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in 
the heart of the earth : which notwithstanding must be 
taken Synecdochically ; or by understanding a part for 
an whole day ; for he remained but two nights in the 
grave ; for he was buried in the afternoon of the first 
day, and arose very early in the morning on the third ; 
that is, he was interred in the eve of the Sabbath, and 
arose in the morning after it. 

Moreover although the number of years be deter- 
mined and rightly understood, and there be without 
doubt a certain truth herein ; yet the text speaking 
obscurely or dubiously, there is oft-times no slender 
difficulty at what point to begin or terminate the 
account. So when it is said Exod. 12. the sojourn- 
ing of the children of Israel who dwelt in Egypt 
was 430 years, it cannot be taken strictly, and from 
their first arrival into Egypt, for their habitation in 
that land was far less; but the account must be^in 
from the Covenant of God with Abraham^ and must 
also comprehend their sojourn in the land of Canaan^ 
according as is expressed. Gal. 3. The Covenant that 
was confirmed before of God in Christ, the Law which 
was 430 years after cannot disanul. Thus hath it also 
happened in the account of the 70 years of their cap- 
Chaf. ao. tivity, according to that of Jeremy^ This whole land 
shall be a desolation, and these nations shall serve the 
King of Babylon 70 years. Now where to begin or end 
this compute, ariseth no small difficulties; for there 
were three remarkable captivities and deportations of 
the Jews. The first was in the third or fourth year 


of Joachim^ and first of Nabuchodonozor, when Daniel CHAP, 
was carried away ; the second in the reign of leconiah^ I 
and the eighth year of the same King ; the third and 
most deplorable to the reign of ZedecMas and in the 
nineteenth year of Nabuchodonozor^ whereat both the 
Temple and City were burned. Now such is the different 
conceit of these times, that men have computed from 
all ; but the probablest account and most concordant 
unto the intention of leremy, is from the first of Nabu- 
chodonozor unto the first of King Cyrus over Babylon ; 
although the Prophet Zachary accounteth from the ««>• i- "• 
last. O Lord of hosts. How Long ! Wilt thou not have 
mercy on Jerusalem, against which thou hast had 
indignation these threescore and ten years? for he 
maketh this expostulation in the second year of Dariics 
Histaspes, wherein he prophesied, which is about 
eighteen years in account after the other. 

Thus also although there be a certain truth therein, 
yet is there no easie doubt concerning the seventy Tktdi^- 
weeks, or seventy times seven years oi Daniel-, whether ^^'J^'^"^^ 
they have reference unto the nativity or passion of our ivcekt. 
Saviour, and especially from whence, or what point of 
time they are to be computed. For thus is it delivered 
by the Angel Gabriel: Seventy weeks are determined 
upon the people; and again in the following verse: 
Know therefore and understand, that from the going 
forth of the Commandment to restore and to build 
Jerusalem unto the Messias the Prince, shall be seven 
weeks, and threescore and two weeks, the street shall 
be built again, and the wall even in troublesome times ; 
and after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be 
cut off. Now the going out of the Commandment 
to build the City, being the point from whence to 
compute, there is no slender controversie when to 


CHAP, begin. For there are no less than four several Edicts 

1 to this effect, the one in the first year of Cyrus, the 

other in the second of Darius^ the third and fourth in 

the seventh, and in the twentieth of Artaxerxes Loiigi- 

manus ; although as Petavius accounteth, it best ac- 

cordeth unto the twenty year of Artaxerxes, from 

whence Nehemiah deriveth his Commission. Now that 

computes are made uncertainly with reference unto 

Christ, it is no wonder, since I perceive the time of 

o/»urBUss. his Nativity is in controversie, and no less his age at his 

Saviours Passion. For Clemens and Tertullian conceive he suffered 

af^e at hit 

Pauion. at thirty ; but Irenaeus a Father neerer his time, is 
further ofiF in his account, that is, between forty and 

Lo^igoirvontanus a late Astronomer, endeavours to 
discover this secret from Astronomical grounds, that 
is, the Apogeum of the Sun ; conceiving the Excentri- 
city invariable, and the Apogeum yearly to move one 
scruple, two seconds, fifty thirds, etc. Wherefore if in 
the time of Hipparchus, that is, in the year of the Julian 
period 4557 it was in the fifth def;ree of Gemini, and 
in the dales of Tycho Brake, that is in the year of our 
Lord 1588, or of the world 5554, the same was removed 
unto the fift degree of Cancer ; by the proportion of 
its motion, it was at the Creation first in the beginning 
of Aries, and the Perigeum or nearest point in Libra. 
DeDoctrina But this concclt how ingenious or subtile soever, is not 
lemporum ^f satisfaction ; it being not determinable, or yet agreed 
in what time precisely the Apogeum absolveth one 
degree, as Petavins hath also delivered. 
•J Lastly, However these or other difficulties intervene, 
and that we cannot satisfie our selves in the exact com- 
pute of time, yet may we sit down with the common 
and usual account ; nor are these differences deroga- 


tory unto the Advent or Passion of Christ, unto which CHAP, 
indeed they all do seem to point, for the Prophecies I 
concerning our Saviour were indefinitely delivered 
before that of Daniel ; so was that pronounced unto 
Eve in paradise, that after of Balaam, those of Isaiah 
and the Prophets, and that memorable one of lacob, the 
Scepter shall not depart from Israel untill Shilo come ; 
which time notwithstanding it did not define at all. 
In what year therefore soever, either from the destruc- 
tion of the Temple, from the re-edifying thereof, from 
the flood, or from the Creation he appeared, certain 
it is, that in the fulness of time he came. When he 
therefore came is not so considerable, as that he is 
come : in the one there is consolation, in the other no 
satisfaction. The greater Quere is, when he will come 
again ; and yet indeed it is no Quere at all : for that 
is never to be known, and therefore vainly enquired : 
'tis a professed and authentick obscurity, unknown to 
all but to the omniscience of the Almighty. Certainly 
the ends of things are wrapt up in the hands of God, 
he that undertakes the knowledge thereof, forgets his 
own beginning, and disclaims his principles of earth. 
No man knows the end of the world, nor assuredly of 
any thing in it : God sees it, because unto his Eternity 
it is present ; he knoweth the ends of us, but not of 
himself: and because he knows not this, he knoweth 
all things, and his knowledge is endless, even in the 
object of himself. 




Of mens Enquiries in what season or Point 
of the Zodiack it began, that as they are 
generally made, they are in vain, and as 
particularly, uncertain. 



CONCERNING the Seasons, that is, the quarters 
of the year, some are ready to enquire, others 
to determine, in what season, whether in the 
Autumn, Spring, Winter or Summer the World had 
its beginning. Wherein we affirm, that as the question 
is generally, and in respect of the whole earth proposed, 
it is with manifest injury unto reason in any particular 
Theiuerid determined; because when ever the world had its be- 
^'k'^f '" "^ gi^^^^^S i^ ^** created in all these four. For, as we 
quarttrto/ havc clsewherc delivered, whatsoever sign the Sun 
tktycar. possesseth (whose recess or vicinity defineth the quar- 
ters of the year) those four seasons were actually 
existent ; it being the nature of that Luminary to 
distinguish the several seasons of the year; all which 
it maketh at one time in the whole earth, and succes- 
sively in any part thereof. Thus if we suppose the 
Sun created in Libra, in which sign unto some it 
maketh Autumn ; at the same time it had been Winter 
unto the Northern-pole, for unto them at that time 
the Sun beginneth to be invisible, and to shew it self 
again unto the Pole of the South. Unto the position 
of a right Sphere or directly under the ^Equator, it 
had been Summer ; for unto that situation the Sun is 
at that time vertical. Unto the latitude of Capricorn, 
or the Winter Solstice it had been Spring ; for unto 
that position it had been in a middle point, and that 


of ascent, or approximation, but unto the latitude of CHAP. 
Cancer or the Summer Solstice it had been Autumn ; 11 
for then had it been placed in a middle point, and that 
of descent, or elongation. 

And if we shall take it literally what Moses described 
popularly, this was also the constitution of the first 
day. For when it was evening unto one longitude, it 
was morning unto another; when night unto one, 
day unto another. And therefore that question, 
whether our Saviour shall come again in the twi- 
light (as is conceived he arose) or whether he shall 
come upon us in the night, according to the compari- 
son of a thief, or the Jewish tradition, that he will 
come about the time of their departure out of jEgypt^ 
when they eat the Passover, and the Angel passed by 
the doors of their houses; this Quere I say needeth 
not further dispute. For if the earth be almost every 
where inhabited, and his coming (as Divinity affirmed) 
must needs be unto all ; then must the time of his 
appearance be both in the day and night. For if 
unto Jerusalem^ or what part of the world soever he 
shall appear in the night, at the same time unto the 
Antipodes, it must be day; if twilight unto them, 
broad day unto the Indians ; if noon unto them, yet 
night unto the Americans ; and so with variety accord- 
ing unto various habitations, or different positions of 
the Sphere, as will be easily conceived by those who 
understand the affections of different habitations, and 
the conditions of Antceci, Periirci, and Antipodes. And 
so although he appear in the night, yet may the day 
of Judgement or Dooms-day well retain that name ; 
for that implieth one revolution of the Sun, which 
maketh the day and night, and that one natural day. Vvx^nt^op 
And yet to speak strictly, if (as the Apostle affirmeth) 


CHAP, we shall be changed in the twinckling of an eye (and 
II as the Schools determine) the destruction of the world 
shall not be successive but in an instant; we cannot 
properly apply thereto the usual distinctions of time ; 
called that twelve hours, which admits not the parts 
thereof, or use at all the name of time, when the nature 
thereof shall perish. 

But if the enquiry be made unto a particular place, 
and the question determined unto some certain Meri- 
\l dian ; as namely, unto Mesopotamia wherein the seat 
of paradice is presumed, the Query becomes more 
reasonable, and is indeed in nature also determin- 
able. Yet positively to define that season, there is no 
slender difficulty ; for some contend that it began in 
the Spring; as (beside Ensehms, Ambrose, Bede, and 
Theodoret) some few years past Henrico Philippi in his 
Chronology of the Scripture. Others are altogether 
for Autumn; and from hence do our Chronologers 
commence their compute; as may be observed in 
HelvicuSy Jo. Scaligery Calvisius, and Petavius. 


Of the Divisions of the seasons and four Quar- 
ters of the year, according unto Astrono- 
mers and Physitians ; that the common 
compute of the Ancients, and which is 
still retained by some is very questionable. 

V~ AS for the divisions of the year, and the quarter- 

/ \ ing out this remarkable standard of time, 

jL V. there have passed especially two distinctions; 

the first in frequent use with Astronomers, according 

to the cardinal intersections of the Zodiack, that is, 


the two ^Equinoctials and both the Solstitial points ; CHAP. 
defining that time to be the Spring of the year, wherein III 
the Sun doth pass from the vEquinox of Aries unto the 
Solstice of Cancer; the time between the Solstice 
and the ^Equinox of Libra, Summer ; from thence unto 
the Solstice of Capricornus, Autumn ; and from thence 
unto the iEquinox of Aries again, Winter. Now this 
division although it be regular and equal, is not 
universal; for it includeth not those latitudes which 
have the seasons of the year double ; as have the 
inhabitants under the ^Equator, or else between the 
Tropicks. For unto them the Sun is vertical twice a Between tk* 
year, making two distinct Summers in the different ^^^^,*,,^'' 
points of verticality. So unto those which live under *■>'""■• 
the Equator, when the sun is in the ^Equinox it is 
Summer, in which points it maketh Spring or Autumn 
unto us ; and unto them it is also Winter when the 
Sun is in either Tropick ; whereas unto us it maketh 
always Summer in the one. And the like will happen 
unto those habitations, which are between the Tropicks 
and the Equator. 

A second and more sensible division there is observed 
by Hippocrates^ and most of the ancient Greeks^ accord- 
ing to the rising and setting of divers stars ; dividing 
the year, and establishing the account of seasons from 
usual alterations, and sensible mutations in the air, 
discovered upon the rising and setting of those stars, 
accounting the Spring from the ^Equinoxial point of 
Aries ; from the rising of the Pleiades, or the several 
stars on the back of Taurus, Summer ; from the rising 
of Arcturus, a star between the thighs of Bootes, 
Autumn ; and from the setting of the Pleiades, Winter. 
Of these divisions because they were unequal, they were 
fain to subdivide the two larger portions, that is of the 


CHAP. Summer and Winter quarters; the fust part of the 
m Summer they named ^epo?, the second unto the rising 
of the Dog-star, wpa, from thence unto the setting of 
Arcturus, oTrcopa. The Winter they divided also into 
three parts ; the first part, or that of seed time they 
named o-Troperoi/, the middle or proper Winter, ■y^ei/j.oDVf 
the last, which was their planting or grafting time 
<f)vra\iav. This way of division was in former ages re- 
ceived, is very often mentioned in Poets, translated 
from one Nation to another; from the Greeks unto 
the Latines as is received by good Authors ; and 
delivered by Physitians, even unto our times. 

Now of these two, although the first in some lati- 
tude may be retained, yet is not the other in any to be 
admitted. For in regard of time (as we elsewhere 
declare) the stars do vary their longitudes, and con- 
sequently the times of their ascension and descension. 
That star which is the term of numeration, or point 
from whence we commence the account, altering his 
site and longitude in process of time, and removing 
from West to East, almost one degree in the space of 
72 years, so that the same star, since the age of Hippo- 
crates who used this account, is removed in coiisegicentia 
about 27 degrees. Which difference of their longi- 
tudes, doth much diversifie the times of their ascents, 
and rendereth the account unstable which shall proceed 

Again, In regard of different latitudes, this cannot 
be a setled rule, or reasonably applied unto many 
Nations. For whereas the setting of the Pleiades or 
seven stars, is designed the term of Autumn, and 
the beginning of Winter; unto some latitudes these 
stars do never set, as unto all beyond 67 degrees. 
And if in several and far distant latitudes we observe 


the same star as a common term of account unto both, CHAP, 
we shall fall upon an unexpected, but an unsufferable III 
absurdity ; and by the same account it will be Summer 
unto us in the North, before it be so unto those, which 
unto us are Southward, and many degrees approaching 
nearer the Sun. For if we consult the Doctrine of the 
sphere, and observe the ascension of the Pleiades, which 
maketh the beginning of Summer, we shall discover 
that in the latitude of 40, these stars arise in the 
16 degree of Taurus ; but in the latitude of 50, they 
ascend in the eleventh degree of the same sign, that is, 
5 dayes sooner ; so shall it be Summer unto London, 
before it be unto Toledo, and begin to scorch in 
England, before it grow hot in Spain. 

This is therefore no general way of compute, nor ^ 
reasonable to be derived from one Nation unto another ; 
the defect of which consideration hath caused divers 
errors in Latine poets, translating these expressions 
from the Greeks-^ and many difficulties even in the 
Greeks themselves; which living in divers latitudes, 
yet observed the same compute. So that to make 
them out, we are fain to use distinctions ; sometime 
computing cosmically what they intended heliacally : 
and sometime in the same expression accounting the 
rising heliacally, the setting cosmically. Otherwise it 
will be hardly made out, what is delivered by approved 
Authors ; and is an observation very considerable unto 
those which meet with such expressions, as they are 
very frequent in the poets of elder times, especially 
Hesiod, Aratus, Virgil, Ovid, Mait^ics ; and Authors 
Geoponical, or which have treated de re rustica, as Con- 
stantine, Marcus Cato, Columella, Palladius and Varro. 

Lastly, The absurdity in making common unto many 
Nations those considerations whose verity is but parti- 

VOL. II. u 


CHAP, cular unto some, will more evidently appear, if we 

III examine the Rules and Precepts of some one climate, 

and fall upon consideration with what incongruity 

they are transferable unto others. Thus is it advised 

by Hesiod. 

Pleiadibtu Atlante natis orientihus 

Incipe messem, Arationem vero occidentibut. 

Implying hereby the Heliacal ascent and Cosmical 
descent of those stars. Now herein he setteth down a 
rule to begin harvest at the arise of the Pleiades ; 
which in his time was in the beginning of Mai/. This 
indeed was consonant unto the clime wherein he lived, 
and their harvest began about that season : but is not 
appliable unto our own, for therein we are so far from 
expecting an harvest, that our Barley-seed is not 
ended. Again, correspondent unto the rule of Hesiod, 
Virgil afFordeth another, 

Ante tibi Eoee Atlantides abscondantur, 
Debita quam sulcis committas semina. 

Understanding hereby their Cosmical descent, or 
their setting when the Sun ariseth, and not their 
Heliacal obscuration, or their inclusion in the lustre 
of the Sun, as Servius upon this place would have it ; 
for at that time these stars are many signs removed 
from that luminary. Now herein he strictly adviseth, 
not to begin to sow before the setting of these stars ; 
which notwithstanding without injury to agriculture, 
cannot be observed in England ; for they set unto us 
about the 12 of November, when our Seed-time is 
almost ended. 

And this diversity of clime and ccelestial observa- 
tions, precisely observed unto certain stars and moneths, 
\' hath not only overthrown the deductions of one Nation 


to another, but hath perturbed the observation of CHAP. 
festivities and statary Solemnities, even with the Jews III 
themselves. For unto them it was commanded that at 
their entrance into the land of Canaan^ in the four- 
teenth of the first moneth (that is AUh or Nisan which 
is Spring with us) they should observe the celebration 
of the Passover; and on the morrow after, which is 
the fifteenth day, the feast of unleavened bread ; and 
in the sixteenth of the same moneth, that they should 
offer the first sheaf of the harvest. Now all this was 
feasible and of an easie possibility in the land of 
Canaan, or latitude of Jerusalem ; for so it is observed 
by several Authors in later times ; and is also testified 
by holy Scripture in times very far before. For when 
the children of Israel passed the river Jordan, it is /«*. 3. 
delivered by way of parenthesis, that the river over- 
floweth its banks in the time of harvest; which is 
conceived the time wherein they passed ; and it is after 
delivered, that in the fourteenth day they celebrated 
the Passover : which according to the Law of Moses was josh. 5. 
to be observed in the first moneth, or moneth oi AUh. 
And therefore it is no wonder, what is related by 
Luke, that the Disciples upon the Deuteroproton, as 
they passed by, plucked the ears of corn. For the 
Deuteroproton or second first Sabbath, was the first jrA«//A* 
Sabbath after the Deutera or second of the Passover, ^^^Ull'^^ 
which was the sixteenth of Nisan or Abib. And this uk, LuU. 6 
is also evidenced from the received construction of the ^%'^ 
first and latter rain. I will give you the rain of your 
land in his due season, the first rain and the latter 
rain. For the first rain fell upon the seed-time about 
October, and was to make the seed to root, the latter 
was to fill the ear, and fell in Abib or March, the first 
moneth : according as is expressed. And he will cause 



CHAP, to come down for you the rain, the former rain 
in and the latter rain in the first moneth ; that is the 
moneth of Abib wherein the Passover was observed. 
This was the Law of Moses, and this in the land of 
Canaan was well observed, according to the first insti- 
tution : but since their dispersion and habitation in 
Countries, whose constitutions admit not such tempes- 
tivity of harvests ; and many not before the latter end 
of Summer ; notwithstanding the advantage of their 
Lunary account, and intercalary moneth Veader, affixed 
unto the beginning of the year, there will be found a 
great disparity in their observations ; nor can they 
strictly and at the same season with their forefathers 
observe the commands of God. 

To add yet further, those Geoponical rules and pre- 
/ cepts of Agriculture which are delivered by divers 
Authors, are not to be generally received ; but respec- 
tively understood unto climes whereto they are deter- 
mined. For whereas one adviseth to sow this or that 
grain at one season, a second to set this or that at 
another, it must be conceived relatively, and every 
Nation must have its Country Farm ; for herein we 
may observe a manifest and visible difference, not only 
in the seasons of harvest, but in the grains themselves. 
For with us Barley-harvest is made after wheat-harvest, 
but with the Israelites and jEgyptians it was other- 
wise ; so is it expressed by way of priority, Ruth the 2. 
So Ruth kept fast by the maidens of Boaz to glean 
unto the end of Barley-harvest and of Wiieat-harvest, 
which in the plague of hayl in JEgypt is more plainly 
delivered, Exod. 9. And the Flax and the Barley were 
smitten, for the Barley was in the ear and the Flax 
was boiled, but the Wheat and the Rye were not 
smitten, for they were not grown up. 



And thus we see the account established upon the CHAP. 
arise or descent of the stars can be no reasonable rule III 
unto distant Nations at all, and by reason of their 
retrogression but temporary unto any one. Nor must 
these respective expressions be entertained in absolute 
considerations ; for so distinct is the relation, and so 
artificial the habitude of this inferiour globe unto the 
superiour, and even of one thing in each unto the other, 
that general rules are dangerous, and applications most 
safe that run with security of circumstance. Which 
rightly to effect, is beyond the subtlety of sense, and 
requires the artifice of reason. '^J 


Of some computation of days and deductions 
of one part of the year unto another. 

FOURTHLY, There are certain vulgar opinions "^ 
concerning days of the year, and conclusions 
popularly deduced from certain days of the 
moneth : men commonly believing the days increase and TAai the 
decrease equally in the whole year: which notwith- '^''^f'^"''""' 

,, . '' ana increase 

standing is very repugnant unto truth. For they unequally. 
increase in the moneth of March, almost as much as 
in the two moneths of January and February : and 
decrease as much in September, as they do in July and 
August. For the days increase or decrease according 
to the declination of the Sun, that is, its deviation 
Northward or Southward from the Equator. Now 
this digression is not equal but near the -^quinoxial 
intersections, it is right and greater, near the Solstices 
more oblique and lesser. So from the eleventh of 



CHAP. March the vernal Equinox, unto the eleventh of April 
IV the Sun declineth to the North twelve degrees ; from 
the eleventh of April unto the eleventh of May but 
eight, from thence unto the fifteenth of June, or the 
Summer Solstice but three and a half: all which 
make twenty two degrees and an half, the greatest 
declination of the Sun. 
^' And this inequality in the declination of the Sun in 
the Zodiack or line of life, is correspondent unto the 
growth or declination of man. For setting out from 
infancy we increase not equally, or regularly attain to 
our state or perfection : nor when we descend from our 
state, is our declination equal, or carrieth us with even 
paces unto the grave. For as Hippocrates affirmeth, a 
man is hottest in the first day of his life, and coldest 
in the last : his natural heat setteth forth most vigor- 
ously at first, and declineth most sensibly at last. And 
The natural SO though the growth of man end not perhaps until 
proptrtion |-^gjj^y Qpg yg^ jg j^jg gtaturc more advanced in the 

Of KHtHAHt y 'J 

growth, etc. first Septenary than in the second, and in the second, 

'^ ' more than in the third, and more indeed in the first 

seven years, than in the fourteen succeeding; for what 

stature we attain unto at seven years, we do sometimes 

but double, most times come short of at one and twenty. 

And so do we decline again : For in the latter age 

upon the Tropick and first descension from our solstice, 

we are scarce sensible of declination : but declining 

further, our decrement accelerates, we set apace, and 

in our last days precipitate into our graves. And 

mndtHtk* thus are also our progressions in the womb, that is, 

nomb. Q^jj. formation, motion, our birth or exclusion. For 

our formation is quickly effected, our motion appeareth 

later, and our exclusion very long after : if that be 

' true which Hippocrates and Avicenna have declared, 


that the time of our motion is double unto that of CHAP, 
formation, and that of exclusion treble unto that of IV 
motion. As if the Infant be formed at thirty five days, 
itmoveth at seventy, and is born the two hundred and 
tenth day, that is, the seventh month ; or if it receives 
not formation before forty five days, it moveth the 
ninetieth day, and is excluded in the two hundred and 
seventy, that is, the ninth month. 

There are also certain popular prognosticks drawn 
from festivals in the Calender, and conceived opinions 
of certain days in months ; so is there a general tradi- 
tion in most parts of Europe^ that inferreth the 
coldness of succeeding winter from the shining of the 
Sun upon Candlemas day, or the Purification of the 
Virgin Mary^ according to the proverbial distich, 

Bi Sol splendescat Maria purificante, 

Major erit glades postfestum quamfuit ante. 

So is it usual among us to qualifie and conditionate 
the twelve months of the year, answerably unto the 
temper of the twelve days in Christmas ; and to ascribe 
unto March certain borrowed days from April ; all 
which men seem to believe upon annual experience 
of their own, and the received traditions of their fore- 

Now it is manifest, and most men likewise know, 
that the Calenders of these computers, and the accounts 
of these days are very different ; the Greeks dissenting 
from the Latins, and the Latins from each other ; the 
one observing the Julian or ancient account, as great 
Britain and part of Germany ; the other adhering to 
the Gregorian or new account, as Italy, France, Spain, 
and the united Provinces of the Netherlands. Now 
this later account by ten days at least anticipateth the 



CHAP, other; so that before the one beginneth the account, 
IV the other is past it ; yet in the several calculations, the 
same events seem true, and men v?ith equal opinion 
of verity, expect and confess a confirmation from them 
all. Whereby is evident the Oraculous authority of 
tradition, and the easie seduction of men, neither en- 
quiring into the verity of the substance, nor reforming 
upon repugnance of circumstance. 

And thus may divers easily be mistaken who super- 
stitiously observe certain times, or set down unto 
themselves an observation of unfortunate months, or 
dayes, or hours ; As did the Egyptians, two in every 
month, and the Romans, the days after the Nones, 
Ides and Calends. And thus the Rules of Navigators 
must often fail, setting down, a,s Rhodiffifius observeth, 
suspected and. ominous days in every month, as the 
first and seventh of March, the lift and sixt of April, 
the sixt, the twelfth and fifteenth of Pebruary. For 
the accounts hereof in these months are very different 
in our days, and were different with several Nations in 
Ages past; and how strictly soever the account be 
made, and even by the self-same Calender, yet is it 
possible that Navigators may be out. For so were the 
Hollanders, who passing Westward through fretum le 
Mayre, and compassing the Globe, upon their return 
into their own Country, found that they had lost a 
day. For if two men at the same time travel from 
the same place, the one Eastward, the other Westward 
round about the earth, and meet in the same place 
from whence the first set forth ; it will so fall out, 
that he which hath moved Eastward against the 
diurnal motion of the Sun, by anticipating dayly 
something of its circle with his own motion, will gaine 
one day ; but he that travelleth Westward, with the 


motion of the Sun, by seconding its revolution, shall CHAP, 
lose or come short a day. And therefore also upon IV 
these grounds that Delos was seated in the middle of 
the earth, it was no exact decision, because two Eagles 
let fly East and West by Jupiter, their meeting fell 
out just in the Island Delos. 


A Digression of the wisdom of God in the 
site and motion of the Sun. 

HAVING thus beheld the ignorance of man in 
some things, his error and blindness in 
others, that is, in the measure of duration 
both of years and seasons, let us a while admire the 
Wisdom of God in this distinguisher of times, and 
visible Deity (as some have termed it) the Sun. Which 
though some from its glory adore, and all for its benefits 
admire, we shall advance from other considerations, 
and such as illustrate the artifice of its Maker. Nor 
do we think we can excuse the duty of our knowledge, 
if we only bestow the flourish of Poetry hereon, or 
those commendatory conceits which popularly set forth 
the eminency of this creature ; except we ascend unto 
subtiler considerations, and such as rightly understood, 
convincingly declare the wisdom of the Creator. Which 
since a Spanish Physitian hath begun, we will enlarge Vaierinsde 
with our deductions ; and this we shall endeavour from ' "*" '^'^' 
two considerations; its proper situation, and wisely 
ordered motion. -^ 

And first we cannot pass over his providence, in that 
it moveth at all; for had it stood still, and were it 
fixed like the earth, there had been then no distinction 

WP" ^- '' -ItHtnatMtmo^.. 



H^/utt the 
day it. 

CHAP, of times, either of day or year, of Spring, of Autumn, 
V of Summer, or of Winter; for these seasons are defined 
by the motions of the Sun ; when that approacheth 
neare our Zenith, or vertical Point, we call it*Summer, 
when furthest off, Winter, when in the middle spaces, 
Spring or Autumn, whereas remaining in one place these 
distinctions had ceased, and consequently the genera- 
tion of all things depending on their vicissitudes; 
making in one hemisphere a perpetual Summer, in the 
other a deplorable and comfortless Winter. And thus 
had it also been continual day unto some, and perpetual 
night unto others ; for the day is defined by the abode 
of the Sun above the Horizon, and the night by its 
continuance below ; so should we have needed another 
Sun, one to illustrate our Hemisphere, a second to 
enlighten the other ; which inconvenience will ensue in 
what site soever we place it, whether in the Poles, or 
the ^Equator, or between them both; no spherical 
body of what bigness soever illuminating the whole 
sphere of another, although it illuminate something 
more than half of a lesser, according unto the doctrine 
of the Opticks. 

His wisdom is again discemable, not only in that it 
moveth at all, and in its bare motion, but wonderful 
in contriving the line of its revolution; which is so 
prudently effected, that by a vicissitude in one body 
Evtrypart and light it sufficeth the whole earth, affording thereby 
"hJbuIbu^"* a possible or pleasurable habitation in every part 
thereof; and this is the line Ecliptick ; all which to 
effect by any other circle it had been impossible. For 
first, if we imagine the Sun to make his course out of 
the Ecliptick, and upon a line without any obliquity, 
let it be conceived within that Circle, that is either 
on the yEquator, or else on either side : (For if we 


should place it either in the Meridian or Colures, CHAP, 
beside the subversion of its course from East to West, V 
there would ensue the like incommodities.) Now if we 
conceive the sun to move between the obliquity of this 
Ecliptick in a line upon one side of the Equator, then 
would the Sun be visible but unto one pole, that is the 
same which was nearest unto it. So that unto the one 
it would be perpetual day ; unto the other perpetual 
night ; the one would be oppressed with constant heat, 
the other with insufferable cold ; and so the defect 
of alternation would utterly impugn the generation 
of all things ; which naturally require a vicissitude of 
heat to their production, and no less to their increase 
and conservation. 

But if we conceive it to move in the ^Equator ; first 
unto a parallel sphere, or such as have the pole for 
their Zenith, it would have made neither perfect day 
nor night. For being in the ^Equator it would inter- 
sect their Horizon, and be half above and half beneath 
it : or rather it would have made perpetual night to 
both ; for though in regard of the rational Horizon, 
which bisecteth the Globe into equal parts, the Sun 
in the i5<]quator would intersect the Horizon : yet in 
respect of the sensible Horizon (which is defined by 
the eye) the Sun would be visible unto neither. For 
if as ocular witnesses report, and some also write, by 
reason of the convexity of the Earth, the eye of man 
under the ^Equator cannot discover both the poles ; 
neither would the eye under the poles discover the Sun 
in the ^Equator. Thus would there nothing fructifie 
either near or under them : The Sun being Horizontal 
to the poles, and of no considerable altitude unto 
parts a reasonable distance from them. Again, unto 
a right sphere, or such as dwell under the ^Equator, 



CHAP, although it made a difference in day and night, yet 
V would it not make any distinction of seasons : for 
unto them it would be constant Summer, it being 
alwaies vertical, and never deflecting from them : So 
had there been no fructification at all, and the 
Countries subjected would be as uninhabitable, as 
indeed antiquity conceived them. 

Lastly, It moving thus upon the ^Equator, unto 
what position soever, although it had made a day, yet 
could it have made no year : for it could not have had 
those two motions now ascribed unto it, that is, from 
East to West, whereby it makes the day, and likewise 
from West to East, whereby the year is computed. 
For according to received Astronomy, the poles of the 
Equator are the same with those of the Primum Mobile. 
Now it is impossible that on the same circle, having 
the same poles, both these motions from opposite 
terms should be at the same time performed ; all which 
is salved, if we allow an obliquity in his annual motion, 
and conceive him to move upon the Poles of the 
Zodiack, distant from these of the world 23 degrees 
and an half. Thus may we discern the necessity of its 
obliquity, and how inconvenient its motion had been 
upon a circle parallel to the Equator, or upon the 
^Equator it self. 

Now with what Providence this obliquity is deter- 
mined, we shall perceive upon the ensuing inconveni- 
ences from any deviation. For first, if its obliquity 
had been less (as instead of twenty three degrees, 
twelve or the half thereof) the vicissitude of seasons 
appointed for the generation of all things, would surely 
have been too short ; for different seasons would have 
hudled upon each other ; and unto some it had not 
been much better than if it had moved on the ^Equator. 


But had the obliquity been greater than now it is, as CHAP. 
double, or of 40 degrees; several parts of the earth V 
had not been able to endure the disproportionable 
differences of seasons, occasioned by the great recess, 
and distance of the Sun. For unto some habitations 
the Summer would have been extream hot, and the 
Winter extream cold ; likewise the Summer temperate 
unto some, but excessive and in extremity unto others, 
as unto those who should dwell under the Tropick of 
Cancer, as then would do some part of Spain, or ten 
degrees beyond, as Germany, and some part of Eng- 
land ; who would have Summers as now the Moors of 
Africa. For the Sun would sometime be vertical unto 
them : but they would have Winters like those beyond 
the Artick Circle ; for in that season the Sun would be 
removed above 80 degrees from them. Again, it 
would be temperate to some habitations in the Summer, 
but very extream in the Winter : temperate to those 
in two or three degrees beyond the Artick Circle, as 
now it is unto us ; for they would be equidistant from 
that Tropick, even as we are from this at present. 
But the Winter would be extream, the Sun being 
removed above an hundred degrees, and so consequently 
would not be visible in their Horizon, no position of 
sphere discovering any star distant above 90 degrees, 
which is the distance of every Zenith from the Horizon. 
And thus if the obliquity of this Circle had been less, 
the vicissitude of seasons had been so small as not to 
be distinguished ; if greater, so large and dispropor- 
tionable as not to be endured. 

Now for its situation, although it held this Ecliptick 
line, yet had it been seated in any other Orb, incon- 
veniences would ensue of condition like the former; 
for had it been placed in the lowest sphere of the 


CHAP. Moon, the year would have consisted but of one month ; 

V for in that space of time it would have passed through 

A coffi^etent cvery part of the Ecliptick : so would there have been 

distinction ^^ reasonable distinction of seasons required for the 

of teaiOHi 1 

nectssary, geucratiou and fructifying of all things; contrary 
"* '^ ■'^ seasons which destroy the effects of one another, so 
suddenly succeeding. Besides by this vicinity unto 
the earth, its heat had been intollerable ; for if (as 
many affirm) there is a different sense of heat from the 
different points of its proper Orb, and that in the 
Apogeum or highest point (which happeneth in Cancer) 
it is not so hot under that Tropick, on this side the 
iEquator, as unto the other side in the Perigeum or 
lowest part of the Eccentrick (which happeneth in 
Capricornus) surely being placed in an Orb far lower, 
its heat would be unsufferable, nor needed we a fable 
to set the world on fire. 

But had it been placed in the highest Orb, or that 
of the eighth sphere, there had been none but Platoes 
year, and a far less distinction of seasons ; for one year 
had then been many, and according unto the slow 
revolution of that Orb which absolveth not his course 
in many thousand years, no man had lived to attain 
the account thereof. These are the inconveniences 
ensuing upon its situation in the extream orbs, and 
had it been placed in the middle orbs of the Planets, 
there would have ensued absurdities of a middle nature 
unto them. 
^ Now whether we adhere unto the hypothesis of Coper- 
nicus., affirming the earth to move, and the Sun to stand 
still; or whether we hold, as some of late have con- 
cluded, from the spots in the Sun, which appear and 
disappear again ; that besides the revolution it maketh 
with its Orbs, it hath also a dinetical motion, and 


rowls upon its own Poles, whether I say we affirm CHAP. 
these or no, the illations before mentioned are not V 
thereby infringed. We therefore conclude this con- 
templation, and are not afraid to believe, it may be 
literally said of the wisdom of God, what men will 
have but figuratively spoken of the works of Christ ; 
that if the wonders thereof were duly described, the 
whole world, that is, all within the last circumference, 
would not contain them. For as his Wisdom is infinite, 
so cannot the due expressions thereof be finite, and if 
the world comprise him not, neither can it comprehend 
the story of him. 


Concerning the vulgar opinion, that the Earth 
was slenderly peopled before the Flood. 

BESIDE the slender consideration men of latter 
times do hold of the first ages, it is commonly 
opinioned, and at first thought generally 
imagined, that the earth was thinly inhabited, at least 
not remotely planted before the flood ; whereof there 
being two opinions, which seem to be of some ex- 
tremity, the one too largely extending, the other too 
narrowly contracting the populosity of those times; 
we shall not pass over this point without some enquiry 
into it. 

Now for the true enquiry thereof, the means are as 
obscure as the matter, which being naturally to be 
explored by History, Humane or Divine, receiveth 
thereby no small addition of obscurity. For as for 
humane relations, they are so fabulous in Deucalions 
flood, that they are of little credit about Ogyges and 


CHAP. Noahs. For the Heathens (as Fiarro accounteth) make 
VI three distinctions of time : the first from the beginning 
of the world unto the general Deluge of OgygeSy they 
term Adclon, that is, a time not much unlike that 
which was before time, immanifest and unknown ; 
because thereof there is almost nothing or very 
obscurely delivered : for though divers Authors have 
made some mention of the Deluge, as Manethon the 
Egyptian Priest, Xenophon de asquivocis, Fabius Pictor 
de Aureo seculo. Mar. Cato de originibus, and Archi- 
lochus the Greek, who introduceth also the Testimony 
of Moses in his fragment de temporUms : yet have they 
delivered no account of what preceded or went before. 
Josephus I confess in his Discourse against Appion 
induceth the antiquity of the Jews unto the flood, and 
before from the testimony of humane Writers ; insist- 
ing especially upon Maseus of Damascus^ Jeronimus 
JSgyptiits, and Berosus ; and confirming the long 
duration of their lives, not only from these, but the 
authority of Hes'wd, Erathius^ Hellanicics and Agesilaus. 
Berosus the Chaldean Priest, writes most plainly, 
mentioning the city of Enos, the name of Noah and 
his Sons, the building of the Ark, and also the place 
of its landing. And Diodorus Skulus hath in his 
third book a passage, which examined, advanceth as 
high as Adam : for the Chaldeans^ saith he, derive the 
Original of their Astronomy and letters forty three 
thousand years before the Monarchy of Alexander the 
Great : now the years whereby they computed the 
antiquity of their letters, being as Xenophon interprets 
to be accounted Lunary : the compute will arise unto 
the time of Adam. For forty three thousand Lunary 
years make about three thousand six hundred thirty 
four years, which answereth the Chronology of time 


from the beginning of the world unto the reign of CHAP. 
Alexander, as Annius of Viterbo computeth in his Vi 
Comment upon Berosus. 

The second space or interval of time is accounted 
from the flood unto the first Olympiad, that is, the 
year of the world 3174, which extendeth unto the days 
of Isaiah the Propiiet, and some twenty years before 
the foundation of Rome : this they term Mythicon or 
fabulous, because the account thereof, especially of 
the first part, is fabulously or imperfectly delivered. 
Hereof some things have been briefly related by the 
Authors above mentioned : more particularly by Dares 
Phrygius, Dictys Cretensis, Herodohis, Diodorus Siadus, 
and Trognis Pompeius ; the most famous Greek Poets 
lived also in this interval, as OrpJietis, Linus, Musceus, 
Homer, Hesiod; and herein are comprehended the 
grounds and first inventions of Poetical fables, which 
were also taken up by historical Writers, perturbing the 
Chaldean and Egyptian Records with fabulous addi- 
tions ; and confounding their names and stories, with 
their own inventions. 

The third time succeeding until their present ages, 
they term Historicon, that is, such wherein matters 
have been more truly historified, and may therefore be 
believed. Of these times also have been written Hero- 
dotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Diodorus ; and both of 
these and the other preceding such as have delivered 
universal Histories or Chronologies ; as (to omit Philo, 
whose Narrations concern the Hehreivs) Eusebius, Jnlitis 
Africanus, Orosius, Ado of Vienna, Marianns Scotu^, 
Historia tripartita, Urspergcmis,Carion,Pineda, Salian, 
and with us Sir Walter Raleiflh. 

Now from the first hereof that most concerneth us, 
we have little or no assistance ; the fragments and 



CHAP, broken records hereof inforcing not at all our purpose. 
VI And although some things not usually observed, may 
be from thence collected, yet do they not advantage 
our discourse, nor any way make evident the point in 
hand. For the second, though it directly concerns us 
not, yet in regard of our last medium and some illustra- 
tions therein, we shall be constrained to make some 
use thereof. As for the last, it concerns us not at all ; 
for treating of times far below us, it can no way 
advantage us. And though divers in this last Age 
have also written of the first, as all that have delivered 
the general accounts of time, yet are their Tractates 
little auxiliary unto ours^ nor afford us any light to 
detenebrate and clear this Truth. 

As for holy Scripture and divine revelation, there 
may also seem therein but slender information, there 
being only left a brief narration hereof by Moses, and 
such as affords no positive determination. For the 
Text delivereth but two genealogies, that is, of Cain 
and Seth ; in the line of Seih there are only ten descents, 
in that of Cain but seven, and those in a right line 
with mention of father and son ; excepting that of 
Lantech, where is also mention of wives, sons, and a 
daughter. Notwithstanding if we seriously consider 
what is delivered therein, and what is also deducible, 
it will be probably declared what is by us intended, 
that is, the populous and ample habitation of the 
earth before the flood. Which we shall labour to 
induce not from postulates and entreated Maxims, but 
undeniable Principles declared in holy Scripture ; that 
is, the length of mens lives before the flood, and the 
large extent of time from Creation thereunto. 

We shall only first crave notice, that although in 
the relation of Moses there be very few persons men- 


tioned, yet are there many more to be presumed ; nor CHAP, 
when the Scripture in the line of Seth nominates but VI 
ten persons, are they to be conceived all that were of 
this generation : The Scripture singly delivering the 
holy line, wherein the world was to be preserved, first 
in Noah, and afterward in our Saviour. For in this 
line it is manifest there were many more born than are 
named, for it is said of them all^ that they begat sons 
and daughters. And whereas it is very late before it 
is said they begat those persons which are named in 
the Scripture, the soonest at 65, it must not be under- 
stood that they had none before; but not any in 
whom it pleased God the holy line should be continued. 
And although the expression that they begat sons and 
daughters be not determined to be before or after the 
mention of these, yet must it be before in some ; for 
before it is said that Adam begat Seth at the ISO year, 
it is plainly affirmed that Cain knew his wife, and had 
a son; which must be one of the daughters oi Adam, 
one of those whereof it is after said, he begat sons 
and daughters. And so for ought can be disproved 
there might be more persons upon earth then are com- 
monly supposed, when Cain slew Abel-^ nor the fact so 
hainously to be aggravated in the circumstance of the 
fourth person living. And whereas it is said upon the 
nativity of Seth, God hath appointed me another seed 
instead of Abel, it doth not imply he had no other all 
this while; but not any of that expectation, or appointed 
(as his name applies) to make a progression in the holy 
line ; in whom the world was to be saved, and from 
whom he should be born, that was mystically slain 
in Abel. 

Now our first ground to induce the numerosity of 
people before the flood, is the long duration of their 



CHAP, lives, beyond 7, 8, and 9, hundred years. Which how 
VI it conduceth unto populosity we shall make but little 
doubt, if we consider there are two main causes of 
numerosity in any kind or species, that is, a frequent 
and multiparous way of breeding, whereby they fill the 
world with others, thougii they exist not long them- 
selves; or a long duration and subsistence, whereby 
they do not only replenish the world with a new an- 
numeration of others, but also maintain the former 
account in themselves. From the first cause we mav 
observe examples in creatures oviparous, as Birds and 
Fishes ; in vermiparous, as Flies, Locusts, and Gnats ; 
in animals also viviparous, as Swine and Conies. Of 
the first there is a great example in the herd of Swine 
in Galilee^ although an unclean beast, and forbidden 
unto the Jezvs. Of the other a remarkable one in 
Athetuis, in the Isle Astipalea, one of the Cyclades 
now called Stampnlia, wherein from two that were im- 
ported, the number so increased, that the Inhabitants 
were constrained to have recourse unto the Oracle 
Delphos, for an invention how to destroy them. 

Others there are which make good the paucity of 

their breed with the length and duration of tiieir dales, 

whereof there want not examples in animals uniparous : 

A Miiiien First, in bisulcous or cloven-hooft, as Camels, and 

of Beeves ]^eeves. wiiereof there is above a million annually slain 

yarty Killed ■ .' 

in England, in England. It is also said of Job, that he had a thou- 
sand yoak of Oxen, and six thousand Camels ; and of 
the children of hracl passing into the land of Canaan, 
that they took from the M'ldianites threescore and ten 
thousand Beeves ; and of the Army of Semirmnif!, that 
there were therein one hundred thousand Camels. For 
Solipeds or firm -hoofed animals, as Horses, Asses, 
Mules, etc., they are also in mighty numbers, so it is 


delivered that Job had a thousand she Asses : that the CHAP. 
Midianites lost sixty one thousand Asses. For Horses VI 
it is affirmed by Diodonis, that Ninus brought against 
the Bactrians two hundred eighty thousand Horses ; 
after him Semiramis five hundred thousand Horses, and 
Chariots one hundred thousand. Even in creatures 
steril and such as do not generate, the length of life con- 
duceth much unto the multiplicity of the species ; for 
the number of Mules which live far longer then their 
Dams or Sires, in Countries where they are bred, is very 
remarkable, and far more common then Horses. 

For Animals multifidous, or such as are digitated or 
have several divisions in their feet, there are but two 
that are uniparous, that is, Men and Elephants ; who 
though their productions be but single, are notwith- 
standing very numerous. The Elephant (as Aristotle 1 
affirmeth) carrieth the young two years, and conceiveth 
not again (as Edvardus Lopez affirmeth) in many after, 
yet doth their age requite this disadvantage ; they 
living commonly one hundred, sometime two hundred 
years. Now although they be rare with us in Europe, 
and altogether unknown unto America, yet in the two 
other parts of the world they are in great abundance, 
as appears by the relation of Gotc'ms ah Horto, Physi- 
tian to the Vicerov at Goa, who relates that at one 
venation the King of Sion took four thousand ; and is 
of opinion they are in other parts in greater number . 
then herds of Beeves in Europe. And though this 
delivered from a Spaniard unacquainted with our 
Northern droves, may seem very far to exceed ; yet 
must we conceive them very numerous, if we consider 
the number of teeth transported from one Country to 
another ; they having only two great teeth, and those 
not falling or renewing. 


CHAP. As for man, the disadvantage in his single issue is the 
VI same with these, and in the lateness of his generation 
somewhat greater then any ; yet in the continual and 
not interrupted time thereof, and the extent of his 
days, he becomes at present, if not then any other 
species, at least more numerous then these before 
mentioned. Now being thus numerous at present, and 
in the measure of threescore, fourscore or an hundred 
years, if their dayes extended unto six, seven, or eight 
hundred, their generations would be proportionably 
multiplied ; their times of generation being not only 
multiplied, but their subsistence continued. For though 
The term the great Grand-child went on, the Petruchis and first 
for that Original would subsist and make one of the world ; 
whomcon- though lie outHved all the terms of consanguinity, and 
'r^i^io^'arc t>e^"ame a stranger unto his proper progeny. So by 
accounted, computc of Scripture Adam lived unto the nintli 
Arbor civiiu. generation, unto the days of Lamech the Father of 
Noah ; Methuselah unto the year of the flood ; and 
Noah was contemporary unto all from Enoch unto 
Abraham. So tiiat although some died, the father 
beholding so many descents, the number of Survivers 
must still be very great ; for if half the men were now 
alive, which lived in the last Century, the earth would 
scarce contain their number. Whereas in our abridged 
Mater ait and Scptuagesimal Ages, it is very rare, and deserves 
"*'^flf a Distick to behold the fourth generation. Xerxes 
etc. complaint still remaining; and what he lamented in 

his Army, being almost deplorable in the whole world; 
men seldom arriving unto those years whereby Methu- 
selah exceeded nine hundred, and what Adam came 
short of a thousand, was defined long ago to be the 
age of man. 

Now altliough the length of days conduceth mainly 


unto the numerosity of mankind, and it be manifest CHAP, 
from Scripture they lived very long, yet is not the VI 
period of their lives determinable, and some might be 
longer livers, than we account that any were. For (to 
omit that conceit of some, that Adam was the oldest 
man, in as much as he is conceived to be created in the 
maturity of mankind, that is, at 60, (for in that age 
it is set down they begat children) so that adding this 
number unto his 930, he was 21 years older than any 
of his posterity) that even Methusehh was the longest 
liver of all the children of Adam, we need not grant ; 
nor is it definitively set down by Moses. Indeed 
of those ten mentioned in Scripture, with their 
severall ages it must be true ; but whether those seven 
of the line of Cain and their progeny, or any of the 
sons or daughters posterity after them out-lived those, 
is not expressed in holy Scripture; and it will seem 
more probable, that of the line of Cain some were 
longer lived than any of Seth\ if we concede that 
seven generations of the one lived as long as nine of 
the other. As for what is commonly alledged, that 
God would not permit the life of any unto a thousand, 
because (alluding unto that of David) no man should 
live one day in the sight of the Lord ; although it be 
urged by divers, yet is it methinks an inference some- 
what Rabbinicall ; and not of power to perswade a 
serious examinator. 

Having thus declared how powerfully the length of 
lives conduced unto populosity of those times, it will 
yet be easier acknowledged if we descend to particu- 
larities, and consider how many in seven hundred years 
might descend from one man ; wherein considering the 
length of their dayes, we may conceive the greatest 
number to have been alive together. And this that 


CHAP, no reasonable spirit may contradict, we will declare 
VI with manifest disadvantage ; for whereas the duration 
of the world unto the flood was above 1600 years, we 
will make our compute in less then half that time. 
Nor will we begin with the first man, but allow the 
earth to be provided of women fit for marriage the 
second or third first Centuries ; and will only take as 
granted, that they might beget children at sixty, and 
at an hundred years have twenty, allowing for that 
number forty years. Nor will we herein single out 
Methuselah, or account from the longest livers, but 
make choice of the shortest of any we find recorded in 
the Text, excepting Enoch ; who after he had lived as 
many years as there be days in tlie year, was translated 
at 365. And thus from one stock of seven hundred 
years, multiplying still by twenty, we shall find the 
product to be one thousand, three hundred forty seven 
millions, three hundred sixty eight thousand, four 
hundred and twenty. 



















Now if this account of the learned Petavius will be 
allowed, it will make an unexpected encrease, and a 
larger number than may be found in Asia, Africa and 
Europe ; especially if in Constantinople, the greatest 
City thereof, there be no more of Europe than Botero 
accounteth, seven hundred thousand souls. Which 



duly considered, we shall rather admire how the earth CHAP. 
contained its inhabitants, then doubt its inhabitation ; VI 
and might conceive the deluge not simply penall, but in 
some way also necessary, as many have conceived of 
translations, if Adam had not sinned, and the race of 
man had remained upon earth immortal. 

Now whereas some to make good their longevity, 
have imagined that the years of their compute were 
Lunary ; unto these we must reply : That if by a 
Lunary year they understand tAvelve revolutions of the 
Moon, that is 354 days, eleven fewer then in the 
Solary year ; there will be no great difference ; at least 
not sufficient to convince or extenuate the question. 
But if by a Lunary year they mean one revolution of 
the Moon, that is, a moneth, they first introduce a 
year never used by the Hebrews in their Civil ac- 
compts; and what is delivered before of the Chaldean 
years (as Xenophon gives a caution) was only received 
in the Chronology of their Arts. Secondly, they con- 
tradict the Scripture, which makes a plain enumeration 
of many moneths in the account of the Deluge ; for 
so is it expressed in the Text. In the tenth moneth, 
in the first day of the moneth were the tops of the 
mountains seen : Concordant whereunto is the relation 
of humane Authors, Inu7idationes pluj'es fiiere^ prinm xmophonde 
novhnestris inundatio terrartim suh prisco Ogyge. Me- ^."'v°c's- 
minisse hoc loco par est post primum diluvium Ogf/gi 
temporihus notatum, cum novem et amplitis mensibiis 
diem continua nox inumbrasset, Delon ante omues terras 
radiis solis ilium itiatum soi'titumque ex eo nomen. And 
lastly, they fall upon an absurdity, for they make 
Enoch to beget children about six years of age. For 
whereas it is said he begat Methuselah at 65, if we shall 
account every moneth a year, he was at that time some 


CHAP, six years and an half, for so many moneths are con- 
VI tained in that space of time. 

Having thus declared how much the length of mens 
lives conduced unto the populosity of their kind, our 
second foundation must be the large extent of time, 
from the Creation unto the Deluge, that is (according 
unto received computes about 1655 years) almost as 
long a time as hath passed since the nativity of our 
Saviour : and this we cannot but conceive sufficient 
for a very large increase, if we do but affirm what 
reasonable enquirers will not deny : That the earth 
might be as populous in that number of years before 
the flood, as we can manifest it was in the same number 
after. And whereas there may be conceived some dis- 
advantage, in regard that at the Creation the original 
of mankind was in two persons, but after the flood their 
propagation issued at least from six ; against this we 
might very well set the length of their lives before the 
flood, which were abbreviated after, and in half this 
space contracted into hundreds and threescores. Not- 
withstanding to equalize accounts, we will allow three 
hundred years, and so long a time as we can manifest 
from the Scripture. There were four men at least 
that begat children, Adam, Cain, Seth, and Enos; So 
shall we fairly and favourably proceed, if we affirm the 
world to have been as populous in sixteen hundred and 
fifty before the flood, as it was in thirteen hundred 
after. Now how populous and largely inhabited it 
was within this period of time, we shall declare from 
probabilities, and several testimonies of Scripture and 
humane Authors. 
p And first, To manifest the same neer those parts of 
the earth where the Ark is presumed to have rested, 
we have the relation of holy Scripture accounting the 



genealogy of Japhet, Cham and Sern, and in this last, CHAP, 
four descents unto the division of the earth in the days VI 
of Pelegy which time although it were not upon common 
compute much above an hundred years, yet were 
men at this time mightily increased. Nor can we well 
conceive it otherwise, if we consider they began already 
to wander from their first habitation, and were able to 
attempt so mighty a work as the building of a City 
and a Tower, whose top should reach unto the heavens. 
Whereunto there was required no slender number of 
persons, if we consider the magnitude thereof, expressed 
by some, and conceived to be Turris Belt in Hero- 
dotiis; and the multitudes of people recorded at the 
erecting of the like or inferiour structures : for at the 
building of Solomons Temple there were threescore 
and ten thousand that carried burdens, and fourscore 
thousand hewers in the mountains, beside the chief of 
his officers three thousand and three hundred ; and at 
the erecting of the Piramids in the reign of King Cheops, 
as Herodotus reports, there were decern viyrkids, that is 
an hundred thousand men. And though it be said of 
the Egyptians, Porrum et ccepe nef'as violare et frangere ju venal. 
morsu ; yet did the summes expended in Garlick and 
Onyons amount unto no less then one thousand six 
hundred Talents. 

The first Monarchy or Kingdom of Babylon is men- 
tioned in Scripture under the foundation of Nimrod, 
which is also recorded in humane history ; as beside 
Berosu^, in Diodorus and Just'me, for Nimrod of the whoW\mxoA 
Scriptures is Belus of the Gentiles, and Assur the same "'"^^s*"' 

^ _ ' were. 

with Ninus his successour. There is also mention of 
divers Cities, particularly of Ninivey and Resen ex- 
pressed emphatically in the Text to be a great City. 
That other Countries round about were also peopled, 


CHAP, appears by the Wars of the Monarchs of Assyria with 
VI the Bactrians, Indians, Scythians, Ethiopians, Ar- 
menians, Hyrcanians, Parthians, Persians, Siisians; 
they vaiKjuishing (as Diodonis relateth) Egypt, Syria, 
and all Asia minor, even from Bosphorus unto Tanais. 
And it is said, that Semiramis in her expedition against 
the Indians brought along with her the King of 
Arabia. About the same time of the Assyrian Mon- 
archy, do Authors place that of the Sycionians in 
Greece, and soon after that of the Argives, and not 
very long after, that of the Athenians under Cecrops; 
and within our period assumed are historified many 
memorable actions of the Greeks, as the expedition of 
the Argonatites, with the most famous Wars of Thebes 
and Troy. 

That Canaan also and Egypt were well peopled far 
within this period, besides their plantation by Canaan 
and Misruim, appeareth from the history of Abraham, 
who in less then 400 years after the Flood, journied 
from Mesopotamia unto Canaan axid. Egypt, both which 
he found well peopled and policied into Kingdoms : 
wherein also in 430 years, from threescore and ten 
persons which came with Jacob into Egypt, he became 
a mighty Nation ; for it is said, at their departure, 
there journeyed from Rhamesis to Succoth about six 
hundred thousand on foot, that were men, besides 
children. Now how populous the land from whence 
they came was, may be collected not only from their 
ability in commanding such subjections and mighty 
powers under them, but from the several accounts of 
that Kingdom delivered by Herodotus. And how soon 
it was peopled, is evidenced from the pillar of their 
King Osyris, with this inscription in Diodonis ; Mihi 
pater est Saturnus dcorum junior, sum vcro Osyris rex 


qui totum peragravi orhem usq; ad Indorum fines, ad CHAP. 
eos quoq; sum profectus qtii septentrioni subjacent usq; VI 
ad Istri forites, et alias partes usq; ad Oceanum. Now 
according unto the best determinations Osyris was Mis- wha Osyris 
raim, and Saturnus Egyptius the same with Cham ; ^*^^^jj|^""* 
after whose name Egypt is not only called in Scrip- uere. 
ture the land of Ham, but thus much is also testified 
by Plutarch; for in his Treatise de Osyride, he de- 
livereth that Egypt was called Chamia a Chamo Noe 
filio, that is from Cham the son of Noah. And if 
according to the consent of ancient Fathers, Adam 
was buried in the same place where Christ was crucified, 
that is Mount Calvary, the first man ranged far before 
the Flood, and laid his bones many miles from that 
place, where its presumed he received them. And this 
migration was the greater, if as the text expresseth, 
he was cast out of the East-side of Paradise to till the 
ground ; and as the Position of the Cherubines implieth, 
who were placed at the east end of the garden to keep 
him from the tree of life. 

That the remoter parts of the earth were in this 
time inhabited is also induceable from the like testi- 
monies; for (omitting the numeration of Josephus, 
and the genealogies of the Sons oi Noah) that Italy was 
inhabited, appeareth from the Records of Livie, and 
Dionysius Halicarnasseus, the story of jEneas, Evander 
and Janus, whom Annius of Viterbo, and the Choro- 
graphers of Italy, do make to be the same with Noah. 
That Sicily was also peopled, is made out from the 
frequent mention thereof in Homer, the Records of 
Diodorus and others ; but especially from a remarkable 
passage touched by Aretius and Ranzanus Bishop of 
Lucerium, but fully explained by Thomas Fazelli in his 
accurate History of Sicily ; that is, from an ancient 



CHAP, inscription in a stone at Panormo, expressed by him in 
VI its proper characters, and by a Syrian thus translated, 
Non est alhis Deiis 'praeter unum Deum^ non est alkui 
potens prceter eutidem Deum, neq; est alius victor propter 
eundeni qxiem colimus Deum : Hujus turris proefectus est 
Sapha filius Eliphat, filii Esau, fratris Jacob, fiVii 
Isaac, filii Abraham : et turri quidem ipsi nonien est 
Baych, sed turri huic proximo; nomen est Pharath. 
The antiquity of the inhabitation of Spain is also con- 
firmable, not only from Berosus in the plantation of 
Tubal, and a City continuing yet in his name, but the 
story of Gerion, the travels of Hercules and his pillars : 
and especially a passage in Strabo, which advanceth 
unto the time of Ninus^ thus delivered in his fourth 
book. The Spaniards (saith he) affirm that they have 
had Laws and Letters above six thousand years. Now 
the Spaniard's or Iberians observing (as Xenophon hath 
delivered) Annum qiuulrimestrem, four moneths unto a 
year, this compute will make up 2000 solarv years, 
which is about the space of time from Strabo, who lived 
in the days of AuguMus, unto the reign of Ni7ius. 

That Mauritania and the coast of Africa were 
peopled very soon, is the conjecture of many wise men, 
and that by the Phcenicians, who left their Country 
upon the invasion of Canaan by the Israelites. For 
beside the conformity of the Punick or Carthaginian 
language with that of Pha-niria, there is a pregnant 
and very remarkable testimony hereof in Procopius, 
who in his second de bello Vandaliro, recordeth, that in 
a town of Mauritania Tingitana^ there was to be seen 
upon two white Columns in the Phoenician language 
these ensuing words ; Nos Maurici sternum qui Jugi- 
nius a facie Jehoschuu filii Nunis prcedatoris. The 
fortunate Islands or Canaries were not unknown ; for 


so doth Strabo interpret that speech in Homer of Pro- CHAP. 
tetis unto MenekiuSs VI 

Sed te qua terrcB postremus terminus extnt, 
Elysium in Campum coelestia numina dueunt. 

The like might we affirm from credible histories 
both of France and Germany^ and perhaps also of our 
own Country. For omitting the fabulous and Trcjan 
original delivered by Jeofrey of Monmouth, and the 
express text of Scripture ; that the race of Japhet did 
people the Isles of the Gentiles ; the Brittish Original 
was so obscure in Ccesars time, that he affirmeth the 
Inland inhabitants were Aborigines, that is, such as 
reported that they had their beginning in the Island. 
That Ireland our neighbour Island was not long time 
without Inhabitants, may be made probable by sundry 
accounts ; although we abate the Traditions of Bar- 
tholanus the Scythian, who arrived there three hundred 
years after the flood, or the relation of Giraldus ; that 
Cccsaria the daughter of Noah dwelt there before. 

Now should we call in the learned account ofBochart. 
Bochartus, deducing the ancient names of Countries .^^^^^■^■^'''^''' 
from Phoenicians, who by their plantations, discoveries, 
and sea negotiations, have left unto very many Coun- 
tries, Phoenician denominations ; the enquiry would be 
much shorter, and if Spain in the Phoenician Original, 
be but the region of Conies, Lusitania, or Portugal the 
Countrey of Almonds, if Brittanica were at first Barata- 
naca, or the land of Tin, and Ibernia or Ireland, were 
but Ibernae, or the farthest habitation ; and these 
names imposed and dispersed by Phoenician Colonies 
in their several navigations ; the Antiquity of habita- 
tions might be more clearly advanced. 

Thus though we have declared how largely the 


CHAP, world was inliabited within the space of 1300 years, 
VI yet must it be conceived more populous then can be 
clearly evinced ; for a greater part of the earth hath 
ever been peopled, then hath been known or described 
by Geographers, as will appear by the discoveries of 
all Ages. For neither in Herodoins or Thua/dides do 
we find any mention of Rome, nor in Ptolomy of many 
parts of Europe, Asia or Africa. And because many 
places we have declared of long plantations of whose 
populosity not^vithstanding or memorable actions we 
have no ancient story; if we may conjecture of these 
by what we find related of others, we shall not need 
many words, nor assume the half of 1300 years. And 
this we might illustrate from the mighty acts of the 
Assyrians performed not long after the flood ; recorded 
by Justine and Diudurus ; who makes relation of expe- 
ditions by Armies more numerous then have been ever 
since. For Nimis King of Assyria brought against 
the Bactrimvi 700000 foot, 200000 horse, 10600 
Chariots. Semiramis his successor led against the 
Indians 1300000 foot, 500000 horse, 100000 Chariots, 
and as many upon Camels : And it is said, Staurobates 
the Indian King, met her with greater forces then she 
brought against him. All which was performed within 
less then four hundred years after the flood. 

Now if any imagine the unity of their language did 
hinder their dispersion before the flood, we confess it 
some hindrance at first, but not much afterward. For 
though it might restrain their dispersion, it could not 
their populosity; which necessarily requireth trans- 
migration and emission of Colonies ; as we read of 
Romans, Greeks, Phcenicians in ages past, and have 
beheld examples thereof in our days. We may also 
observe that after the flood before the confusion of 



tongues, men began to disperse : for it is said, they CHAP. 
journeyed towards the East : and the Scripture it self VI 
expresseth a necessity conceived of their dispersion, 
for the intent of erecting the Tower is so delivered in 
the text, Lest we be scattered abroad upon the face 
of the earth. 

Again, If any apprehend the plantation of the earth 
more easie in regard of Navigation and shipping dis- 
covered since the flood, whereby the Islands and divided 
parts of the earth are now inhabited ; he must consider, 
that whether there were Islands or no before the flood, ivkttktr 
is not yet determined, and is with probability denied 1'Zrf^^ 
by very learned Authors. Ffocd. 

Lastly, If we shall fall into apprehension that it was""' 
less inhabited, because it is said in the sixt of Genesis 
about a 120 years before the flood, and it came to pass 
that when men began to multiply upon the face of the 
earth. Beside that this may be only meant of the 
race of Cain, it will not import they were not multi- 
plied before, but that they were at that time plentifully 
encreased ; for so is the same word used in other parts 
of Scripture. And so is it afterward in the 9 Chapter 
said, that Noah began to be an husbandman, that is, 
he was so, or earnestly performed the Acts thereof; 
so it is said of our Saviour, that he began to cast them 
out that bought and sold in the Temple, that is, he 
actually cast them out, or with alacrity effected it. 

Thus have I declared some priv^ate and probable 
conceptions in the enquiry of this truth ; but the cer- 
tainty hereof let the Arithmetick of the last day 
determine; and therefore expect no further belief 
than probability and reason induce. Only desire men 
would not swallow dubiosities for certainties, and 
receive as Principles points mainly controvertible ; for 

VOL. II. y 


CHAP, we are to adhere unto things doubtful in a dubious 
VI and opinative way. It being reasonable for every man 
to vary his opinion according to the variance of his 
reason, and to affirm one day what he denied another. 
Wherein although at last we miss of truth ; we die 
notwithstanding in harmless and inoffensive errors ; 
because we adhere unto that, whereunto the examen 
of our reasons, and honest enquiries induce us. 

Of East, and West. 

THE next shall be of East and West ; that is, 
the proprieties and conditions ascribed unto 
Regions respectively unto those situations; 
which hath been the obvious conception of Philosophers 
and Geographers, magnifying the condition of India, 
and the Eastern Countries, above the setting and 
occidental Climates, some ascribing hereto the genera- 
tion of gold, precious stones and spices, others the 
civility and natural endowments of men ; conceiving 
the bodies of this situation to receive a special impres- 
sion from the first salutes of the Sun, and some 
appropriate influence from his ascendent and oriental 
radiations. But these proprieties affixed unto bodies, 
upon considerations deduced from East, West, or those 
observable points of the sphere, how specious and 
plausible so ever, will not upon enquiry be justified 
from such foundations. 

For to speak strictly, there is no East and West in 
nature, nor are those absolute and invariable, but 
respective and mutable points, according unto difierent 
longitudes, or distant parts of habitation, whereby 


they suffer many and considerable variations. For CHAP, 
first, unto some the same part will be East or West in \'II 
respect of one another, that is, unto such as inhabit 
the same parallel, or differently dwell from East to 
West. Thus as unto Spain, Italy lyeth East, unto 
Italy Greece, unto Greece Persia, and unto Persia 
China \ so again unto the Country of China, Persia 
lyeth West, unto Persia Greece, unto Greece Italy, and 
unto Italy Spain. So that the same Countrey is some- 
times East and sometimes West ; and Persia though 
East unto Greece, yet is it West unto China. 

Unto other habitations the same point will be both 
East and West ; as unto those that are Antipodes or 
seated in points of the Globe diametrically opposed. 
So the Americans are Antipodal unto the Indians, and 
some part of India is both East and West unto 
America, according as it shall be regarded from one 
side or the other, to the right or to the left ; and 
setting out from any middle point, either by East 
or West, the distance unto the place intended is 
equal, and in the same space of time in nature also 
perform able. 

To a third that have the Poles for their vertex, or 
dwell in the position of a parallel sphere, there will be 
neither East nor West, at least the greatest part of 
the year. For if (as the name Oriental implyeth) they 
shall account that part to be East where ever the Sun 
ariseth, or that West where the Sun is occidental or 
setteth : almost half the year they have neither the 
one nor the other. For half the year it is below their 
Horizon, and the other half it is continually above it, 
and circling round about them intersecting not the 
Horizon, nor leaveth any part for this compute. And 
if (which will seem very reasonable) that part should be 


CHAP, termed the Eastern point, where the Sun at .Equinox, 
VII and but once in the year ariseth, yet will this also 
disturb the cardinal accounts, nor will it with pro- 
priety admit that appellation. For that surely cannot 
be accounted East which hath the South on both sides; 
which notwithstanding this position must have. For 
if unto such as live under the Pole, that be only North 
which is above them, that must be Southerly which 
is below them, which is all the other portion of the 
by Globe, beside that part possessed them. And thus 
these points of East and West being not absolute in 
any, respective in some, and not at all relating unto 
others ; we cannot hereon establish so general con- 
siderations, nor reasonably erect such immutable asser- 
tions, upon so unstable foundations. 

Now the ground that begat or promoted this conceit, 
was first a mistake in the apprehension of East and 
West, considering thereof as of the North and South, 
and computing by these as invariably as by the other ; 
but herein, upon second thoughts there is a great 
ivut the disparity. For the North and Southern Pole, are the 
AtrthtrH invariable terms of that Axis whereon the heavens do 

ana S0uih- 

trnPeUtbt. move ; and are therefore incommunicable and fixed 
points ; wherof the one is not apprehensible in the 
other. But with East and West it is quite otherwise : 
for the revolution of the Orbs being made upon the 
Poles of North and South, all other points about the 
Axis are mutable ; and wheresoever therein the East 
point be determined, by succession of parts in one 
revolution every point becometh Eeist. And so if 
where the Sun ariseth, that part be termed East, every 
habitation differing in longitude, will have this point 
also different; in as much as the Sun successively 
ariseth unto every one. 


The second ground, although it depend upon the CHAP. 
former, approacheth nearer the effect ; and that is the VII 
efficacy of the Sun, set out and divided according to 
priority of ascent; whereby his influence is conceived 
more favourable unto one Countrey than another, and 
to felicitate Indm more than any after. But hereby 
we cannot avoid absurdities, and such as infer effects 
controulable by our senses. For first, by the same 
reason that we affirm the Indian richer than the 
American, the American will also be more plentiful 
than the Indian, and England or Spain more fruitful 
than Hispaniola or golden Castle : in as much as the 
Sun ariseth unto the one sooner than the other : and 
so accountably unto any Nation subjected unto the 
same parallel, or with a considerable diversity of 
longitude from each other. 

Secondly, An unsufferable absurdity will ensue : for 
thereby a Country may be more fruitful than it self: 
For India is more fertile than Spain, because more 
East, and that the Sun ariseth first unto it : Spain, 
likewise by the same reason more fruitful than America, 
and America than India : so that Spain is less fruitful 
than that Countrey, which a less fertile Country than 
it self excelleth. 

Lastly, If we conceive the Sun hath any advantage 
by priority of ascent, or makes thereby one Country 
more happy than another, we introduce injustifiable 
determinations, and impose a natural partiality on 
that Luminary, which being equidistant from the earth, 
and equally removed in the East as in the West, his 
Power and Efficacy in both places must be equal, as 
Boetius hath taken notice, and Scaliger hath graphi- De gemmis 
cally declared. Some have therefore forsaken this ^='*""*'- 
refuge of the Sun, and to salve the effect have recurred 


CMAl'. unto the influence of the Stars, making their activities 
\'II National, and appropriating their Powers unto parti- 
cular regions. So Cardan conceiveth the tail of Ursa 
Major peculiarly respecteth Europe : whereas indeed 
once in 24 hours it also absolveth its course over Asia 
and America. And therefore it will not be easie to 
apprehend those stars peculiarly glance on us, who 
must of necessity carry a common eye and regard unto 
all Countries, unto whom their revolution and verticity 
is also common. 

The effects therefore or different productions in 
several Countries, which we impute unto the action of 
the Sun, must surely have nearer and more immediate 
causes than that Luminary. And these if we place in 
the propriety of clime, or condition of soil wherein 
they are produced, we shall more reasonably proceed, 
than they who ascribe them unto the activity of the 
Sun. Whose revolution being regular, it hath no 
power nor efficacy peculiar from its orientality, but 
equally disperseth his beams unto all, which equally, 
and in the same restriction, receive his lustre. And 
being an universal and indefinite agent, the effects or 
productions we behold, receive not their circle from 
his causality, but are determined by the principles of 
the place, or qualities of that region which admits 
tliem. And this is evident not only in gemms, minerals, 
and mettals, but observable in plants and animals; 
whereof some are common unto many Countries, some 
peculiar unto one, some not communicable unto an- 
iv/itiuifro- other. For the hand of God that first created the 
jiWe'rtnt earth, hath with variety disposed the principles of all 
cemmodititt things ; wisely contriving them in their proper semin- 
Ca^'trUi. aries, and where they best maintain the intention of 
their species ; whereof if they have not a concurrence. 


and be not lodged in a convenient matrix, they are CHAP, 
not excited by the efficacy of the Sun ; or failing in VII 
particular causes, receive a relief or sufficient promotion 
from the universal. For although superiour powers 
co-operate with inferiour activities, and may (as some 
conceive) carry a stroke in the plastick and formative 
draught of all things, yet do their determinations 
belong unto particular agents, and are defined from 
their proper principles. Thus the Sun which with us 
is fruitful in the generation of Frogs, Toads and 
Serpents, to this effect proves impotent in our neigh- 
bour Island ; wherein as in all other carrying a common 
aspect, it concurreth but unto predisposed effects ; and 
only suscitates those forms, whose determinations are 
seminal, and proceed from the Idea of themselves. 

Now whereas there be many observations concerning 
East, and divers considerations of Art which seem to 
extol the quality of that point, if rightly understood 
they do not really promote it. That the Astrologer 
takes account of nativities from the Ascendent, that 
is, the first house of the heavens, whose beginning is 
toward the East, it doth not advantage the conceit. 
For, he establisheth not his Judgment upon the orien- whyAttro- 
tality thereof, but considereth therein his first ascent '^^'^^i^^' 
above the Horizon ; at which time its efficacy becomes NaUvUits 
observable, and is conceived to have the signification y>.<,»t /;i« 
of life, and to respect the condition of all things, AsundeHt. 
which at the same time arise from their causes, and 
ascend to their Horizon with it. Now this ascension 
indeed falls out respectively in the East : but as we 
have delivered before, in some positions there is no 
Eastern point from whence to compute these ascen- 
tions. So is it in a parallel sphere: for unto them 
six houses are continually depressed, and six never 





elevated : and the planets themselves, whose revolutions 
are of more speed, and influences of higher considera- 
tion, must find in that place a very imperfect regard ; 
for half their period they absolve above, and half 
beneath the Horizon. And so for six years, no man 
can have the happiness to be born under Jupiter : and 
for fifteen together all must escape the ascendent 
dominion of Saturn. 

That Aristotle in his Politicks, commends the situa- 
tion of a City which is open towards the East, and 
admitteth the raies of the rising Sun, thereby is implied 
no more particular efficacy than in the West: But 
that position is commended, in legard the damps and 
vaporous exhalations ingendered in the absence of the 
Sun, are by his returning raies the sooner dispelled ; 
and men thereby more early enjoy a clear and healthy 
habitation. Upon the like considerations it is, that 
Marcus Varro commendeth the same situation, and 
exposeth his farm unto the equinoxial ascent of the 
Sun, and that Palladius adviseth the front of his edifice 
should so respect the South, that in the first angle it 
receive the rising raies of the Winter Sun, and decline 
a little from the Winter setting thereof. And con- 
cordant hereunto is the instruction of Columella De 
positione vilke: which he contriveth into Summer and 
Winter habitations, ordering that the Winter lodgings 
regard the Winter ascent of the Sun, that is South- 
East ; and the rooms of repast at supper, the iEqui- 
noxial setting thereof, that is the West: that the 
Summer lodgings regard the ^Equinoxial Meridian : 
but the rooms of caenation in the Summer, he obverts 
unto the Winter ascent, that is, South-East ; and the 
Balnearies or bathing places, that they may remain 
under the Sun until evening, he exposeth unto the 


Summer setting, that is, North-West, in all which CHAP, 
although the Cardinal points be introduced, yet is the VII 
consideration Solary, and only determined unto the 
aspect or visible reception of the Sun. 

Jews and Mahometans in these and our neighbour 
parts are observed to use some gestures towards the 
East, as at their benediction, and the killing of their 
meat. And though many ignorant spectators, and 
not a few of the Actors conceive some Magick or 
Mysterie therein, yet is the Ceremony only Topical, 
and in a memorial relation unto a place they honour. 
So the Jews do carry a respect and cast an eye upon 
Jerusalem : for which practice they are not without 
the example of their fore-fathers, and the encourage- 
ment of their wise King ; For so it is said that Daniel Dan. 6. 
went into his house, and his windows being opened 
towards Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three 
times a day, and prayed. So is it expressed in the 
prayer of Solomon, what prayer or supplication soever 
be made by any man, which shall spread forth his 
hands towards this house : if thy people go out to 
battle, and shall pray unto the Lord towards the City 
which thou hast chosen, and towards the house which 
I have chosen to build for thy Name, then hear thou 
in heaven their prayer and their supplication, and 
maintain their cause. Now the observation hereof, 
unto the Jews that are dispersed Westward, and such 
as most converse with us, directeth their regard unto 
the East : But the words of Solomon are appliable 
unto all quarters of Heaven : and by the Jews of the 
East and South must be regarded in a contrary posi- 
tion. So Daniel in Babylon looking toward Jerusalem 
had his face toward the West. So the Jews in their 
own land looked upon it from all quarters. For the 





Luke 13. 


Tribe of Judah beheld it to the North : ^fan^fl.<lcfi, 
Zahulon, and Napthali unto the South : Reuben and 
Gad unto the West ; only the Tribe of Dan regarded 
it directly or to the due East. So when it is said, 
when you see a cloud rise out of the West, you say 
there coineth a shower, and so it is : the observation 
was respective unto Judea : nor is this a reasonable 
illation in all other Nations whatsoever : For the Sea 
lay West unto that Country, and the winds brought 
rain from that quarter ; But this consideration cannot 
be transferred unto India or China, which have a vast 
Sea Eastward, and a vaster Continent toward the 
West. So likewise when it is said in the vulgar 
Translation, Gold cometh out of the North, it is no 
reasonable inducement unto us and many other Coun- 
tries, from some particular mines septentrional unto 
his situation, to search after that mettal in cold and 
Northern regions, which we most plentifully discover 
in hot and Southern habitations. 

For the Mahometans, as they partake with all Re- 
ligions in something, so they imitate the Jew in this. 
For in their observed gestures, they hold a regard unto 
Mecha and Medina Tahiabi, two Cities in Arabia fcelix, 
where their Prophet was born and buried ; whither 
they perform their pilgrimages : and from whence they 
expect he should return again. And therefore they 
direct their faces unto these parts, which unto the 
Mahometans of Barbanj and Kgifpt lie East, and are in 
some point thereof unto many other parts of Turkie. 
Wherein notwithstanding there is no Oriental respect ; 
for with the same devotion on the other side they 
regard these parts toward the West, and so with 
variety wheresover they are seated, conforming unto the 
ground of their conception. 


Fourthly, Whereas in the ordering of the Camp of CHAP. 
Israel, the East quarter is appointed unto the noblest VII 
Tribe, that is the Tribe of Jiidah. according to the 
command of God, in the East-side toward the risins: 
of the Sun shall the Standard of the Tribe of Judah yum. 3. 
pitch : it doth not peculiarly extol that point. For 
herein the East is not to be taken strictly, but as it 
signifieth or implieth the foremost place ; for Judah 
had the V^an, and many Countries through which they 
passed were seated Easterly unto them. Thus much 
is implied by the Original, and expressed by Transla- 
tions which strictly conform thereto : So TremeVms^ 
Castra hahentiinn ab anteriore parte Orie-ntem versu^s, 
vexillum esto castrorum Judce ; so hath R. Solomon 
Jarchi expounded it, the foremost or before, is the 
East quarter, and the West is called behind. And 
upon this interpretation may all be salved that is 
alleageable against it. For if the Trfte of Judah were 
to pitch before the Tabernacle at the East, and yet to 
march first, as is commanded, Numb. 10. there must 
ensue a disorder in the Camp, nor could they con- 
veniently observe the execution thereof: For when they 
set out from Mount Smah where the Command was 
delivered, they made Northward unto Rithmah ; from 
Rissah unto Eziongaber about fourteen stations they 
marched South : From Ahnon Dihlathaim through the 
mountains of Yaharim and plains of Moab towards 
Jordan the face of their march was West : So that if 
Judah were strictly to pitch in the East of the Taber- 
nacle, every night he encamped in the Rear : and if (as 
some conceive) the whole Camp could not be less than 
twelve miles long, it had been preposterous for him to 
have marched foremost : or set out first who was most 
remote from the place to be approached. 




py/u-re ihf 
Ark rested 
oi some 

Fiftlv, That Learning, Civility and Arts had their 
beginning in the East, it is not imputable either to 
the action of the Sun, or its Orientality, but the first 
plantation of Man in those parts, which unto Europe 
do carry the respect of East. For on the mountains 
of Ararat., that is part of the hill Taariu^, between the 
East Indies and Scythia^ as Sir W. Raleigh accounts it, 
the Ark of Noah rested ; from the East they travelled 
that built the Tower of Babel: from thence they were 
dispersed and successively enlarged, and Learning, 
good Arts, and all Civility communicated. The pro- 
gression whereof was very sensible ; and if we consider 
the distance of time between the confusion of Babel., 
and the Civility of many parts now eminent therein, 
it travelled late and slowly into our quarters. For 
notwithstanding the learning of Bardes and Druide.'i 
of elder times, he that shall peruse that work of 
Tacitiis de morihis Germanoricyn, may easily discern 
how little Civility two thousand years had wrought 
upon that Nation : the like he may observe concerning 
our selves, from the same Author in the life of Agricola, 
and more directly from Strabo ; who to the dishonour 
of our Predecessors, and the disparagement of those 
that glory in the Antiquity of their Ancestors, affirmeth 
the Britains were so simple, that though they abounded 
in Milk, they had not the Artifice of Cheese. 

Lastly, That the Globe it self is by Cosmographers 
divided into East and West, accounting from the first 
Meridian, it doth not establish this conceit. For that 
division is not naturally founded, but artificially set 
down, and by agreement ; as the aptest terms to define 
or commensurate the longitude of places. Thus the 
ancient Cosmographers do place the division of the 
East and Western Hemisphere, that is the first term 


of longitude in the Canary or fortunate Islands; con- CHAP, 
ceiving these parts the extreamest habitations West- VII 
ward : But the Moderns have altered that term, and 
translated it unto the Azores or Islands of St. Michael-^ 
and that upon a plausible conceit of the small or 
insensible variation of the Compass in those parts, 
wherein nevertheless, and though upon second inven- 
tion, they proceed upon a common and no appropriate 
foundation ; for even in that Meridian farther North 
or South the Compass observably a arieth ; and there 
are also other places wherein it varieth not, as Aljjhonso 
and Rodoriges de Logo will have it about Capo de las 
Agullas in Africa ; as Maurolijcus affirmeth in the shore 
of Peleponesus in Europe: and as Gilhertus averreth, 
in the midst of great regions, in most parts of the 

Of the River Nilus. 

HEREOF uncontroulably and under general 
consent many opinions are passant, which 
notwithstanding upon due examination, do 
admit of doubt or restriction. It is generally esteemed, 
and by most unto our days received, that the River of 
Nilus hath seven ostiaries ; that is, by seven Channels 
disburdeneth it self into the Sea. Wherein notwith- 
standing, beside that we find no concurrent determina- 
tion of ages past, and a positive and undeniable refute 
of these present, the affirmative is mutable, and must 
not be received without all limitation. 

For some, from whom we receive the greatest illustra- 
tions of Antiquity, have made no mention hereof: So 


CHAP. Homer hath given no number of its Channels, nor so 
VIII much as the name thereof in use with all Historians. 
Eratosthenes in his description of Egypt hath likewise 
passed them over. Aristotle is so indistinct in their 
names and numbers, that in the first oi Meteors he plainly 
How Egypt affirmeth the llef];ion of Egypt (which we esteem the 
firmilnd.' 'i-'icientest Nation in the world) was a meer gained 
ground, and that by the setling of mud and limous 
matter brought down by the River Xilus^ that which was 
at first a continued Sea, was raised at last into a firm 
and habitable Country, The like opinion he held of 
Mceotl^ Pahts. that by the floods of Ta/mh and earth 
brought down thereby, it grew observably shallower 
in his days, and would in process of time become a firm 
land. And though his conjecture be not as yet fulfilled, 
yet is the like observable in the River Gihon, a branch 
of Euphrates and River of Paradise ; which having in 
former Ages discharged it self into the Pers'mn Sea, 
doth at present fall short ; being lost in the lakes of 
Chaldea, and hath left between the Sea, a large and 
considerable part of dry land. 

Others expresly treating hereof, have diversly de- 
livered themselves; Herodotus in his Euterpe makes 
mention of seven; but carelesly of two thereof; that 
is Bolbitinnm, and Biicolinim ; for these, saith he, were 
not the natural currents, but made by Art for some 
occasional convenience. Strabo in his Geography 
naming but two, Peleusiacxim and Canopivum, plainly 
affirmeth there were many more than seven ; Inter hcec 
alia qtunque, etc. There are (saith he) many remark- 
able towns within the currents of Nile, especially such 
which have given the names unto the ostiaries thereof, 
not unto all, for they are eleven, and four besides, but 
unto seven and most considerable ; that is Canopicuniy 


Bolbithmm, Selenneticum, Sehenneticum^ Pliarnit'icum, CHAP. 
Mendesium, Taniticum and Pelusium : wherein to make VIII 
up the number, one of the artificial chanels of Hero- 
dotus is accounted. Ptohmy an Egyptian, and born 
at the Pehman mouth of Nile, in his Geography 
maketh nine : and in the third Map of Africa, hath 
unto their mouths prefixed their several names ; Hera- 
cleoticum, Bolhitinuvi, Sebennetkum, Pineptum, Diolcos, 
Pathmeticum, Mendesium, Taniticum, Peleusiacum : 
wherein notwithstanding there are no less then three 
different names from those delivered by Pliny. All 
which considered, we may easily discern that Authors 
accord not either in name or number; and must 
needs confirm the Judgement of Maginus, de Ostiorum 
Nili numero et nominihus, valde antiqui scriptores 

Modern Geographers and travellers do much abate 
of this number, for as Maginus and others observe, 
there are now but three or four mouths thereof; as 
Gulielmus Tyrius long ago, and Bellonins since, both 
ocular enquirers, with others have attested. For below 
Cairo, the River divides it self into four branches, 
whereof two make the chief and navigable streams, 
the one running to Pelusium of the Ancients, and now 
Damiata ; the other unto Canopium, and now Roscetta; 
the other two, saith Mr. Sandys, do run between these; Sand. ^#/«- 
but poor in water. Of those seven mentioned by 
Herodotus, and those nine by Ptolomy, these are all I 
could either see or hear of. Which much confirmeth 
the testimony of the Bishop of Tyre a diligent and 
ocular Enquirer ; who in his holy war doth thus deliver 
liimself. We wonder much at the Ancients, who 
assigned seven mouths unto Nilus; which we can no 
otherwise salve, then that by process of time, the face 


CHAP, of places is altered, and the river hath lost his chanels; 
VIII or that our fore-fathers did never obtain a true account 

/sa. 11. is,if>. And therefore when it is said in holy Scripture, 
The Lord shall utterly destroy the tongue of the 
Egijpt'ian sea, and with his mighty wind he shall shake 
his hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven 
streams, and make men go over dry-shod. If this 
expression concerneth the river Nilti^, it must only 
respect the seven principal streams. But the place is 
very obscure, and whether thereby be not meant the 
river Euphrates, is not without some controversie ; as 
is collectible from the subsequent words ; And there 
shall be an high way for the remnant of his people, 
that shall be left from Assyria ; and also from the bare 
name River, emphatically signifying Euphrates, and 
tiiereby the division of the Assyrian Empire into many 
fractions, which might facilitate their return: as 

Gr. Not in Grotius hath observed ; and is more plainly made out, 

^Esdr^-' 1 ^^ ^^^ Apocrypha of Esdras, and that of the Apocalyps 

43. 47- have any relation hereto. 

Lastly, Whatever was or is their number, the con- 
trivers of Cards and Maps afford us no assurance or 
constant description therein. For whereas Ptolomy 
hath set forth nine, Hondius in his Map of Africa 
makes but eight, and in that of Europe ten. Ortelius 
in the Map of the Turkish Empire, setteth down eight, 
in that of Egypt eleven ; and Maginus in his Map of 
that Countrv hath observed the same number. And 
if we enquire farther, we shall find the same diversity 
and discord in divers others. 

Thus may we perceive that this account was differ- 
ently related by the Ancients, that it is undeniably 
rejected by the Moderns, and must be warily received 


by any. For if we receive them all into account, they CHAP, 
were more then seven, if only the natural sluces, they VIII 
were fewer ; and however we receive them, there is no 
agreeable and constant description thereof. And 
therefore how reasonable it is to di*aw continual 
and durable deductions from alterable and uncertain 
foundations ; let them consider who make the gates of 
Thehes^ and the mouths of this River a constant and 
continued periphrasis for this number, and in their 
Poetical expressions do give the River that Epithite 
unto this day. 

The same River is also accounted the greatest of the 
earth, called therefore Fluviorum pater, and totkis 
Orbis maximiis, by Ortelius: If this be true, many 
Maps must be corrected, or the relations of divers 
good Authors renounced. 

For first. In the deliniations of many Maps oi Africa, 
the River Niger exceedeth it about ten degrees in 
length, that is, no less then six hundred miles. For 
arising beyond the ^Equator it maketh Northward 
almost 15 degrees, and deflecting after Westward, 
without Meanders, continueth a strait course about 40 
degrees ; and at length with many great currents dis- 
burdeneth it self into the Occidental Ocean. Again, 
if we credit the descriptions of good Authors, other 
Rivers excell it in length, or breadth, or both. 
Arrianus in his history of Alexander, assigneth the 
first place unto the River Ganges ; which truly accord- 
ing unto latter relations, if not in length, yet in 
breadth and depth may be granted to excell it. For 
the magnitude of Nilus consisteth in the dimension of 
longitude, and is inconsiderable in the other ; what 
stream it maintaineth beyond Syene or Asna, and so 
forward unto its original, relations are very imperfect ; 

VOL. II, z 


CHAP, but below these places, and farther removed from the 
VIII head, the current is but narrow, and we read in the 
History of the Turks, the Tartar horsemen of Sel'nnits 
swam over the Nile from Cairo, to meet the forces of 
Denaturaet ToHumbens. BapUsta Scortia expresly treating hereof, 
Niii!'"'"'° preferreth the River oi Plate in America-, for that as 
Maffexis hath delivered, falleth into the Ocean in the 
latitude of forty leagues ; and with that source and 
plenty that men at Sea do tast fresh water, before they 
approach so near as to discover the land. So is it ex- 
ceeded by that which by Cardan is termed the greatest 
in the world, that is the River Oregliana in the same 
continent; which as Maginus delivereth, hath been 
navigated 6000 miles ; and opens in a chanel of ninety 
leagues broad ; so that, as Acosta, an ocular witness 
recordeth, they that sail in the middle, can make no 
land of either side. 

Now the ground of this assertion was surely the 
magnifying esteem of the Ancients, arising from the 
indiscovery of its head. For as things unknown seem 
greater then they are, and are usually received with 
amplifications above their nature ; so might it also be 
with this River, whose head being unknown and drawn 
to a proverbial obscurity, the opinion thereof became 
without bounds ; and men must needs conceit a large 
extent of that to which the discovery of no man had 
set a period. And this an usual way to give the 
superlative unto things of eminency in any kind ; and 
when a thing is very great, presently to define it to be 
the greatest of all. Whereas indeed Superlatives are 
difficult; whereof there being but one in every kind, 
their determinations are dangerous, and must not be 
The greatest \na,die without great circumspection. So the City of 
m'rid, Rome is magnified by the Latines to be the greatest of 


the earth ; but time and Geography informs us, that CHAP. 
Cairo is bigger, and Quinsay in China far exceedeth VIII 
both. So is Olympus extolled by the Greeks, as an Thehiihtst 
hill attaining unto heaven ; but the enlarged Geo- "^^^' 
graphy of aftertimes makes slight account hereof, 
when they discourse of Andes in Feru, or Teneriffa in 
the Canaries. And we understand by a person who 
hath lately had a fair opportunity to behold the mag- 
nified mount Olympus, that it is exceeded by some 
peakes of the Alpes. So have all Ages conceived, and 
most are still ready to swear, the Wren is the least of 
Birds ; yet the discoveries of America, and even of our 
own Plantations have shewed us one far less ; that is, 
the Humbird, not much exceeding a Beetle. And 
truly, for the least and greatest, the highest and th; Tommeio. 
lowest of every kind, as it is very difficult to define 
them in visible things, so is it to understand in things 
invisible. Thus is it no easie lesson to comprehend 
the first matter, and the affections of that which is 
next neighbour unto nothing, but impossible truly to 
comprehend God, who indeed is all in all. For things 
as they arise unto perfection, and approach unto God, 
or descend to imperfection, and draw nearer unto 
nothing, fall both imperfectly into our apprehensions ; 
the one being too weak for our conceptions, our 
conceptions too weak for the other. 

Thirdly, Divers conceptions there are concerning its 
increment or inundation. The first unwarily opinions, 
that this encrease or annual overflowing is proper unto 
Nile, and not agreeable unto any other River ; which 
notwithstanding is common unto many Currents of 
Africa. For about the same time the River Niger 
and Zaire do overflow ; and so do the Rivers beyond 
the mountains of the Moon, as Suama, and Spirito 


CHAP. Santo. And not only these in Africa, but some also 
VIII in Europe and Asia ; for so it is reported of Menan 
in India, and so doth Botero report of Duhia in 
Livonia; and the same is also observable in the River 
Jordan in Judea ; for so is it delivered, that Jordan 
overfloweth all his banks in the time of harvest. 

The effect indeed is wonderful in all, and the causes 
surely best resolvable from observations made in the 
Countries themselves, the parts through which they 
pass, or whence they take their Original. That of 
Nilus hath been attempted by Many, and by some to 
that despair of resolution, that they have only referred 
it unto the Providence of God, and his secret manu- 
Thtcaustof duction of all things unto their ends. But divers have 
iVe/'Niius! attained the truth, and the cause alledged by Diodorus, 
Seneca, Straho, and others, is allowable ; that the 
inundation of Niliis in Egypt proceeded from the rains 
in JEthiopia, and the mighty source of waters falling 
towards the fountains thereof. For this inundation 
unto the Egyptians happeneth when it is winter unto 
the ^Ethiopians; which habitations, although they have 
no cold Winter (the Sun being no farther removed from 
them in Cancer, then unto us in Taurus) yet is the 
fervour of the air so well remitted, as it admits a 
sufficient generation of vapors, and plenty of showers 
ensuing thereupon. This Theory of the Ancients is 
since confirmed by experience of the Moderns; by 
Franciscus Alvarez, who lived long in those parts, and 
left a description of ^Ethiopia ; affirming that from the 
middle of June unto September, there fell in his time 
continual rains. As also Antoniiis Ferdinandus, who 
in an Epistle written from thence, and noted by 
Codignus, affirmeth, that during the winter, in those 
Countries there passed no day without rain. 


Now this is also usual, to translate a remarkable CHAP, 
quality into a propriety, and where we admire an effect VIII 
in one, to opinion there is not the like in any other. 
With these conceits do common apprehensions enter- 
tain the antidotal and wondrous condition of Ireland ; 
conceiving only in that land an immunity from vene- 
raous creatures : but unto him that shall further en- 
quire, the same will be affirmed of Creta, memorable 
in ancient stories, even unto fabulous causes, and bene- 
diction from the birth of Jupiter. The same is also 
found in Ehimis or JEvisa, an Island near Majorca 
upon the coast of Spain. With these apprehensions 
do the eyes of neighbour Spectators behold ^tna, the 
flaming mountain in Sicilia; but Navigators tell us 
there is a burning mountain in Island, a more remark- 
able one in Teneriffa of the Canaries, and many Vul- 
cano's or fiery Hils elsewhere. Thus Crocodiles were 
thought to be peculiar unto AHle, and the opinion so 
possessed Alexander, that when he had discovered 
some in Ganges, he fell upon a conceit he had found 
the head of Nilus ; but later discoveries affirm they are 
not only in Asia and Africa, but very frequent in 
some rivers of America. 

Another opinion confineth its Inundation, and posi- 
tively affirmeth, it constantly encreaseth the seven- 
teenth day of June ; wherein perhaps a larger form of 
speech were safer, then that which punctually prefixeth 
a constant day thereto. For this expression is different 
from that of the Ancients, as Herodotus, Diodorus, 
Seneca, etc. delivering only that it happeneth about 
the entrance of the Sun into Cancer; wherein they 
warily deliver themselves, and reserve a reasonable 
latitude. So when Hippocrates saith, Sub Cane et ante 
Canem dijfficiles sunt purgationes : There is a latitude of 


CHAP, days comprised therein ; for under the Dog-star he 
VIII containeth not only the day of its ascent, but many 
following, and some ten days preceeding. So Aristotle 
delivers the affections of animals : with the wary terms 
of Circa, et magna ex parte : and when Theodoj'us trans- 
lateth that part of his, Coeunt Thunni et Scombri 
mense Fehruaiio post Idus, pariunt Junio ante Nonas : 
Scaliger for ante Nonas, renders it Junii initio-, because 
that exposition affordeth the latitude of divers days : 
For affirming it happeneth before the Nones, he 
alloweth but one day ; that is the Calends ; for in the 
Roman account, the second day is the fourth of the 
Nones of June. 

Again, Were the day definitive, it had prevented the 
delusion of the devil, nor could he have gained applause 
by its prediction ; who notwithstanding (as AtJianasius 
in the life oi Anthony relateth) to magnifie his know- 
ledge in things to come, when he perceived the rains 
to fall in Ethiopia, would presage unto the Egyptians 
the day of its inundation. And this would also make 
useless that natural experiment observed in earth or 
sand about the River ; by the weight whereof (as good 
Authors report) they have unto this day a knowledge 
of its encrease. 

Lastly, It is not reasonable from variable and unstable 
causes, to derive a fixed and constant effect, and such 
are the causes of this inundation, which cannot indeed 
be regular, and therefore their effects not prognosti- 
cable like Eclipses. For depending upon the clouds 
and descent of showers in Ethiopia,, which have their 
generation from vaporous exhalations, they must submit 
their existence unto contingencies, and endure anticipa- 
tion and recession from the movable condition of their 
causes. And therefore some years there hath been no 


encrease at all, as some conceive in the years of Famin CHAP. 
under Pharaoh, as Seneca, and divers relate of the VIII 
eleventh year of Cleopatra ; nor nine years together, as 
is testified by Calisthenes. Some years it hath also 
retarded, and came far later then usually it was ex- 
pected, as according to Sozomen and Nicephorus it 
happened in the days of Theodositis; whereat the 
people were ready to mutiny, because they might not 
sacrifice unto the River, according to the custom of 
their Predecessors. 

Now this is also an usual way of mistake, and many 
are deceived who too strictly construe the temporal 
considerations of things. Thus books will tell us, and 
we are made to believe that the fourteenth year males 
are seminifical and pubescent ; but he that shall enquire 
into the generality, will rather adhere unto the caute- 
lous assertion of Aristotle, that is, bis septem annis 
exactis, and then but magna ex parte. That Whelps 
are blind nine days, and then begin to see, is generally 
believed, but as we have elsewhere declared, it is 
exceeding rare, nor do their eye- lids usually open until 
the twelfth, and sometimes not before the fourteenth 
day. And to speak strictly, an hazardable determina- 
tion it is unto fluctuating and indifferent effects, to 
affix a positive Type or Period. For in effects of far 
more regular causalities, difficulties do often arise, and 
even in time it self, which measureth all things, we use 
allowance in its commensuration. Thus while we 
conceive we have the account of a year in 865 days, 
exact enquirers and Computists will tell us, that we 
escape 6 hours, that is a quarter of a day. And so in 
a day which every one accounts 24 hours, or one revo- 
lution of the Sun, in strict account we must allow the 
addition of such a part as the Sun doth make in his 


CHAP, proper motion, from West to East, whereby in one day 
VIII he describeth not a perfect Circle. 

Fourthly, It is affirmed by many, and received by 
most, that it never raineth in Egypt, the river supply- 
ing that defect, and bountifully requiting it in its in- 
undation : but this must also be received in a qualified 
sense, that is, that it rains but seldom at any time in the 
Summer, and very rarely in the Winter. But that great 
TiMtEgypt showers do sometimes fall upon that Region, beside the 
5r> wvlila -"Assertion of many Writers, we can confirm from honour- 
Pastoo able and ocular testimony, and that not many years 
past, it rained in Grand Cairo divers days together. 

The same is also attested concerning other parts of 
Egypt, by Prosper Alpinus, who lived long in that 
Country, and hath left an accurate Treaty of the 
medical practise thereof. Cayri raro decidunt pluvicc^ 
Alexandrice, Pelusiiq; et in omnibus locis man adjacenti- 
btis^pluit larglssime et saspe-^ that is, it raineth seldom 
at Cairo, but at Alexandria^ Damiata, and places near 
the Sea, it raineth plentifully and often. Whereto we 
might add the latter testimony of Learned Mr. Greaves, 
in his accurate description of the Pyramids. 
Exo± 9. Beside. Men hereby forget the relation of holy Scrip- 

ture. Behold I will cause it to rain a very great hail, 
such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation 
thereof even untill now. Wherein God threatning 
such a rain as had not happened, it must be presumed 
they had been acquainted with some before, and were 
not ignorant of the substance, the menace being made 
in the circumstance. The same concerning hail is 
inferrible from Prosper Alpinus. Rarissime nix, 
grando, it seldom snoweth or haileth. Where by we 
must concede that snow and hail do sometimes fall, 
because they happen seldom. 


Now this mistake ariseth from a misapplication of CHAP. 
the bounds or limits of time, and an undue transition VIII 
from one unto another; which to avoid, we must ob- 
serve the punctual differences of time, and so dis- 
tinguish thereof, as not to confound or lose the one in 
the other. For things may come to pass. Semper, 
Plei'umq\ Saepe^ aut Nunquam, Aliqtuzndo, Raro; 
that is, Always, or Never, For the most part, or 
Sometimes, Ofttimes, or Seldom. Now the decep- 
tion is usual which is made by the mis-application 
of these ; men presently concluding that to happen 
often, which happeneth but sometimes : that never, 
which happeneth but seldom ; and that alway, which 
happeneth for the most part. So is it said, the Sun 
shines every day in Rhodes, because for the most part 
it faileth not. So we say and believe that a Camelion 
never eateth, but liveth only upon air, whereas indeed 
it is seen to eat very seldom, but many there are who 
have beheld it to feed on Flyes. And so it is said, 
that children born in the eighth moneth live not, that 
is, for the most part, but not to be concluded alwaies : 
nor it seems in former ages in all places : for it is 
otherwise recorded by Aristotle concerning the births of 

Lastly, It is commonly conceived that divers Princes Linguamans 
hath attempted to cut the Isthmus or tract of land ^^^^^ 
which parteth the Arabian and Mediterranean Sea: 
but upon enquiry I find some difficulty concerning the 
place attempted ; many with good authority affirming, 
that the intent was not immediately to unite these 
Seas, but to make a navigable chanel between the Red 
Sea and the Nile, the marks whereof are extant to this 
day; it was first attempted by Sesostris, after by 
Darius, and in a fear to drown the Country, deserted 




CHAP, by them botli ; but was long after re-attempted and 
VIII in some manner effected by Philadelphm. And so the 
grand Signior who is Lord of the Country, conveyeth 
his Gallies into the Red Sea by the Nile; for he 
bringeth them down to Grand Cairo where they are 
taken in pieces, carried upon Camels backs, and rejoyned 
together at Sues, his port and Naval station for that 
Sea ; whereby in effect he acts the design of Cleopatra, 
who after the battle ot'Jctium in a different way would 
have conveyed her Gallies into the Red Sea. 

And therefore that proverb to cut an Isthmus, that 
is, to take great pains, and effect nothing, alludeth not 
unto this attempt ; but is by Erasmiis applyed unto 
several other, as that undertaking of the Cnidians to 
cut their Isthmus, but especially that of Corinth so 
unsuccessfully attempted by many Emperours. The 
Cnidians were deterred by the peremptory disswasion 
of Apollo, plainly commanding them to desist ; for if 
God had thought it fit, he would have made that 
Country an Island at first. But this perhaps will 
not be thought a reasonable discouragement unto the 
activity of those spirits which endeavour to advantage 
nature by Art, and upon good grounds to promote 
any part of the universe ; nor will the ill success of 
some be made a sufficient determent unto others; who 
know that many learned men affirm, that Islands were 
not from the beginning, that many have been made 
since by Art, that some Isthmus have been eat through 
by the Sea, and others cut by the spade : And if policy 
would permit, that of Panama in America were most 
worthy the attempt : it being but few miles over, and 
would open a shorter cut unto the East Indies and 



Of the Red Sea. 

CONTRARY apprehensions are made of the 
Ery thrasan or Red Sea ; most apprehending a 
material redness therein, from whence they 
derive its common denomination ; and some so lightly 
conceiving hereof, as if it had no redness at all, are 
fain to recur unto other originals of its appellation. 
Wherein to deliver a distinct account, we first observe ivhattht 
that without consideration of colour it is named the ^'^■^"* "- 
Arabian Gulph : The Hebrews who had best reason to 
remember it, do call it Ztiph, or the weedy Sea ; be- 
cause it was full of sedge, or they found it so in their 
passage; the Mahometans who are now lords thereof 
do know it by no other name then the Gulph of Mecha 
a City of Arabia. 

The stream of Antiquity deriveth its name from 
King Erythrus ; so sleightly conceiving of the nominal 
deduction from Redness, that they plainly deny there 
is any such accident in it. The words of Curtius are 
plain beyond Evasion, Ab Erythro rege inditum est 
nomen, propter quod ignari rubere aquas credunt : Of no 
more obscurity are the words of Philostratus, and of 
later times, Sabelliaus\ Stulte persuasum est vidgo rubras 
alicubi esse maris aquas, quin ab Erythro rege nornen 
pelago inditum. Of this opinion was Andrceas Cor- 
saliu-s, Pliny, SoUnus, Dio Cassitis, who although they 
denied not all redness, yet did they rely upon the 
original from King Erythrus. 

Others have fallen upon the like, or perhaps the 




Afore ex- 
actly hrreof 
and Mr. 

I Cer. 10. 3. 

Aug. in 

same conceit under another appellation ; deducing its 
name not from King Erythrtis^ but Esau or Edom, 
whose habitation was upon the coasts thereof. Now 
Edom is as much as Erythrus, and the red Sea no more 
then the Idumean ; from whence the posterity of Edom 
removing towards the Mediterranean coast, according 
to their former nomination by the Greeks were called 
Phcenicians or red men : and from a plantation and 
colony of theirs, an Island near Spain was by the 
Greek describers termed Erithra^ as is declared by 
Strabo and Solinus. 

Very many omitting the nominal derivation, do rest 
in the gross and literal conception thereof, apprehend- 
ing a real redness and constant colour of parts. Of 
which opinion are also they which hold the Sea 
receiveth a red and minious tincture from springs, 
wells, and currents that fall into it ; and of the same 
belief are probably many Christians, who conceiving 
the passage of the Israelites through this Sea to have 
been the type of Baptism, according to that of the 
Apostle, All were baptized unto Moses in the cloud, 
and in the Sea : for the better resemblance of the 
blood of Christ, they willingly received it in the 
apprehension of redness, and a colour agreeable unto 
its mystery : according unto that of Austin, Significat 
mare illud rubrum Baptismum Christi; unde nobis 
Bapti^mus Christi ni^i saiiguine Christi consecratus ? 

But divers Moderns not considering these concep- 
tions, and appealing unto the Testimony of sense, 
have at last determined the point : concluding a red- 
ness herein, but not in the sense received. Sir Walter 
Raleigh from his own and Portugal observations, doth 
place the redness of the Sea in the reflection from red 
Islands, and the redness of the earth at the bottom : 


wherein Coral grows very plentifully, and from whence CHAP, 
in great abundance it is transported into Eiirope. IX 
The observations of Alberquerque and Stephamis de 
Gama (as from Johannes de Bairros^ Fernandins de 
Cordova relateth) derive this redness from the colour 
of the sand and argillous earth at the bottom ; for 
being a shallow Sea, while it rowleth to and fro, there 
appeareth a redness upon the water, which is most 
discemable in sunny and windy weather. But that 
this is no more than a seeming redness, he confirmeth 
by an experiment; for in the reddest part taking up a 
vessel of water, it differed not from the complexion of 
other Seas. Nor is this colour discoverable in every 
place of that Sea, for as he also observeth, in some 
places it is very green, in others white and yellow, 
according: to the colour of the earth or sand at the 
bottom. And so may Philostratiis be made out, when 
he saith, this Sea is blew ; or Bellonius denying this 
redness, because he beheld not that colour about Sues ; 
or when Corsalius at the mouth thereof could not 
discover the same. 

Now although we have enquired the ground of red- 
ness in this Sea, yet are we not fully satisfied : for 
what is forgot by many, and known by few, there is 
another Red Sea whose name we pretend not to make 
out from these principles ; that is, the Persian Gulph or 
Bay, which divideth the Arabian and Persian shore, 
as Pliny hath described it. Mare ruhrum in duos 
dividitur sinus, is qui ah Oriente est, Persicus appellahir ; 
or as SolinUrS expresseth it, Qui ah Oriente est Persicus 
appellatur, ex adverso unde Arabia est, Arabians ; whereto 
assenteth Suidas, Ortelius, and many more. And 
therefore there is no absurdity in Strabo when he 
delivereth that Tigris and Euphrates do fall into the 


CHAP. Red Sea, and Fernanditis de Cordova justly defendeth 
IX his Countryman Seiieca in that expression ; 

Et qui renutum prorsus excipiens diem 
Tepidum Rubenti Tigrin immiacet freto. 

Nor hath only the Persian Sea received the same 
name with the Arabian, but what is strange, and much 
confounds the distinction, the name thereof is also 
derived from King Erythras ; who was conceived to be 
buried in an Island of this Sea, as Dionysins Afer^ 
Curtius and Suidas do deliver. Which were of no less 
probability than the other, if (as with the same 
authors Straho affirmeth) he was buried neer Cara- 
mania bordering upon the Persian Gulph. And if his 
Tomb was seen by Nearchus, it was not so likely to be 
in the Arabian Gulph ; for we read that from the 
River Indies he came unto Alexander at Babylon, some 
few days before his death. Now Babylon was seated 
upon the River Euphrates, which runs into the Persian 
Gulph. And therefore however the Latin expresseth 
it in Strabo, that Nearchus suffered much in the 
Arabian Sinus, yet is the original /coXtto? irepaiKo^, 
that is, the Gulf of Persia. 

That therefore the Red Sea or Arabian Gulph 
received its name from personal derivation, though 
probable, is but uncertain ; that both the Seas of one 
name should have one common denominator, less pro- 
bable; that there is a gross and material redness in 
either, not to be affirmed : that there is an emphatical 
or appearing redness in one, not well to be denied. 
And this is sufficient to make good the Allegory of the 
Christians: and in this distinction may we justifie the 
name of the Black Sea, given unto Pontus Eu^vinus: 
the name of JCanthu^, or the yellow River of Phrygia : 


and the name of Mar Vermeio, or the Red Sea in CHAP. 
America. IX 


Of the Blackness of Negroes, 

IT is evident not only in the general frame of Nature, 
that things most manifest unto sense, have proved 
obscure unto the understanding : But even in 
proper and appropriate Objects, wherein we affirm the 
sense cannot err, the faculties of reason most often 
fail us. Thus of colours in general, under whose gloss 
and vernish all things are seen, few or none have yet 
beheld the true nature ; or positively set down their 
incontroulable causes. Which while some ascribe unto 
the mixture of the Elements, others to the graduality 
of Opacity and Light ; they have left our endeavours 
to grope them out by twi-light, and by darkness almost 
to discover that whose existence is evidenced by Light. 
The Chymists have laudably reduced their causes unto ThtPrin. 
Sal, Sulphur, and Mercury; and had they made it out^^/'^^-^, 
so well in this, as in the objects of smell and taste, their cordUsto 
endeavours had been more acceptable : For whereas ^"^ 
they refer Sapor unto Salt, and Odor unto Sulphur, 
they vary much concerning colour; some reducing it 
unto Mercury, some to Sulphur ; others unto Salt. 
Wherein indeed the last conceit doth not oppress the 
former ; and though Sulphur seem to carry the master- 
stroak, yet Salt may have a strong co-operation. For 
beside the fixed and terrestrious Salt, there is in 
natural bodies a Sal niter referring unto Sulphur; 
there is also a volatile or Armoniack Salt, retaining 
unto Mercury ; by which Salts the colours of bodies 


CHAP, are sensibly qualified, and receive degrees of lustre 
X or obscurity, superficiality or profundity, fixation or 

Their general or first Natures being thus obscure, 
there will be greater difficulties in their particular 
discoveries ; for being farther removed from their sim- 
plicities, they fall into more complexed considerations ; 
and so require a subtiler act of reason to distinguish 
and call forth their natures. Thus although a man 
understood the general nature of colours, yet were it 
no easie Problem to resolve, Why Grass is green? 
Why Garlick, Molyes, and Porrets have white roots, 
deep green leaves, and black seeds? Why several 
docks and sorts of Rhubarb Avith yellow roots, send 
forth purple flowers ? Why also from Lactary or milky 
plants which have a white and lacteous juyce dispersed 
through every part, there arise flowers blew and yellow ? 
Moreover, beside the specifical and first digressions 
ordained from the Creation, which might be urged to 
salve the variety in every species; Why shall the 
marvail of Peru produce its flowers of different colours, 
' and that not once, or constantly, but every day, and 
variously? Why Tulips of one colour produce some 
of another, and running through almost all, should 
still escape a blew ? And lastly, Why some men, yea 
and they a mighty and considerable part of mankind, 
should first acquire and still retain the gloss and tinc- 
ture of blackness ? Which whoever strictly enquires, 
shall find no less of darkness in the cause, than in the 
effect it self; there arising unto examination no such 
satisfactory and unquarrelable reasons, as may confirm 
the causes generally received ; which are but two in 
number. The heat and scorch of the Sun ; or the 
curse of God on Cham and his Posterity. 


The first was generally received by the Ancients, CHAP, 
who in obscurities had no higher recourse than unto X 
Nature, as may appear by a Discourse concerning this 
point in Straho. By Aristotle it seems to be implied in 
those Problems which enquire why the Sun makes men 
black, and not the fire ? Why it whitens wax, yet blacks 
the skin ? By the word jEthiops it self, applied to the 
memorablest Nations of Negroes, that is of a burnt 
and torrid countenance. The fancy of the Fable infers 
also the Antiquity of the opinion ; which deriveth 
this complexion from the deviation of the Sun, and 
the conflagration of all things under Phaeton. But 
this opinion though generally embraced, was I perceive 
rejected by Aristobulus a very ancient Geographer; 
as is discovered by Straho. It hath been doubted by 
several modern Writers, particularly by Orteliics ; but 
amply and satisfactorily discussed as we know by no 
man. We shall therfore endeavour a full delivery 
hereof, declaring the grounds of doubt, and reasons 
of denial, which rightly understood, may, if not 
overthrow, yet shrewdly shake the security of this 

And first. Many which countenance the opinion in 
this reason, do tacitly and upon consequence overthrow 
it in another. For whilst they make the River Senaga ^ 
to divide and bound the Moors, so that on the South 
side they are black, on the other only tawny; they 
imply a secret causality herein from the air, place or 
river ; and seem not to derive it from the Sun. The 
effects of whose activity are not precipitously abrupted, 
but gradually proceed to their cessations. 

Secondly, If we affirm that this effect proceeded, or 
as we will not be backward to concede, it may be 
advanced and fomented from the fervour of the Sun ; 

VOL. U. 2 A 


CHAP, yet do we not liereby discover a principle sufficient 
X to decide the question concerning other animals ; nor 
doth he that affinneth the heat makes man black, 
afford a reason why other animals in the same habita- 
tions maintain a constant and acrreeable hue unto 
those in other parts, as Lions, Elephants, Camels, 
Swans, Tigers, Estnges. Which though in ^thiopia^ 
in the disadvantage of two Summers, and perpendicular 
Rayes of the Sun, do yet make good the complexion 
of their species, and hold a colourable correspondence 
unto those in milder regions. Now did this complexion 
proceed from heat in man, the same would be com- 
municated unto other animals which equally partici- 
pate the Influence of the common Agent. For thus 
it is in the effects of cold, in Regions far removed from 
the Sun ; for therein men are not only of fair com- 
plexions, gray-eyed, and of light hair ; but many 
creatures exposed to the air, deflect in extremity from 
their natural colours ; from brown, russet and black, 
receiving the complexion of Winter, and turning per- 
fect white. Thus Olaiis Magnus relates, that after the 
^' Autumnal Equinox, Foxes begin to grow white ; thus 
Michov'ms reporteth, and we want not ocular confir- 
mation, that Hares and Partridges turn white in the 
Winter; and thus a white Crow, a proverbial rarity 
with us, is none unto them ; but that inseparable 
accident of Porphyrie is separated in many hundreds. 

Thirdly, If the fervour of the Sun, or intemperate 
heat of clime did solelv occasion this complexion, surely 
a migration or change thereof might cause a sensible, 
if not a total mutation ; which notwithstanding ex- 
perience will not admit. For Negroes transplanted, 
although into cold and phlegmatick habitations, con- 
tinue their hue both in themselves, and also their 



generations ; except they mix with different com- CHAP. 
plexions ; whereby notwithstanding there only succeeds X 
a remission of their tinctures; there remaining unto 
many descents a strong shadow of their Originals ; 
and if they preserve their copulations entire, they still 
maintain their complexions. As is very remarkable 
in the dominions of the Grand Signior, and most 
observable in the Moors in Brasilia, which transplanted 
about an hundred years past, continue the tinctures of 
their fathers unto this day. And so likewise fair or 
white people translated in hotter Countries receive 
not impressions amounting to this complexion, as hath 
been observed in many Eui'opeans who have lived in 
the land of Negroes : and as Edvardus Lopes testifieth 
of the Spanish plantations, that they retained their 
native complexions unto his days. 

Fourthly, If the fervour of the Sun were the sole 
cause hereof in Ethiopia or any land of Negroes, it 
were also reasonable that inhabitants of the same 
latitude, subjected unto the same vicinity of the Sun, 
the same diurnal arch, and direction of its rayes, 
should also partake of the same hue and complexion, 
which notwithstanding they do not. For the Inhabi- 
tants of the same latitude in Asia are of a different t/ 
complexion, as are the Inhabitants of Cambogia and 
Java, insomuch that some conceive the Negro is 
properly a native of Africa, and that those places in 
Asia inhabited now by Moors, are but the intrusions of 
Negroes arriving first from Africa, as we generally 
conceive of Madagascar, and the adjoyning Islands, 
who retain the same complexion unto this day. But 
this defect is more remarkable in America ; which 
although subjected unto both the Tropicks, yet are 
not the Inhabitants black between, or near, or under 


CHAP, either; neither to the Southward in Brasilia, Chili, 
X or Peru ; nor yet to the Northward in Hispamola, 
Castilia, del Oro, or Nkaragiia, And although in 
many parts thereof there be at present swarms of 
Negroes serving under the Spaniard, yet were they 
all transported from Africa,, since the discovery of 
Columbus \ and are not indigenous or proper natives 
of America. 

Fifthly, We cannot conclude this complexion in 
Nations from the vicinity or habitude they hold unto 
the Sun ; for even in Africa they be Negroes under the 
Southern Tropick, but are not all of this hue either 
under or near the Northern. So the people of Gnalata, 
Agades, Garamantes, and of Goaga, all within the 
Northern Tropicks are not Negroes ; but on the other 
side about Capo Neg^o, Cefala, and Madagascar, they 
are of a jetty black. 

Now if to salve this Anomaly we say the heat of the 
Sun is more powerful in the Southern Tropick, because 
in the sign of Capricorn fals out the Perigeum or lowest 
place of the Sun in his Excentrick, whereby he becomes 
nearer unto them than unto the other in Cancer, we 
shall not absolve the doubt. And if any insist upon 
such niceties, and will presume a different effect of the 
Sun, from such a difference of place or vicinity, we shall 
ballance the same with the concernment of its motion, 
and time of revolution, and say he is more powerful in 
the Northern Hemisphere, and in the Apogeum ; for 
therein his motion is slower, and so his heat respectively 
unto those habitations, as of duration, so also of more 
effect. For, though he absolve his revolution in 365 
days, odd hours and minutes, yet by reason of Excen- 
tricity, his motion is unequal, and his course far longer 
in the Northern Semicircle, than in the Southern ; for 


the latter he passeth in a 178 days, but the other takes CHAP. 
him a 187, that is, eleven days more. So is his presence X 
more continued unto the Northern Inhabitants ; and 
the longer day in Cancer is longer unto us, than that 
in Capricorn unto the Southern Habitator. Beside, 
hereby we only infer an inequality of heat in different 
Tropicks, but not an equality of effects in other parts 
subjected to the same. For, in the same degree, and 
as near the earth he makes his revolution unto the 
ATTierican, whose Inhabitants notwithstanding partake 
not of the same effect. And if herein we seek a relief 
from the Dog-star, we shall introduce an effect proper 
unto a few, from a cause common unto many ; for upon 
the same grounds that Star should have as forcible a 
power upon America and Asia; and although it be 
not vertical unto any part of Asia, but only passeth by 
Beach, in terra incogmita; yet is it so unto Avierica, 
and vertically passeth over the habitations of Peru and 

Sixthly, And which is very considerable, there are 
Negroes in Africa beyond the Southern Tropick, and 
some so far removed from it, as Geographically the 
clime is not intemperate, that is, near the Cape of 
good Hope, in 36 of the Southern Latitude. Whereas 
in the same elevation Northward, the Inhabitants of 
America are fair; and they of Europe in Candy, Sicily, 
and some parts of Spain, deserve not properly so low a 
name as Tawny. 

Lastly, Whereas the Africans are conceived to be 
more peculiarly scorched and torrified from the Sun, 
by addition of driness from the soil, from want and 
defect of water, it will not excuse the doubt. For 
the parts which the Negroes possess, are not so void 
of Rivers and moisture, as is presumed; for on the 


CHAP, other side the mountains of the Moon, in that great 
X tract called Zanzibar^ there are the mighty Rivers of 
Suama and Spirito Santo; on this side, the great 
River Zaire, the mighty Nile and Niger; which do not 
only moisten and contemperate the air by their exhala- 
tions, but refresh and humectate the earth by their 
annual Inundations. Beside, in that part of Africa, 
which with all disadvantage is most dry, that is, in 
situation between the Tropicks, defect of Rivers and 
Thedriness inundations, as also abundance of Sands, the people 
o/Lybia. ^^^ ^^^ esteemed Negroes ; and that is Lyhia, which 
with the Greeks carries the name of all Africa. A 
region so desert, dry and sandy, that Travellers (as 
Leo reports) are fain to carry water on their Camels ; 
whereof they find not a drop sometime in six or seven 
days. Yet is this Country accounted by Geographers 
no part of terra Nigritancm, and Ptolomy placeth 
herein the Leuco Mthiops, or pale and Tawny Moors. 

Now the ground of this opinion might be the visible 
quality of Blackness observably produced by heat, fire 
and smoak ; but especially with the Ancients the 
violent esteem they held of the heat of the Sun, in the 
hot or torrid Zone ; conceiving that part unhabit- 
able, and therefore that people in the vicinities or 
frontiers thereof, could not escape without this change 
of their complexions. But how far they were mistaken 
in this apprehension, modern Geography hath dis- 
covered : And as we have declared, there are many 
within this Zone whose complexions descend not so 
low as unto blackness. And if we should strictly 
insist hereon, the possibility might fall into question ; 
that is, whether the heat of the Sun, whose fervour 
may swart u living part, and even black a dead or 
dissolving fiesh, can yet in animals, whose parts are 


successive and in continual flux, produce this deep and CHAP, 
perfect gloss of Blackness. X 

Thus having evinced, at least made dubious, the Thepartku- 
Sun is not the Author of this Blackness, how, and M^N^groei 
when this tincture first began is yet a Riddle, and blackness 
positively to determine, it surpasseth my presumption. 
Seeing therefore we cannot discover what did effect it, 
it may afford some piece of satisfaction to know what 
might procure it. It may be therefore considered, 
whether the inward use of certain waters or fountains 
of peculiar operations, might not at first produce the 
effect in question. For, of the like we have records in 
Aristotle, Straho and Pliny, who hath made a collection 
hereof, as of two fountains in Boeotia, the one making 
Sheep white, the other black ; of the water of Siheris 
which made Oxen black, and the like effect it had also 
upon men, dying not only the skin, but making their 
hairs black and curled. This was the conceit of 
Aristobubis, who received so little satisfaction from the 
other, or that it might be caused by heat, or any kind 
of fire, that he conceived it as reasonable to impute 
the effect unto water. 

Secondly, It may be perpended whether it might not 
fall out the same way that Jacobs cattle became 
speckled, spotted and ring-straked, that is, by the 
Power and Efficacy of Imagination ; which produceth 
effects in the conception correspondent unto the phancy 
of the Agents in generation ; and sometimes assimilates 
the Idea of the Generator into a reality in the thing 
ingendred. For, hereof there pass for current many 
indisputed examples ; so in HippoGrates we read of one, vide piura 
that from an intent view of a Picture conceived & ^^J'tJJ"'^, 
Negro ; And in the History of Heliodore of a Moorish viribusiraa- 
Queen, who upon aspection of the Picture oi Andromeda, 6'"*"°°'^ 


CHAP, conceived and brought forth a fair one. And thus 
X perhaps might some say was the beginning of this 
complexion : induced first by Imagination, which hav- 
ing once impregnated the seed, found afterward con- 
current co-operation, which were continued by Climes, 
whose constitution advantaged the first impression. 
Thus Plotimis conceiveth white Peacocks first came in. 
Thus many opinion that from aspection of the Snow, 
which lieth long in Northern Regions, and high moun- 
why Bearti, taius, Hawks, Kites, Beares, and other creatures become 
ioiiupiiLtl ^'^ite? and by this way AxLstin conceiveth the devil 
provided, they never wanted a white spotted Ox in 
Egypt ; for such an one they worshipped, and called 

Thirdly, It is not indisputable whether it might not 
proceed from such a cause and the like foundation of 
Tincture, as doth the black Jaundise, which meeting 
with congenerous causes might settle durable inclina- 
tions, and advance their generations unto that hue, 
which were naturally before but a degree or two below 
it. And this transmission we shall the easier admit 
in colour, if we remember the like hath been effected 
in organical parts and figures ; the Symmetry whereof 
being casually or purposely perverted ; their morbosi- 
ties have vigorously descended to their posterities, and 
that in durable deformities. This was the beginning 
of MacroceplmU, or people with long heads, whereof 
DeAere, Hippocratcs hath clearly delivered himself: Cum pri- 
^^■*' mum editus est Infans, caput ejus tenellum manibus 
effingunt^ et in hgitiidine adolescere cogunt ; hoc in- 
stitutum primum hujusmodi, naturcB dedit vitium, 
successu vero temporis in naturam abiit, ut proinde 
instituto nihil amplius opus esset ; semen enim genitale 
ex omnibus corporis partibus provenity ex sanis quidem 


sanuniy ex morhosis morhosum. Si igitur ex calvis calviy CHAP. 
ex cceciis cceciiy et ex di^tortis, ut plurimu7n, distorti X 
gignuntur, eademque in cceteris formis valet ratioy quid 
prohibet cur non ex macrocephalis macrocephali gignan- 
tur? Thus as Aristotle observeth, the Deers oi Argin- 
usa had their ears divided ; occasioned at first by 
sHtting the ears of Deers. Thus have the Chineses 
little feet, most Negroes great Lips and flat Noses; 
And thus many Spaniards, and Mediterranean Inhabi- 
tants, which are of the Race of Barhary Moors (although 
after frequent commixture) have not worn out the 
Camoys Nose unto this day. FUiNot*. 

Artificial Negroes, or Gypsies acquire their com- 
plexion by anointing their bodies with Bacon and fat 
substances, and so exposing them to the Sun. In 
Guiny Moors and others, it hath been observed, that 
they frequently moisten their skins with fat and oyly 
materials, to temper the irksom driness thereof from 
the parching rayes of the Sun. Whether this practise 
at first had not some efficacy toward this complexion, 
may also be considered. 

Lastly, If we still be urged to particularities, and 
such as declare how, and when the seed of Adam did 
first receive this tincture ; we may say that men 
became black in the same manner that some Foxes, 
Squirrels, Lions, first turned of this complexion, 
whereof there are a constant sort in divers Countries ; 
that some Chaughs came to have red Legs and Bils, 
that Crows became pyed : All which mutations how- 
ever they began, depend on durable foundations ; and 
such as may continue for ever. And if as yet we 
must farther define the cause and manner of this 
mutation, we must confess, in matters of Antiquity, 
and such as are decided by History, if their Originals 


CHAP, and first beginnings escape a due relation, they fall 
X into great obscurities, and such as future Ages seldom 
reduce unto a resolution. Thus if you deduct the 
administration of Angels, and that they dispersed the 
creatures into all parts after the flood, as they had 
How sundry cougrcgated them into Noahs Ark before ; it will be no 
Animals casie qucstion to resolve, how several sorts of animals 
come to be were first dispersed into Islands, and almost how any 
isiamis. into America : How the venereal Contagion began in 
that part of the earth, since history is silent, is not 
easily resolved by Philosophy. For whereas it is im- 
puted unto Anthropophagy, or the eating of mans 
flesh ; that cause hath been common unto many other 
Countries, and there have been Canibals or men eaters 
in the three other parts of the world, if we credit the 
relations of Ptolomy, Straho and Pliny. And thus if 
the favourable pen of Moses had not revealed the 
confusion of tongues, and positively declared their 
division at Babel, our disputes concerning their begin- 
ning had been without end ; and I fear we must have 
Eiiascum left the hopes of that decision unto Elias. 
dublum!'* ' And if any will yet insist, and urge the question 
farther still upon me, I shall be enforced unto divers 
of the like nature, wherein perhaps I shall receive no 
greater satisfaction. I shall demand how the Camels 
of Bactrla came to have two bunches on their backs, 
whereas the Camels oi Arabia in all relations have but 
one? How Oxen in some Countries began and con- 
tinue gibbous or bunch-back'd .'' what way those many 
different shapes, colours, hairs, and natures of Dogs 
came in ? how they of some Countries became depilous, 
and without any hair at all, whereas some sorts in 
excess abound therewith ? How the Indian Hare came 
to have a long tail, whereas that part in others attains 


no higher than a scut? How the hogs of Ilhjr'ia CHAP, 
which Aristotle speaks of, became solipedes or whole- X 
hoofed, whereas in other parts they are bisulcous, and 
described cloven-hoofed by God himself? .All which 
with many others must needs seem strange unto those 
that hold there were but two of the unclean sort in 
the ark ; and are forced to reduce these varieties to 
unknown originals. 

However therefore this complexion was first acquired, Howthe 
it is evidently maintained by generation, and by the '^<"«/''-^'«» 
tincture of the skin as a spermatical part traduced Nigroes 
from father unto Son ; so that they which are strangers ^^ftaaud 
contract it not, and the Natives which transmigrate, 
omit it not without commixture, and that after divers 
generations. And this affection (if the story were 
true) might wonderfully be confirmed, by what Maginus 
and others relate of the Emperour of Ethiopia, or 
Prester John, who derived from Solomon is not yet de- 
scended into the hue of his Country, but remains a 
Mulatto, that is, of a Mongril complexion unto this 
day. Now although we conceive this blackness to be 
seminal, yet are we not of Herodotus conceit, that their 
seed is black. An opinion long ago rejected by Aris- 
totle, and since by sense and enquiry. His assertion 
against the Historian was probable, that all seed was 
white ; that is without great controversie in viviparous 
Animals, and such as have Testicles, or preparing 
vessels wherein it receives a manifest dealbation. And 
not only in them, but (for ought I know) in Fishes not 
abating the seed of Plants ; whereof at least in most 
though the skin and covering be black, yet is the seed 
and fructifying part not so; as may be observed in the 
seeds of Onyons, Pyonie and Basil. Most contro- 
vertible it seems in the spawn of Frogs, and Lobsters, 


CHAP, whereof notwithstanding at the very first the spawn is 
X white, contracting by degrees a blackness, answerable 
in the one unto the colour of the shell, in the other 
unto the Porwigle or Tadpole ; that is that Animall 
which first proceedeth from it. And thus may it also 
be in the generation and sperm of Negroes ; that being 
first and in its naturals white, but upon separation 
of parts, accidents before invisible become apparent ; 
there arising a shadow or dark efilorescence in the out- 
side; whereby not only their legitimate and timely 
births, but their abortions are also dusky, before they 
have felt the scorch and fervor of the Sun. 

Of the same. 

A SECOND opinion there is, that this com- 
plexion was first a curse of God derived unto 
them from Cham^ upon whom it was inflicted 
for discovering the nakedness of Noah. Which not- 
withstanding is sooner affirmed then proved, and carrieth 
with it sundry improbabilities. For first, if we derive 
the curse on Cham, or in general upon his posterity, 
we shall denigrate a greater part of the earth then was 
ever so conceived ; and not only paint the Ethiopians 
and reputed sons of Cush, but the people also of 
^gyP^i -Arabia, Assyria and Chaldea ; for by this race 
were these Countries also peopled. And if concord- 
antly unto Berosus, the fragment of Cato de Originibiis, 
some things of Halkarnassnis, Macrohius, and out of 
them of Leandro and Annkis, we shall conceive of the 
travels of Camese or Cham; we may introduce a 


generation of Negroes as high as Italy ; which part was CHAP. 
never culpable of deformity, but hath produced the XI 
magnified examples of beauty. 

Secondly, The curse mentioned in Scripture was not 
denounced upon Cham, but Canaan his youngest son, 
and the reasons thereof are divers. The first, from the 
Jewish Tradition, whereby it is conceived that Canaan 
made the discovery of the nakedness of Noah, and 
notified it unto Cham. Secondly, to have cursed Cham 
had been to curse all his posterity, whereof but one 
was guilty of the fact. And lastly, he spared Cham, Cap. 9. 
because he had blessed him before. Now if we confine 
this curse unto Canaan, and think the same fulfilled in 
his posterity ; then do we induce this complexion on 
the Sidonians, then was the promised land a tract of 
Negroes ; For from Canaan were descended the 
Canaanites, Jebusites, Amorites, Gergazites and Hivites, 
which were possessed of that land. 

Thirdly, Although we should place the original of 
this curse upon one of the sons of Cham, yet were it 
not knouTi from which of them to derive it. For the 
particularity of their descents is imperfectly set down 
by accountants, nor is it distinctly determinable from 
whom thereof the Ethiopians are proceeded. For 
whereas theseof ^yrifa are generally esteemed to be the 
Issue of Chtis, the elder son of Cham, it is not so easily 
made out. For the land of Chus, which the Septuagint 
translates Ethiopia, makes no part of Africa, nor is 
it the habitation of Blackmores, but the Country of 
Arabia, especially the Happy and Stony possessions 
and Colonies of all the sons of Chiis, excepting Nimrod 
and Havilah: possessed and planted wholly by the 
children of Chus, that is, by Sabtah and Raamah, 
Sabtacha, and the sons of Raamah, Dedan, and Sheba^ 


CHAP, according unto whose names the Nations of those parts 
XI have received their denominations, as may be collected 
from PUny and Ptohmy ; and as we are informed by 
credible Authors, they hold a fair Analogy in their 
names, even unto our days. So the wife of Moses 
translated in Scripture an yEthiopian, and so confirmed 
bv the fabulous relation of Joscphii,<}, was none of the 
daughters of Africa, nor any Negroe of Ethiopia, but 
the daugliter of Jethro, Prince and Priest of Madian, 
which was a part of Arabia the stony, bordering upon 
the Red Sea. So the Queen of Sheba came not unto 
Solomon out of Ethiopia, but from Arabia^ and that 
part thereof which bore the name of the first planter, 
the son of Chiis. So whether the Eunuch which Philip 
the Deacon baptised, were servant unto Candace Queen 
of the African Mthiopia (although Damiamts a Goes, 
Codigmis, and the iEthiopick relations averr) is yet by 
many, and with strong suspitions doubted. So that 
Army of a million, which Zerah King of ^Ethiopia is 
said to bring against Asa, was drawn out of Arabia, 
and the plantations of Chm ; not out of Ethiopia, and 
the remote habitations of the Moors. For it is said 
that Asa pursuing his victory, took from him the City 
Gerar; now Gerar was no City in or near jEthiopia, 
but a place between Cadesh and Zur, where Abraham 
formerly sojourned. Since thereof these African 
^Ethiopians are not convinced by the common accep- 
tion to be the sons of Chus, whether they be not the 
posterity of Phut or Mizraim, or both, it is not 
assuredly determined. For Mizraim, he possessed 
Egypt, and the East parts of Africa. From Lubym 
his son came the Lybians, and perhaps from them the 
^thiopia7is. Phut possessed Mauritania, and the 
Western parts of Africa, and from these perhaps 


descended the Moors of the West, of Mandwga, Mek- CHAP. 
guette and Qiimk. But from Canaan, upon whom the XI 
curse was pronounced, none of these had their original!; 
for he was restrained unto Canaan and Syria ; although 
in after Ages many Colonies dispersed, and some 
thereof upon the coasts of Africa, and prepossessions 
of his elder brothers. 

Fourthly, To take away all doubt or any probable 
divarication, the curse is plainly specified in the Text, 
nor need we dispute it, like the mark of Cairi; Servus 
servorum erit fratribiis suis. Cursed be Canaan, a ser- 
vant of servants shall he be unto his brethren ; wliich 
was after fulfilled in the conquest of Canaan, subdued 
by the Israelites, the posterity of Sem. Which Pro- 
phecy Abraham well understanding, took an oath of 
his servant not to take a wife for his son Isaac out of 
the daughters of the Canaanites; and the like was 
performed by Isaac in the behalf of his Son Jacob. 
As for Cham and his other sons, this curse attained 
them not ; for Nimrod the son of CMis set up his 
kingdom in Babylon, and erected the first great 
Empire ; Mizraim and his posterity grew mighty 
'Mona.Tchs in Egypt ; and the Empire of the ^Ethiopians 
hath been as large as either. Nor did the curse de- 
scend in generall upon the posterity of Canaan : for 
the Sidonians, Arkites, Hamathites, Sinites, Arvadites, 
and Zemerites seem exempted. But why there being 
eleven Sons, five only were condemned and six escaped 
the malediction, is a secret beyond discovery. 

Lastly, W^hereas men affirm this colour was a Curse, 
I cannot make out the propriety of that name, it 
neither seeming so to them, nor reasonably unto us ; 
for they take so much content therein, that they 
esteem deformity by other colours, describing the 


CHAP. Devil, and terrible objects, white. And if we seriously 
XI consult the definitions of beauty, and exactly perpend 
what wise men determine thereof, we shall not appre- 
hend a curse, or any deformity therein. For first, 
some place the essence thereof in the proportion of 
parts, conceiving it to consist in a comely commensur- 
ability of the whole unto the parts, and the parts 
between themselves: which is the determination of the 
best and learned Writers. Now hereby the Moors are 
not excluded from beauty : there being in this descrip- 
tion no consideration of colours, but an apt connexion 
and frame of parts and the whole. Others there be, 
and those most in number, which place it not only in 
proportion of parts, but also in grace of colour. But 
to make Colour essential unto Beauty, there will arise 
no slender difficulty : For Aristotle in two definitions 
of pulchritude, and Galen in one, have made no mention 
of colour. Neither will it agree unto the Beauty of 
Animals : wherein notwithstanding there is an ap- 
proved pulchritude. Thus horses are handsome under 
any colour, and the symmetry of parts obscures the 
consideration of complexions. Thus in concolour 
animals and such as are confined unto one colour, we 
measure not their Beauty thereby : For if a Crow or 
Black-bird grow white, we generally account it more 
pretty ; and in almost a monstrosity descend not to 
opinion of deformity. By this way likewise the Moors 
escape the curse of deformity : there concurring no 
stationary colour, and sometimes not any unto Beauty. 
The Platonick contemplators reject both these de- 
scriptions founded upon parts and colours, or either: 
as M. Leo the Jew hath excellently discoursed in his 
Genealogy of Love, defining beauty a formal grace, 
which delights and moves them to love which compre- 


hend it. This grace say they, discoverable outwardly, CHAP, 
is the resplendor and Ray of some interiour and in- XI 
visible Beauty, and proceedeth from the forms of 
compositions amiable. Whose faculties if they can 
aptly contrive their matter, they beget in the subject 
an agreeable and pleasing beauty ; if over-ruled 
thereby, they evidence not their perfections, but run 
into deformity. For seeing that out of the same 
materials, Thersites and Paris^ Beauty and monstrosity 
may be contrived; the forms and operative faculties 
introduce and determine their perfections. Which in 
natural bodies receive exactness in every kind, according 
to the first Idea of the Creator, and in contrived bodies 
the phancy of the Artificer. And by this consideration 
of Beauty, the Moors also are not excluded, but hold a 
common share therein with all mankind. 

Lastly, In whatsoever its Theory consisteth, or if in 
the general, we allow the common conceit of symmetry 
and of colour, yet to descend unto singularities, or 
determine in what symmetry or colour it consisted, 
were a slippery designation. For Beauty is determined 
by opinion, and seems to have no essence that holds 
one notion with all ; that seeming beauteous unto one, 
which hath no favour with another ; and that unto 
every one, according as custome hath made it natural, 
or sympathy and conformity of minds shall make it 
seem agreeable. Thus flat noses seem comely unto the 
Moor, an Aquiline or hawked one unto the Persian, a 
large and prominent nose unto the Romane ; but none 
of all these are acceptable in our opinion. Thus some 
think it most ornamental to wear their Bracelets on 
their Wrests, others say it is better to have them 
about their Ancles ; some think it most comely to wear 
their Rings and Jewels in the Ear, others will have 

VOL. II. 2 B 


CHAl*. them about their Privities; a tliird will not think they 
XI are compleat except they hang them in their lips, 
cheeks, or noses. Thus Homer to set off Minerva^ 
calleth her yXauKco-jn^, that is, gray or light-blew eyed : 
now this unto us seems far less amiable then the black. 
Thus we that are of contrary complexions accuse the 
blackness of the INloors as ugly : But the Spouse in the 
Canticles excuseth this conceit, in that description of 
hers, I am black, but comely. And howsoever CerberuSy 
and the furies of hell be described by the Poets under 
this complexion, yet in the beauty of our Saviour 
blackness is commended, when it is said, his locks are 
bushie and black as a Raven. So that to inferr this as 
a curse, or to reason it as a deformity, is no way 
reasonable ; the two foundations of beauty, Symmetry 
and complexion receiving such various apprehensions, 
that no deviation will be expounded so high as a curse 
or undeniable deformity, without a manifest and con- 
fessed degree of monstrosity. 

Lastly, It is a very injurious method unto Philo- 
sophy, and a perpetual promotion of ignorance, in 
points of obscurity ; nor open unto easie considerations, 
to fall upon a present refuge unto Miracles ; or recurr 
unto immediate contrivance, from the insearchable 
hands of God. Thus in the conceit of the evil odor of 
the Jews, Christians without a further research into 
the verity of the thing, or inquiry into the cause, draw 
up a judgement upon them from the passion of their 
Saviour. Thus in the wondrous effects of the clime of 
Ireland, and the freedom from all venemous creatures, 
the credulity of common conceit imputes this immunity 
unto the benediction of S. Patrick^ as Beda and 
Gyraldus have left recorded. Thus the Ass having 
a peculiar mark of a cross made by a black list down 


his back, and another athwart, or at right angles down CHAP. 
his shoulders; common opinion ascribes this figure XI 
unto a peculiar signation ; since that beast had the 
honour to bear our Saviour on his back. Certainly 
this is a course more desperate then Antipathies, 
Sympathies, or occult qualities ; wherein by a final 
and satisfactive discernment of faith, we lay the last 
and particular effects upon the first and general cause 
of all things ; whereas in the other, we do but palliate 
our determinations, untill our advanced endeavours do 
totally reject, or partially salve their evasions. 

A Digression concerning Blackness. 

THERE being therefore two opinions repugnant 
unto each other, it may not be presumptive or 
skeptical to doubt of both. And because we 
remain imperfect in the general Theory of colours, we 
shall deliver at present a short discovery of blackness ; 
wherein although perhaps we afford no greater satis- 
faction then others, yet shall we Emperically and 
sensibly discourse hereof; deducing the causes of 
Blackness from such Originals in nature, as we do 
generally observe things are denigrated by Art. And 
herein I hope our progression will not be thought 
unreasonable, for Art being the imitation of Nature, 
or Nature at the second hand, it is but a sensible 
expression of effects dependant on the same, though 
more removed causes : and therefore the works of the 
one may serve to discover the other. And though 
colours of bodies may arise according to the receptions, 


CHAP, refraction, or modification of Light; yet are there 
XII certain materialls which may dispose them unto such 

And first, Things become black by a sooty and 
fuliginous matter proceeding from the Sulphur of 
bodies terrified ; not taking fuligo strictly, but in 
opposition unto arfio^^ that is any kind of vaporous or 
madefying excretion ; and comprehending dva6vfii,a<Ti^y 
that is as Aristotle defines it, a separation of moist and 
dry parts made by the action of heat or fire, and 
colouring bodies objected. Hereof in his Meteors, 
from the qualities of the subject he raiseth three kinds; 
the exhalations from ligneous and lean bodies, as bones, 
hair, and the like he calleth kuttvo^, Jimnis, from fat 
bodies, and such as have not their fatness conspicuous 
or separated he termeth \iy vv<;,fuliffOy as wax, rosin, 
pitch, or turpentine ; that from unctuous bodies, and 
such whose oyliness is evident, he named Kvi<rr] or 
nidor. Now every one of these do black bodies objected 
unto them, and are to be conceived in the sooty and 
fuliginous matter expressed. 

I say, proceeding from the sulphur of bodies torri- 
fied, that is the oylie fat, and unctuous parts wherein 
consist the principles of flammability. Not pure and 
refined sulphur, as in the Spirits of wine often rectified; 
but containing terrestriojs parts, and carrying with it 
the volatile salt of the body, and such as is distin- 
guishable by taste in soot; nor vulgar and usual 
sulphur, for that leaves none or very little blackness, 
except a metalline body receive the exhalation. 
, I say, torrified, sindged, or suffering some impression 

from fire ; thus are bodies casually or artificially deni- 
grated, which in their naturals are of another com- 
plexion; thus are Charcoals made black by an infection 


of their own suffitus, so is it true what is affirmed of CHAP, 
combustible bodies. Jdtista niffra, perusta alba; h\ XII 
at first from the fuliginous tincture, which being 
exhaled they become white, as is perceptible in ashes. 
And so doth fire cleanse and purifie bodies, because it 
consumes the sulphureous parts, which before did 
make them foul : and therefore refines those bodies 
which will never be mundified by water. Thus Cam- 
phire of a white substance, by its fuligo affordeth a 
deep black. So is pitch black, although it proceed 
from the same tree with Rosin, the one distilling forth, 
the other forced by fire. So of the suffitus of a torch, 
do Painters make a velvet black : so is lamp-black 
made : so of burnt Harts-horn a sable ; so is Bacon deni- 
grated in chimnies : so in Feavers and hot distempers 
from choler adust is caused a blackness in our tongues, 
teeth and excretions : so are ustilago, brant corn and 
trees black by blasting; so parts cauterized, gang- 
renated, siderated and mortified, become black, the 
radical moisture, or vital sulphur sufl^ering an extinc- 
tion, and smothered in the part effiscted. So not only 
actual but potential fire : not burning fire, but also 
corroding water will induce a blackness. So are 
Chimnies and Furnaces generally black, except they 
receive a clear and manifest sulphur : for the smoak of 
sulphur will not black a paper, and is commonly used 
by women to whiten Tiffinies, which it performeth by f^Ay i^ 
an acide vitriolous, and penetrating spirit ascending ^^^^5^;. 
from it, by reason whereof it is not apt to kindle any/*"''*''^*' 
thing nor will it easily light a Candle, untill that spirit 
be spent, and the flame approacheth the match. This 
is that acide and piercing spirit which with such 
activity and compunction invadeth the brains and 
nostrils of those that receive it. And thus when 


CHAP. Bellon'ms affinneth that Charcoals made out of the 
XII wood of Oxycedar are white, Dr. Jordan in his judi- 
cious Discourse of mineral waters yeeldeth the reason, 
because their vapors are rather sulphureous then of 
any other combustible substance. So we see that 
TinhycoaXs will not black linnen being hanged in the 
smoak thereof, but rather whiten it, by reason of the 
drying and penetrating quality of sulphur, which will 
make Red roses white. And tliercfore to conceive a 
general blackness in Hell, and yet therein the pure 
and refined flames of sulphur, is no Philosophical 
conception, nor will it well consist with the real effects 
of its nature. 

These are the advenient and artificial wayes of deni- 
gration, answerably whereto may be the natural pro- 
gress. These are the wayes whereby culinary and 
common fires do operate, and correspondent hereunto 
may be the effects of fire elemental. So may Bitumen, 
Coals, Jet, Black-lead, and divers mineral earths 
become black ; being either fuliginous concretions in 
the earth, or suffering a scorch from denigrating 
Principles in their formation. So men and other 
animals receive different tinctures from constitution 
and complexional efflorescences, and descend still lower, 
as they partake of the fuliginous and denigrating 
humour. And so may the Ethiopians or Negroes 
become coal-black, from fuliginous efflorescences and 
complexional tinctures arising from such probabilities, 
as we have declared before. 

The second way whereby bodies become black, is an 
Atramentous condition or mixture, that is a vitriolate 
or copperose quality conjoyning with a terrestrious 
and astringent humidity; for so is Atravienhim Scrip' 
toriuniy or writing Ink commonly made by copperose 


cast upon a decoction or infusion of galls. I say a CHAP, 
vitriolous or copperous quality; for vitriol is the active XII 
or chief ingredient in Ink, and no other salt that I 
know will strike the colour with galls; neither Alom, 
Sal-gem, Nitre, nor Armoniack. Now artificial cop- what the 
perose, and such as we commonly use, is a rough and ^"J^!^^^^^ ,-, 
acrimonious kind of salt drawn out of ferreous and 
eruginous earths, partaking chiefly of Iron and Copper; 
the blew of Copper, the green most of Iron : Nor is it 
unusual to dissolve fragments of Iron in the liquor 
thereof, for advantage in the concretion. I say, a 
terrestrious or astringent humidity; for without this 
there will ensue no tincture; for Copperose in a decoc- 
tion of Lettuce or Mallows affords no black, which 
with an astringent mixture it will do, though it be 
made up with oyl, as in printing and painting Ink. 
But whereas in this composition we use only Nut-gals, 
that is an excrescence from the Oak, therein we follow 
and beat upon the old receit ; for any plant of austere 
and stiptick parts will suffice, as I have experimented 
in Bistorte, Myrobolans, Myrtus Brabantica, Balaus- 
tium and Red Roses. And indeed, most decoctions of 
astringent plants, of what colour soever, do leave in 
the Liquor a deep and Muscadine red : which by 
addition of vitriol descends into a black : and so 
Dioscorides in his receit of Ink, leaves out gall, and 
with copperose makes use of soot. 

Now if we enquire in what part of vitriol this 
Atramental and denigrating condition lodgeth, it will 
seem especially to lie in the more fixed salt thereof; 
for the phlegm or aqueous evaporation will not deni- 
grate ; nor yet spirits of vitriol, which carry with them 
volatile and nimbler Salt : For if upon a decoction of 
Copperose and gall, be poured the spirits or oyl of 


CIIAr. vitriol, the liquor will relinquish his blackness; the 
^il gall and parts of the copperose precipitate unto the 
bottom, and the Ink grow clear again ; which it will 
not so easily do in common Ink, because that gum is 
dissolved therein which hindereth the separation. But 
Colcothar or vitriol burnt, though unto a redness con- 
taining the fixed salt, will make good Ink ; and so \^-ill 
the Lixivium, or Lye made thereof with warm water; 
but the Ten-a or Insipid earth remaining, aflPords no 
black at all, but serves in many things for a gross and 
useful red. And though Spirits of vitriol, projected 
upon a decoction of gals, will not raise a black, yet if 
these spirits be any way fixed, or return into vitriol 
again, the same will act their former parts and 
denigrate as before. 

And if we yet make a more exact enquiry, by what 
this salt of vitriol more peculiarly gives this colour, we 
shall find it to be from a metalline condition, and 
especially an Iron Property or ferreous participation. 
For blew Copperose which deeply partakes of the 
copper will do it but weakly, Verdigrise which is made 
of Copper will not do it at all, but the filings of Iron 
infused in vinegar, will with a decoction of gals make 
good Ink, without any Copperose at all ; and so will 
infusion of Load-stone ; which is of affinity with Iron. 
And though more conspicuously in iron, yet such a 
Calcanthous or Atranientous quality, we will not 
wholly reject in other mettals; whereby we often 
observe black tinctures in their solutions. Thus a 
Lemmon, Quince or sharp Apple cut with a knife 
becomes immediately black : And from the like cause, 
Artichokes ; so sublimate beat up with whites of eggs, 
if touched with a knife, becomes incontinently black. 
So Aqiia Joriis^ whose ingredient is vitriol, will make 


white bodies black. So leather dressed with the bark CHAP, 
of Oak, is easily made black by a bare solution of XII 
Copperose. So divers Mineral waters and such as par- 
ticipate of Iron, upon an infusion of gals, become of a 
dark colour, and entering upon black. So steel infused, 
makes not only the liquor duskie, but in bodies wherein 
it concurs with proportionable tinctures makes also the 
excretions black. And so also from this vitriolous 
quality Mercuriics dulcis, and vitriol vomitive occasion 
black ejections. But whether this denigrating quality 
in Copperose proceedeth from an Iron participation, 
or rather in Iron from a vitriolous communication ; or 
whether black tinctures from metallical bodies be not 
from vitriolous parts contained in their sulphur, since 
common sulphur containeth also much vitriol, may 
admit consideration. However in this way of tincture, 
it seemeth plain, that Iron and Vitriol are the power- 
ful Denigrators. 

Such a condition there is naturally in some living 
creatures. Thus that black humour by Aristotle named 
66\o<i, and commonly translated Atramentnm, may be 
occasioned in the Cuttle-fish. Such a condition there 
is naturally in some Plants, as Black-berries, Walnut- 
rinds, Black-cherries ; whereby they extinguish inflam- 
mations, corroborate the stomack, and are esteemed 
specifical in the Epilepsie. Such an atramentous con- 
dition there is to be found sometime in the blood, 
when that which some call Acetum, others Vitriohim, 
concurs with parts prepared for this tincture. And 
so from these conditions the Moors might possibly 
become Negroes, receiving Atramentous impressions 
in some of those wayes, whose possibility is by us 

Nor is it strange that we affirm there are vitriolous 



CHAP, parts, qualities, and even at some distance Vitriol it 
XII self in living bodies ; for there is a sower stiptick salt 
How a zitri. diffused through the Earth, which passing a concoction 
may be in ' ^ ^^ plants, bccometh milder and more agreeable unto the 
livins bodies, sense, and this is that vegetable vitriol, whereby divers 
plants contain a gratefull sharpness, as Lemmons, Pome- 
granats, Cherries, or an austere and inconcocted 
roughness, as Sloes, Medlars and Quinces. And that 
not only vitriol is a cause of blackness, but that the 
salts of natural bodies do carry a powerfuU stroke in 
the tincture and vernish of all things, we shall not 
deny, if we contradict not experience, and the visible 
art of Dyars ; who advance and graduate their colours^ 
with Salts. For the decoctions of simples which bear 
the visible colours of bodies decocted, are dead and 
evanid, without the commixtion of Alum, Argol, and 
the like. And this is also apparent in Chymical 
preparations. So Cinaber becomes red by the acide 
exhalation of sulphur, which otherwise presents a pure 
and niveous white. So spirits of Salt upon a blew 
paper make an orient red. So Tartar or vitriol upon 
an infusion of violets affords a delightfull crimson. 
Thus it is wonderful what variety of colours the spirits 
of Saltpeter, and especially, if they be kept in a glass 
while they pierce the sides thereof; I say, what Orient 
greens they will project : from the like spirits in the 
Whence tht earth the plants thereof perhaps acquire^ their verdure. 
'pianu%tc. ^"d ^^om such Salary irradiations may those wondrous 
tnayarhe. varieties arise, which are observable in Animals, as 
Mallards heads, and Peacocks feathers, receiving inten- 
tion or alteration according as they are presented unta 
the light. Thus Saltpeter, Ammoniack and Mineral 
spirits emit delectable and various colours ; and common 
Aqua fortis will in some green and narrow mouthed 


glasses, about the verges thereof, send forth a deep CHAP. 
and Gentianella blew. XII 

Thus have we at last drawn our conjectures unto a 
period ; wherein if our contemplations afford no satis- 
faction unto others, I hope our attempts will bring no 
condemnation on our selves (for besides that adventures 
in knowledge are laudable, and the assayes of weaker 
heads afford oftentimes improveable hints unto better) 
although in this long journey we miss the intended 
end ; yet are there many things of truth disclosed by 
the way ; and the collaterall verity may unto reason- 
able speculations some what requite the capital indis- 

Of Gypsies. 

GREAT wonder it is not we are to seek in the 
original of ^Ethiopians and natural Negroes, 
being also at a loss concerning the Original 
of Gypsies and counterfeit Moors, observable in many 
parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

Common opinion deriveth them from Egypt, and 
from thence they derive themselves, according to their 
own account hereof, as Munster discovered in the 
letters and pass which they obtained from Sigismund 
the Emperour; that they first came out of \esstr opinions 
Egypt, that having defected from the Christian rule, ,^,^„^,„a/ 
and relapsed unto Pagan rites, some of every family <>fGyp«cs. 
were enjoyned this penance to wander about the world; 
or as Aventinns delivereth, they pretend for this vaga- 
bond course, a judgement of God upon their fore- 


CHAP, fathers, who refused to entertain the Virgin Mary and 
XIII Jesus, when she fled into their Country. 
Fernand. dc Which account notwithstanding is of little pro- 
didas^i. bability: for the generall stream of writers, who 
muitipi. enquire into their originall, insist not upon this ; and 
are so little satisfied in their descent from Egypt^ that 
they deduce them from several other nations : Polydore 
Virgin accounting them originally Syrians, Philippus 
Bergomas fetcheth them from Chaldcea, JEneas Sylviics 
from some part of Tartary, Bellonius no further then 
Walachia and Bidgaria^ nor Aventinus then the con- 
fines of Hungaria. 
observati.2. That they are no Egyptians, Bellonius maketh 
evident : who met great droves of Gypsies in Egypt, 
about Gran Cairo, Matasrea, and the villages on the 
banks of Nilus, who notwithstanding were accounted 
strangers unto that Nation, and wanderers from foreign 
parts, even as they are esteemed with us. 
Gypsies fint That thev camc not out of Egypt is also probable, 
,Q^^^_ because their first appearance was in Germany, since 
the year 1400, nor were they observed before in other 
parts of Europe, as is deducible from Munster, Gene- 
brard, Crantsius and OrtiUus. 

But that they first set out not far from Geitnany, is 
also probable from their language, which was the 
Sclavonian tongue ; and when they wand red afterward 
into France, they were commonly called Bohemians, 
which name is still retained for Gypsies. And there- 
fore when Crantsius delivereth, they first appeared 
about the Baltick Sea, when Bellonius deriveth them 
from Bulgaria and Walachia, and others from about 
Hungaria, they speak not repugnantly hereto : for the 
language of those Nations was Sclavonian, at least 
some dialect thereof. 


But of what nation soever they were at first, they CHAP, 
are now almost of all; associating unto them some XIII 
of every country where they wander : when they will 
be lost, or whether at all again, is not without some 
doubt : for unsetled nations have out-lasted others Beiion. ob- 
of fixed habitations: and though Gypsies have been ^^J^';^; J' 
banished by most Christian Princes, yet have they i^" Grand 
found some countenance from the great Turk, who JfJl'eTho/ 
sufFereth them to live and maintain publick Stews near ^ypxies. 
the Imperial City in Peru, of whom he often maketh a 
politick advantage, imploying them as spies into other 
nations, under which title they were banished by 
Charles the fift. 

Of some others. 

WE commonly accuse the phancies of elder 
times in the improper figures of heaven 
assigned unto Constellations, which do 
not seem to answer them, either in Greek or Barbarick 
Spheres : yet equall incongruities have been commonly 
committed by Geographers and Historians, in the 
figurall resemblances of several regions on earth ; While 
by Livy and Julius, Rusticus the Island of Britain is 
made to resemble a long dish or two-edged ax; Italy vita 
by Numatianus to be like an Oak-leaf: and Spain an 
Ox-hide ; while the phancy of Straho makes the habi- 
tated earth like a cloak, and Dioiiysius Afer will have 
it like a sling : with many others observable in good 
writers, yet not made out from the letter or significa- 
tion ; acquitting Astronomy in their figures of the 

Jul. Agric 







Junctin. in 
Sph. 1. de 
Sacro bosco. 
cap. 2. 

The Cabala 
of the Stcirs. 


A than. 
Kircher. in 

Zodiack : wherein they are not justified unto strict 
resemblances, but rather made out from the effects 
of Sun or Moon in these several portions of heaven, or 
from peculiar influences of those constellations, which 
some way make good their names. 

Which notwithstanding being now authentick by 
prescription, may he retained in their naked acceptions, 
and names translated from substances known on earth. 
And therefore the learned Hevdius in his accurate 
Selenography, or description of the Moon, hath well 
translated the known appellations of Regions, Seas 
and Mountains, unto the parts of that Luminary : and 
rather then use invented names or humane denomina- 
tions, with witty congruity hath placed Mount Sinai, 
Tatirm, Mceotis Palus, the Mediterranean Sea, Mauri- 
tania, Sicily and Asia Minor in the Moon. 

More hardly can we find the Hebrew letters in the 
heavens, made out of the greater and lesser Stars 
which put together do make up words, wherein Cabal- 
isticall Speculators conceive they read the events of 
future things ; and how from the Stars in the head 
of Medusa, to make out the word Charab ; and thereby 
desolation presignified unto Greece or Javan, numerally 
characterized in that word, requireth no rigid reader. 

It is not easie to reconcile the different accounts of 
longitude, while in modern tables the hundred and 
eighty degree is more then thirty degrees beyond that 
part, where Ptolomy placeth an 180. Nor will the 
wider and more Western term of Longitude, from 
whence the Moderns begin their commensuration, 
sufficiently salve the difference. The ancients began 
the measure of Longitude from the fortunate Islands 
or Canaries, the Moderns from the Azores or Islands 
of S. Michael; but since the Azores are but fifteen 


degrees more West, why the Moderns should reckon CHAP. 
180, where Ptolomy accounteth above 220, or though XIV 
they take in 15 degrees at the West, why they should Robenus 
reckon 30 at the East, beyond the same measure, is ^^^[j.^* 
yet to be determined ; nor would it be much advan- 
taged, if we should conceive that the compute of 
Ptolomy were not so agreeable unto the Canaries, as 
the Hesperides or Islands of Cabo Verde. 

Whether the compute of moneths from the first 
appearance of the Moon, which divers nations have 
followed, be not a more perturbed way, then that 
which accounts from the conjunction, may seem of 
reasonable doubt; not only from the uncertainty of Hevei. 
its appearance in foul and cloudy weather, but unequal ^^'*°°s- 
time in any ; that is sooner or later, according as the 
Moon shall be in the signs of long descention, as ivken the 
Pisces, Aries, Taurus, in the Perigeum or swiftest 'sffnoTiit * 
motion, and in the Northern Latitude: whereby some- ^>'^i day o/ 
times it may be seen the very day of the change, as 
will observably happen 1654, in the moneths of April 
and May ? or whether also the compute of the day be 
exactly made, from the visible arising or setting of the 
Sun, because the Sun is sometimes naturally set, and 
under the Horizon, when visibly it is above it ; from ivhy the 
the causes of refraction, and such as make us behold a f^^"^"/''" 
piece of silver in a basin, when water is put upon it, set,ornaiur- 
which we could not discover before, as under the verge "^J'^J^^ 

Whether the globe of the earth be but a point, in 
respect of the Stars and Firmament, or how if the 
rayes thereof do fall upon a point, they are received in 
such variety of Angles, appearing greater or lesser 
from differences of refraction ? 

Whether if the motion of the Heavens should cease 


CHAP, a while, all things would instantly perish ? and whether 
XIV this assertion doth not make the frame of sublunary 
things to hold too loose a dependency upon the first 
To what the and cousefving cause? at least impute too much unto 
Thl'Heliens ^^ motion of the heavens, whose eminent activities 
ttfi'tth, are by heat, light and influence, the motion it self 
being barren, or chiefly serving for the due application 
of celestial virtues unto sublunary bodies as Caheus 
hath learnedly observed ? 
^ ^ Whether Comets or blazing Stars be generally of 

such terrible effects, as elder times have conceived 
them ; for since it is found that many, from whence 
these predictions are drawn, have been above the 
Moon ; why they may not be qualified from their posi- 
tions, and aspects which they hold with stars of favour- 
able natures ; or why since they may be conceived to 
arise from the effluviums of other Stars, they may not 
retain the benignity of their Originals ; or since the 
natures of the fixed Stars are astrological ly differenced 
by the Planets, and are esteemed Martial or Jovial, 
according to the colours whereby they answer these 
Planets ; why although the red Comets do carry the 
portensions of Mars, the brightly-white should not be 
of the Influence of Jupiter or Venus, answerably unto 
Cor Scorpii and Arcturus, is not absurd to doubt. 

Printed by T. and A. Constaii.e, Printers to His Majesty 
at the Edinburgh University Press 





Browne, (Sir) Thomas 

The works of Sir Thomas 
Browne, v. 2